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ENCYCLOPJSDIA AMERICANA. 



A SAM. A. M<60Sm» 

QAKLISUl PA. 
POPULAR DICTION! ART 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND 

BIOGRAPHY, 

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESSNT TIME; 

UfCUJDlSQ 

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES 

IN 

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY; 

ON 
THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN 

OOXVBRSATIONS-JLBZIOOX. 

EDITED BT 

FRANCIS LIEBER, 

ASSISTED BT 

E- WIGGLESWORTH. 



Vol- IL 



CAREY AND LEA. 

SOLD TN PHILADELPHU BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK 

BY G. «& C. & H. CARVILL— IN BOSTON BY 

CARTER it HENDEE. 



1830. 

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vm 









£ASTEItN DISTRICT OF FENNBTLYANIA, to mti 

Ba IT usMBMBiESD, that on the tenth day of Angnet, in the fiftH'oQith year of the Indepeodenoe of the 
United Sutee of America, A. D. 18Ei9, Oaraf, Lea Ik Carey, of the eaid district, have deimited in thia oflloe 
the title of a book, the right whereof they claim ae proprietors, in tlie words following, to wit : 

" Eaevelopttdia Amwicana. A Popnlar Dietionai;^ of Arts, Seienees, Literature, Historr, Folities and 
Biograpby, bcooriit down to the present Time } fakcloding a oopioos Collection of Original Articles in Ameriean 
Bioirapby } on tte Basis of the eeventh Edition of the German Goaversations-Lexieo^ Edited by Fraoeis Lieber, 
assStcdby E. Wigglesworth > 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled| '< An Act for the eocouragement of 
learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of su^ copies, 
during the times therein mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, " An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, 
* An Act for Uw encooragement of learning, by securing tho copies of maps, charts and books to the authors 
and preprietixs of such copies, during the times therein mentioood t' and extending the benefits thereof to tho 
aru of desigaioff engraving and otcbrag historical aod other prinu." 

. JK CALDWELL, 

CUrk tftkt EMmm DiUntt ef PMUWflMUM. 



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ENCYCLOPiEDIA AMERICANA. 



Battle- Axe; awcnponmuchusedin 
the early part of the middle ages, particu- 
larly l^ the people who fought on foot 
It was not uncommon, however, among 
the knights, who used also the mace, a 
species of iron club or hammer. Both 
are to he seen in the different collections 
of old arms in Europe. Both these 
weapons, and another kind, called, in 
Gennan, Morgenttem (morning star^ con- 
sisting of a sta£^ having an uon ball at 
the end, with cross non spikes, served to 
ffive stunning blows^ whose fbfco was 
felt through the iron annor of the knights. 
Knights used chiefly the MorgensUm 
and the mace. The Ghneeks and Romans 
did not employ the batde-axe, though it 
. was found among contemporary nations. 
In ftct, the axe is one of the earliest 
weapons, its use, as an instrument of do- 
mestic industry, naturally sunesthig its 
application for purposes of o^nce ; but, 
at the same time, it will always be aban- 
doned as soon as the art of fencing, at- 
tacking and guarding is the least culti- 
vated; because ihe heavier the blow 
given with this instrument, the more will 
it expose the fighter. It is a weapon 
whicii affords hardly any guard, and it 
never would have remain^ so long in 
use in the middle ages, had it not £«en 
for the ux)n armor, which protected the 
body from every thing but heavy blow& 
In England, Ireland and Scotland, the 
battle-axe was much employed. At the 
battle of Bannockburn, king Kobert Bruce 
clave an Engtish champion down to the 
dbine with one btow or his axe. A blow 
of equal force was given by a Suabian 
knight, in the Levant, in presence of the 
Qeraian einperor. The Lochaber axe 
ramained a lormidable implement of de- 



struction in the hands of the Highlanders 
nearly to the present period, and is still 
used, by the city-guard of Edinburgh, in 
quelling riots, &c 

Battle-Piece ; a painting which rep- 
resents a battle, exhibiting large masses 
of men in action. The annor of the an- 
cients, and the whole array and action of 
their batdes, afford subjects much more 
iavorohle to the artist than the straight 
lines, or condensed columns, and the m^ 
arms of the modems. A painter of bat- 
tloi'pieces oiu^ht to have an accurata 
knowledge of the appearance of horses 
and men, and, if possible, to have seen a 
battle, as few persons are able to form 
£rom hearsay an accurate idea of sudi a 
scene. Some of the greatest pieces of 
this kind are, the battle of Constantino, 
of which the cartoons were drawn by 
Raphael, and which was executed bv 
Giuho Romano ; Lebrun's battles of Al- 
exander, and the batdes of the Amazons, 
by Rubens. From these may be distin- 
guished the skirmishes, surprises, &c., 
which are represented with so much 
skill by Antomo Tempests, John Snel- 
link, Jos. van der Velde, John Asselvn, 
Peter Sneyers, Robert von Hoek, Ful« 
cone, called oracolo ddU battagHtj James 
Courtois, Francis van der Meulen, Philip 
Wouvermann, Charles Brevdel, Henry 
Verschuuring and George Philip Rugen- 
das. 

Battooes, Battacks ; two thin sticks, 
with which crimmals in Russia were 
formerly beaten upon their naked backs. 
The crimiiutl was laid upon the ground, 
and one of the executioners sat upon his 
head, anotiier upon his feet. By the code 
of Catherine II, this punishment was 
abolished. 



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BATTUECAS— BAUTZEN. 



Battuecas, Las ; two valleys, eDclosed 
bv high mounUuDS, in the Spanish king- 

^doii of Leon, 50 miles from Salamanca, 
about a Spanish mile long, and so inac- 
cessible that the inhabitants are said to 
have been unknown to the Spaniards for 
several centuries. However, a convent of 
Carmelites was built in the Battuecas val- 
leys as early as 1559. They are situated 
so low, that, in the longest days, the sun 
only shines there for four hours. The com- 
mon account, that these valleys were dis- 
covered in the 16th centuiy, by two lovers, 
who fled there to escape the pursuit of 
their families, has been declared by &ther 
Feyjoo to be unfounded. Madame de 
Geimis has founded upon this stoiy her 
romance Las BathUcas (Paris, 1816, 2 
vols.); but she labors under a mistake 

. when she asserts that M. de Bourgoinf, 
in his Travels through Spain, has quoted, 
as a historical fiict, what she relates of 
the Battuecas. 

Baucis ; a Phrygian woman ; the wife 
of Philemon. They received Jupiter and 
Mercunr hospitably, after tliese gods had 
been denied hospitality in the virhole 
country, while travelling in disguise. A 
deluge destroyed the remainder of tlie 
people, but Philemon and Baucis, with 
their cottage, were saved. They begged 
the gods to make their cottage a temple. 

. in miich thev could officiate as priest and 
priestess, and that they might die togeth- 
er; which was granted. Philemon and 
Baucis are therefore names often used to 
indicate feithfiil and attached married 
people. 

Bavman IsLA?a>8 ; a cluster of islands 
in the South Pacific ocean, discovered, in 
1722, by Bauman, in his voyage round 
the world with Ro^ewein. All the in- 
habitants, says a wnter, are white ; some 
of them burned by the sun : they are 
numerous, and armed with bows and ar- 
rows, but represented as of a ^ntle and 
humane disposition, and friendly to stran- 
gers. The largest island is abiout 21 or 
22 miles in circumference, withgood an- 
chorage. Lon. 173° W. ; lat 12^ S. 

Baumann's Caversv (in German, Bau- 
manruhohk) ; an interesting natural cavern 
in the Harz, in the principality of Blan- 
kenbur^, on the left bank of the Bode, 
about nve miles Scorn Blankenburg, in a 
lime^one mountain, consisting of six 
principal apartments, besides many small- 
er on^ eveiy where covered witli stalac- 
tites. The earthy ingredients of these 
petrifactions are held m solution by the 
water, which penetrates the rock, and 
deposits a calcarious stc«e. The name 



of tills cavern is derived from a miner, 
who entered it, in 1672, with the view of 
finding ore, but lost his way, and wander- 
ed about for two days before he could find 
the entrance. He soon after died. 

Bauhgarten, Alexander Gottlieb, boni, 
in 1714, at Berlin, an acute and clear 
thinker, of the school of Wolf^ studied at 
Halle, and was, for a time, professor ex- 
traordinary there. In 1740, he was made 
professor of philosophy at Fraukfoit on the 
Oder, and died there in 1762. He is the 
founder of eesthetics as a science, and 
the inventor of this name. He derived 
the rules of art firom the works of art and 
their effects. Herebv he distinguished 
himself advantageously from the theorists 
of his time. (See JEstheHcs,) His ideas of 
this science he first developed in his aca- 
demical discussion, DtNonnuLlisadPoema 
periinenUbus (Halle, 1735, 4to). GeorgeFr. 
Meier's Principles of all Liberal Sciences 
(8 vols., Halle, 1748—50) originated fi^m 
his suggestions. Eight years later, B. 
published his Msthdica (Frankfort on the 
Oder, 1750—58, 2 vols.), a work which 
death prevented him from completing. 

Bause, John Frederic, a distinguished 
German engraver, bom at Halle, in 1738, 
died at Weimar, 1814. He resided chief- 
ly at Leipsic, where he executed many 
highly esteemed engravings. He was a 
member of several academies of fine arts. 

Bautzen, or BuDESsm; capital of Up- 
per Lusatia, in the port belonging to the 
king of Saxonv, upon a height defended 
on the west side by steep rocks, the foot 
of which is watered by the Spree. Among 
the 11,500 inhabitants, who are princi- 
pally Lutherans, there are a great number 
of Wendes, or descendants of the Vandals, 
who worship in a Lutheran and in a 
Catholic church, in their ovm language. 
The German part of the population, both 
Catholic and Protestant, worsliip together 
in the cathedral : the former are in pos- 
session of the third part of it, including 
the high ahar, sufficiently large for the 
small Catholic congregation; the nave 
serves tlie Lutheran community as their 
parish church, and the mutual spirit of 
toleration in both parties has, in recent 
times, prevented trouble finom such an 
arrangemenu — ^Here was fought, on the 
20th and 2l8t of May, 1813, the second 
great battle in the campaign of the Prus- 
sians and Russians against the French. 
The aUies had been compelled, after the 
battle of Lutzen (May 2, 1813), to retreat 
to the right bank of the Elbe, and pre- 
pared themselves, near Bautzen on the 
Spree, for a new engagement. Although 



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BAUTZEN— BAVARIA. 



the army of Napoleon was far superior in 
number, being strengthened by rein- 
forcements from France, Italy and the 
troops of the confederation of the Rhine, 
80 as to amomit to about 148,000 men, 
yet the allies determined to risk a battle, 
that Prussia might gain time for its levies 
m Slleaiatand Napoleon be checked in his 
advance as much as possible. It was also 
deaorable that the wavering troops of Aus- 
tria should be convinced that the army was 
able to make a stand against the enemy, 
and that the courage of the new Prussian 
recruits should not be damped by contin- 
ual retreat, but, on the contrary, their 
wish for battle gmtified. On the morning 
of May 20, Napoleon disclosed his plan 
of attacks In the evening, the French 
had gained the city of Bautzen. On tlie 
21st, the fight continued until 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon, when the allies resolved 
on a retreat, which was performed in such 
order, that Napoleon was not able to gain 
any immediate advantage from his victo- 
ry. The field of battle, was covered wkh 
the dead, and was lighted by 30 burning 
villages. The French loss was about 
8000 men killed, and 18,000 wounded; 
that of the allies, between 8 and 12,000. 
Napoleon, to encourage his troops, assign- 
ed 25,000,000 fiimcs tor the erection of a 
monument upon mount Cenis, as a token 
of his gratitude towards the French and 
Italian troops. The rear of the allies 
repulsed two serious attacks, and, contrary 
to the expectations of Napoleon, thev 
marched to the intrenched camp of Pm- 
zeu. But Lauriston occupied Breslau. 
The petition of the allies, tiuneatening the 
right wing of the French army, the great 
loss which the French had sufiered, and 
tlie detached corps, which cut off Napo« 
Icon's communication with Saxony, in- 
duced him to accede to a suspension of 
amis on the 4th of June, near the city of 
Jauer. (See »7ir o/ 1812— 1815.) 

Bavaria. At the time of the general 
migration of the barbarians, the regions 
formerly inhabited by the Boii, the Celts 
of the Daimbe, w^ere taken possession of 
by some German tribes. This coimtry, 
in the time of Ciesar, had been a waste, 
and, in the time of Augustus, a Roman 
province (Vindelicia and Noricum). At 
the end of the fifth century, these tnbes^ 
the Ileruli, the Rugians, the Turcilingtans 
and the Skyres— formed a confederacy, 
like those of the Franks and the Mar- 
coinanni, under the name Bcdoarians. 
They spread from Noricum westward to 
the Lech. Ratisbon woa their chief seat. 
This country was then called Mnctmh 



and, according to Mannert, was never 
subjected to the Ostrogoths. When the 
Franks took poaaession of Rhoetia, the 
Baioarians became subject to them. Thfe 
people, however, sdll retamed the liberty 
of ehooanjf theur own rulers. After the 
divisitm or the empire of Chariemagne, 
this region was disturbed, like the rest of 
Europe, by the conflicting claims of rival 
dukes, till the time of Otho the Great, 
count palatine of Wittelsbach. Otho, the 
ancestor of the present dynasty, died in 
1183. His successor, Louis I, enlarged 
tlie Bavarian territory, and acquired the 
palatinate of the Rhine. He was mur- 
dered in 1231, probably at the instigation 
of Henry, whose rebeltion against his 
father, the emperor Frederic II, the duke 
had censured. He was succeeded by his 
son Otho, the Illustrious, palatine of the 
Rhme. Under his reign, the bishops 
made themselves independent. I^s do- 
minions, however, were considerably in- 
creased. His attachment to the emperor 
involved him in the excommunication 
pronounced agonist that prince. He died 
m 1253, His sons, Louis and Henry, 
reigned fi>r two vears in conjunction. jTn 
1255, they divided the temtories, Louis 
receiving Upper and Hen^ Lower Ba- 
varia. The line of the ktter became 
extinct a few years afterwards. Tl;ie in- 
heritance of the unhappy Conrsdin of 
Hohenstaufen fell into tne hands of these 
princes. One of the two sons of Louis 
was raised to the imperial dignity, in 
1314, under the tide of Ltmis IV (q.v.), 
called the Bavarian. He entered into an 
agreement with the sons of his brother 
(Pavia, 1329) for the division of the do- 
minions of the family. In consequence 
of this aj^ement, kuiff Maximilian Jo- 
seph umted all die dominions of the 
Wittelsbach dynasnr hi 17d9. After the 
extinction of the Lower Bavarian hne, 
the emperor Louis, by the desire of his 
states, united Lower with Upper Bavaria. 
The emperor introduced a new code of 
laws fiir Upper Bavaria, a new or^^aniza- 
tion of the courts for Lower Bavano, con- 
ferred the privileges of a city on Munich, 
and reduced to order tlie internal admin" 
istration. He died Oct 11, 1347, leaving 
six sous by two maniages. His domin^' 
ions included Bavaria, Brandenbu^, the 
provinces of Holland and Zealand, Tyrol, 
&,€. These provinces were soon lost by 
the divisions and dissensions of the difr 
ferent lines. Most of the lines founded 
by the six brotheis eariy became extinct. 
In 1506, a diet of the states of Upper and 
Lower Bavaria was assembled by duko 



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6 



SAVARU. 



Albert II, who, With tiie consent of his 
brother Wol^^ang, and of the estates, 
published a pragmatic sanction, intro- 
ducing the law of primogeniture, and 
fixing the allowance of the younger sons. 
Albert died in 1508. Of his three sons, 
William IV, Louis and Ernest, William 
ou|[ht, accordingly, to have been his sole 
heu-. The authority was, however, di- 
vided, ailcr much contest, between Wil- 
liam IV and Louis, until the death of the 
latter, in 15d4. These princes were both 
opposed to the reformation. Luther^ 
most violent opponent, John £ck, lived at 
Ingolstadt, under their protection, which 
they also extended to tlie Jesuits. Wil- 
liam died in 1550 ; his son Albeit V, the 
Generous, succeeded hinu He also fa- 
vored the Jesuits, but was a liberal patron 
of the arts and sciences. The states re- 
ceived from him great privileges. He 
died in 1579. Of three sons, tlie eldest, 
William V, tlie Pious, succeeded him, 
and, in 1596, renffned the government to 
his eldest son, JHaximilian I, and retired 
to a monastery. Maximilian, a prince of 
distinguished abilities, was the soul of the 
league formed against the Protestant 
imion. In the course of the 30 years' 
war, which had just broken out, Maxi- 
milian was invested, by tlie emperor Fer- 
dinand II (1G23), with tlie dignity of 
elector palatine. The jieace of West- 
phalia confirmed Maximilian m tiie elec- 
toral dignity and tlie possession of the 
upper palatinate, in return for the renun- 
ciation of Upper Austria, wliich had been 
pledged te him for 13,000,000 florins, ex- 
]>enses of war ; and, on the other hand, 
a new electorate, tlie eij^hth, was estab- 
lished for the palatinate hue, and its suc- 
cession to tlie title and territory of the 
origmal electorote was settled, in case of 
the failure of the line of William. Max- 
imilian died Sci)t. 27, 1651, after a reign 
of 55 years. lie was succeeded by his 
son Ferdinand Mario, who was succeed- 
ed, in 1679, by his eldest son, Maximilian 
Emanuel In tlie war of the Spanish suc- 
cession, tlie elector declared for France. 
Afler the unfortunate battle at Blenheim, 
Bavaria was treated by tlie emperor 
as a conquered country. Tlie elector 
was put under tlie ban of tlie empire in 
1706, and was not reinstated in his gov- 
ernment till the peace of Baden (1/14). 
After his death, m 1726, Charles Albert 
succeeded him in the electoral dignity. 
Although he had signed the prnffmatic 
sanction of the emperor Charles VI, yet, 
after the death of the emperor, and the 
beginning of the fint Silesian war, so 



fortunate lor the king' of Pnuaia, he 
claimed the whole Austrian teiritory, 
subjected all Upper Austria, assumed the 
title of archduke f^Aastria^ after the cap- 
time of Prague in the same year received 
homage as kuig of Bohemia, and was 
elected emperor of Germany, at Frank- 
fort, 1742, under the title of Charles VIL 
But here his fortune began to decline. 
As he had received the homage of Aus* 
tria and Bohemia, so, after Uie sudden 
change in the fortune of the war (1743), 
Maria Theresa obliged tlie states of Bava- 
ria, and of tlie up|>er palatinate, to swear 
allegiance to her. Notwidistanding his 
alliance with the landgrave of Hcase- 
Cassel and Frederic II (1744), and the 
progress of the Prussian arms, Charles 
was compelled, by the superior talent of 
the Austrian general, Charles of Lorraine, 
to expose Bavaria. He did not Uve to 
see' tlie end of the wai*, but died Jan. 20, 
1745. His son and successor, Maximilian 
Joseph III, who also assumed, at first, 
the title of cBrchdvke of Austria^ made 
peace with Austria soon after, at Fussen 
(April 22, 1745), became one of the guar- 
antees of the pragmatic sanction, prom- 
ised the archduke Francis his vote in the 
election of einperor, and received, in re- 
turn, all the Bavarian territories which 
had been conquered bv Austria. Maxi- 
milian Joseph devoted himself entirely to 
the good of^his country. He encouraged 
agriculture, manu&ctures, mining ; regu- 
lated the judicial establishments, the po- 
lice, the finances, and institutions for 
instruction ; the sciences were promoted 
by the foundation of the academy of sci- 
ences at Munich, in 1759, and the fine 
arts found in him a liberal protector. He, 
himself without children, confirmed all 
the contracts relatinir to the inheritance, 
which had been made with the electoral 
line of the palatinate since the treaty of 
Pavia (13291. In compliance with the 
treaties of tne house of Wittelsbach, as 
well as with the terms of the peace of 
Westphalia, the right of succession in 
Bavaria reverted, undeniably, to the elec- 
tor of tlie palatinate, since the Wittels- 
bach*Bavanan line became extinct on 
the death of Maximihan Joseph, 30th of 
Dec, 1777. Austria then laid claim to 
Lower Bavaria, and attempted to support 
her demands by arms, without any previ- 
ous declaration of war. Chariea Theo- 
dore, being without children, was per- 
suaded to sign a treaty (Jan. 3 and 14, 
1778), fbnnallv renouncing the Bavarian 
succession. Buttheduke ofDeux-Ponts, 
uncle of the reigning king, the nearest 



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BAVARU. 



agnate and presumptive heir, eneouraaed 
by Frederic II, refused to acknowledge 
that r^mnciatioii. This was the origin 
of the war of the Bavarian succession, 
which was terminated, without bloodshed 
(owing chiefly to the Russian declaration 
of war against Austria], by the peace of 
Teschen, May 13, 1779. The possession 
of ^Bavaria, from which Austria obtained 
only the Lunviertel, with Braunau (800 
square miles), was secured to the elector 
palatine of Iravaria, according to the &n>- 
ily compacts. By this union <^ the Ba- 
varian dominions, the eighth electorate 
became extinct, according to the terms 
of the peace of Westphalia. In 1784, 
however, the posaesnon of Bavaria again 
became an oDJect of desire at Vienna, 
and an exchange was proposed, which 
had been already a subject of negotiation 
in the beginning of the centuiy. The 
emperor Joseph II proposed to die elec- 
tor to exchange Bavaria for tlie Austrian 
Netherlands (excluding Luxemburg and 
Naniur), and the sum of 3,000,000 flor- 
ins lor himself and tiie duke of Deux- 
Ponts, with the title of king of Buraruruhf, 
Tins project, though &vored by Russia, 
was disappointed by the firmness of the 
duke of Deux-Ponts, who, encouraged 
by the protection of Pnissia, declared 
^ that he would never consent to barter 
away the inheritance of his ancestors.'^ 
The zeal with which Frederic II adopted 
the cause of Bavaria, induced the cabinet 
of Vienna to relinquish the plan, aiwl to 
declare, at the ssune time, "tliat tiicro 
never had bi^en and never would be any 
hiteiition of a forced exchange.'* (See 
League of the Princes,) The reign of 
Charles Theodore was remarkable for 
the rise of the llluminati (q. v.) in Bava- 
ria, for the processes against them, and 
the revival of Jesuitism. During these 
troubles, the lilierty of tlie pi'ess was con- 
tinually more and more restrained, and a 
period of intellectual darkness appeared 
to l)e about to commence. In the war 
of the French revoluiicxi, the elector sent 
his contingent to the army of the empire. 
The palatinate suffered mncli, and, in 
1796, Bavaria itself became tlie theatre 
of war. At tliis crisis (Feb. 16, 1799), 
Charles Theodore' <lied without issue, and 
the Sulzbach branch of the line of the 
paladnate became extinct with liim. The 
duke Maximilian Joseph of Deux-Ponts 
came into possession of all the Bavarian 
territories. The peace of Luneville (Feb. 
9, 1801) put an end to the renewed war, 
and its most important article— the cession 
of the }eft bank of the Rhine to France — 



esMndally affected Biavaria. Whilst it 
lost all its possesions on the left bank of 
the Rhine, and also the lands of the pa- 
latinate on the right bank, it obtamed, on 
the other hand, by an imperial edict, an 
mdenmification, by. which it gained, in 
addition to the amount lost, a surplus of 
2109 square nule8,and 216,000 inhabitants. 
The poUtical importance of Bavaria, with 
respect to Austria as well as to France, w9b 
more fully displayed in the war of 1805. 
When Austria resumed hostiUties against 
France, she required the elector of Bava- 
ria to unite his troops with the Austrian 
army, and refused to allow him to remain 
neutral, ''which (as the emperor Fran- 
cis vnrote to the elector, Sept. 3, 1804) 
France herself would only sumer as long 
as she should fmd it ejopedient" Bava- 
ria, however, did not nnd it accordant 
with its own interests to place itself en- 
tirely in the power of Austria. At the 
beginning of the war, the elector joined 
the Fi-ench with about 30,000 troops, and 
the peace of Presburg annexed to his 
dominions 10,595 square miles, and 
1,000)000 inhabitants, and conferred on 
liim the dignity of king ; in return for 
which, he ceded Wfurzourg, which was 
erected into an electorate, in the place of 
Salzburg. The king of Bavaria, like the 
rulers of Wurtemberg and Baden, now 
assumed sovereignty over the lands of 
the nobility of the empire within his bor^ 
ders. The political connexion recently 
fonned with France was confirmed by 
tlie marriage of the princess Augusta, 
daughter of the king, with Eugene Na- 
poleon, viceroy of ItSy, son-in-law of tlie 
French emperor. An immediate conse- 
quence of this alliance was the exchange 
of Berg, which Bavaria siurrendered to 
Napoleon, for Anspach, which Prussia 
had given up to France in exchange for 
Hanover, and finally, what was most im- 
])orumt, the signing* of the confederation 
of tlic Rliine (July 12, 1806), m which 
Bavaria promised to bring into the field 
30,000 troops, and to fortify Augsbuiv 
and Lmdau. Thereupon, the king of 
Bavaria was obliged to take part in tlie 
war against Prussia, in 1806, and in the 
war against Austria, in 1609, one of the 
consequences of which was the revolution 
of Tyrol After its termination, Bavaria 
received imfiortant addidons, partly at the 
expense of Austria, partly by treaties of 
exchange with Wtirtemberg and WOrz- 
liurg.— When, in 1812, the war between 
France and Russia broke out, Bavaria 
sent anew its whole proportion of troops 
to the French army. Insignificant re- 



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BAVARIA. 



mams only of the 90,000 BaTarians re- 
tumed in the spring of 1813. Maximil- 
ian Joseph, notwithstanding this saciifice, 
placed nresh troops under the command 
of Napoleon as tne protector of the con- 
federation of the Rhme, when the new 
campaign was opened, near the close of 
April. This army also suffered great 
losses, but distinguished itself with its 
wonted bravery, under the command of 
marshal Oudinot Itsufieredparticularly 
in the battles of Luckau and Grossbeereu 
(1813). At this time, tlie whole political 
^ystem of Bavaria was suddenly changed. 
Whilst the French army of observation 
was formed at Wjuzbui^, under Au- 
gereau, a Bavarian corps of observation 
was placed on the Lm, over against a 
division of the Austrian army. For a 
long time, both corps remained inactive. 
The departure of the corps of Augercau, 
by which Bavaria was exposed in its most 
vulnerable point, accelerated tlie resolu- 
tion of its Einff. The Bavarian general 
Wrede concluded an armistice with the 
Austrian general Frimont, October 8, at 
Kied, which was followed by a proclama- 
tion, October 15, by which the king of 
Bavaria abandoned the confederation of 
the Rhine, and turned his forces against 
France. In this convention, his present 
territories, with full sovereignty, were 
assured to tlie king, and a sufficient 
indemnification for those lauds which 
shouM be made over to Austria. At the 
same time, Wrede, as commander-in- 
chief^ united the Austrian corps with his 
own, and turned the Bavarian arms 
against the French, in the battle of Ha- 
nau. In 1815, at the breaking out of the 
new war, the present king, then crown- 
prince, took tlie command of the national 
army. Meanwhile, the congress of Vi* 
enna, and, more particularly, the prepara- 
tion of tlie statutes of tlie Gennan diet 
(as well as tlie different interests originat- 
ing from the new European, and espe- 
cially the new Gennan system of states), 
had given sufficient ojiportunity to the 
liavarian government for tlie develope- 
nient of its system of diplomacy. Bava- 
ria has jealously maintained its station as 
an independent sovereign state. Since 
1825, Bavaria has been under the govern- 
ment of Louis I, tlie moat liberal of the 
German princes. He has hitherto acted 
with much energy.^ — ^Bavaria was erected 
into a kingdom in 1805, and is now one 
of the most considerable of the secondary 
states of Europe. It is composed of the 
greater part of the circles of Bavaria and 
Francooia, part of Suabia, and, on the 



west side of the Rhine, embraces the 
greater part of that portion of the drcle 
of Upper Rhine included in the late 
French department of Mont Tonnerre* 
Exclusive of the part west of the Rhine, 
it is bounded N. by Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Hesse-Cassel, and the Saxon principalities 
of Meiningen, Hildburghausen, Coburg 
and Reuss, and the kingdom of Saxony ; 
E. and S. by Austria, and W. by Wiir- 
temberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt^ — 
The kingdom of Bavaria is divided into the 
8 following circles : — Iser, Upper Maine, 
Lower Mame, Rezat, Regen, Upper Dan- 
ube, Lower Danube, Rhine. The last is 
on the west aide of the river Rhine.— 
This kingdom contains 32,000 square 
miles and 3,800,000 inhabitants. Its ar- 
my is 53,900 strong, of whom 35,800 
form the seventh corps iParmie of the 
German confederacy. Its public debt 
amounted, in Sept, 1824, to 103,157,859 
florins; the income was, at the same time, 
29,132^^ florins. The present king, 
Louis, endeavors, with much zeal, to in- 
troduce economy into the expenses of 
the government: he has dhninished the 
standing army, and discharged many offi- 
cers firom the civil government. — ^The 
various inhabitants of tliis countiy difler 
very much in tlieir character, the Bava- 
rian, irom the highlands near Tyrol, and 
the Franconian, in the north part of the 
kingdom, being as unlike as any two Ger- 
mans probably can be ; and the diffi^rent 
parts of this young kingdom have been so 
recently united, that it is not possible to 
speak of any character as common to its 
inhabitants. The native of Upper Bava- 
ria is hardy, laborious, short in stature. 
Many portions of the population are dis- 
tinguished by mechanical talent. The 
excellence of Fraiienhofer's telescopes 
and Bader's rail-road is generally known. 
Munich and Nuremberg have, in recent 
times, produced more philosophical iustrur 
inents tlian any other two cities of Ger- 
many. (See Munich.) The nianufuctiu^es 
of Bavaria include linen, woollen and cot- 
ton cloths, iron, fire-arms, and otlier orti- 
cles, designed chiefly for the sup]>ly of 
domestic wants. Glass, paper, clocks and 
hard ware are also made in several of tlie 
principal towns. The common language 
of Bavaria, of course, is German ; but the 
dialects vary much, fix>m the strong Fran- 
conian spoken in Wtirzbiug to the broad 
Swiss dialect in Ldndau. At the head of 
each of the circles, into which the kingdom 
is divided, stands a j^neral commissioner 
( (kneral KreiscommMsair)^ with great pow- 
er, chiefly of an executive character. All 



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BAVARIA. 



the lower courts, municipid magistnites, 
▼iHnfje officers, &c., are under his controL 
The judiciary consists of a hij^b court of 
appeal (Ober AppeUaJtuma Genchi) at Mu- 
nich; also a court of appeal for each 
circle, and the inferior courts. The Codex 
Juris Bmmici has been in force since 
Jan. 1, 1811. The penal code is now 
under revision. A complete code is also 
in preparation. (See Feuerbatk) The 
executive consists of a privy council, 
raUed Gtkeme Rath, composed of 4 min- 
isters of state, the 4 crown-officers, and 
from 12 to 16 other members, who delib- 
erate in 3 sections on tiie affiiirs of the 
kingdom. The affiiirs of die Catholics 
in the kingdom are regulated by the con- 
cordat concluded with Pius VII, Jan. 5, 
1817, which, in 1821, ^vas promulgated 
as the law of the land. Those or the 
Protestants are under the direction of a 
general consistory. The two sects live 
witliout contention. The circumstance 
that the queen of the late king was a 
Protestant (as is also tlie present queen, 
if we are not gready mistaken) had a 
most beneficial influence. In the smaller 
council of the German diet, Bavaria has 
the third place, and in the plenum has 
four votes. (See (jennan Cofifederaev.) 
Education made much progress under 
the government of the late Maximilian 
Joseph, and it is to be expected that the 
present king, who has manifested liberal 
views, on many occasions, more openly 
than any prince of the continent now 
living, will continue to give it the aid of 
the government. Many seminaries for 
the training of instructers have been 
erected, and the academy of sciences at 
Munich, with the three universities at 
Munich, W(iizburg and Erlangen, pro- 
duce the best results. (See Munieh, 
WUnbur^ and Erlangen.) The first of 
these umversities contains nearly 2000 
students, whilst the medical department 
of Wfu^burg is considered one of the 
first in Europe. Agriculture and indus- 
try in general have received, since the 
reign of Maximilian, much attention. 
Several institutions for promoting them 
have been established, including agricul- 
tural seminaries, in which those young 
men who prepare themselves for village 
school-masters learn gardening, &c. A 
festival was mstituted by Maximilian, 
generally called the October festival, at 
which prizes are assigned, by order of 
the king, for the best specimens of airri- 
cuhurai produce, the best catde, &c 
There are also races connected witii this 
celebration. The present kmg, when 



crown-prince, was a liberal patnm of the 
fine arts, and still afifords them much 
encouragement As Bavaria is entirely 
an inland country, and has no great river 
crossing it, its commercial resources could 
be fully developed only in case of a per- 
fecUy firee intercourse between all the 
German states; to obtain which, efforts 
have several times been made, but, un- 
happily, in vain. A great canal, near 
Nuremberg, has been sometimes spoken 
of, to unite, by means of small rivers, the 
Rhine and Danube, a work begun bv 
Chariemagne : the traces of his work, still 
remaining, are called fossa Carolina : 
but the expense would be great for sa 
small a kingdom, and it is very doubtful 
whetiier the commerce carried on in this 
wa^ would be considerable, depending, 
as It would, upon so many govemmentSy 
from the Turkish to that of the Nether- 
lands. — ^According to Rudhart, Bavaria 
contains lf384 noble families. Agriculture 
is the chief branch of industry. Bavarian 
beer is excellent. 

Bavaria, constituJtion of like most of 
the states of the middle ages, Bavaria had 
it9 constitution. No other state of Ger- 
many has so complete a collection of 
works relating to its ancient fonu of gov- 
ernment The estates conasted, as usual, 
of the three classes — the prelates, among 
whom the uniyeredty bad the first rank ; 
the nobility, and the burgesses. Theur 
privile^ were great, but early lost by 
dissension amon^ themselves. The la^ 
diet was holden in 1669. A committee 
of the estates arrogated the privileges be- 
longing to the whole body ; the seculari- 
zation of the ecclesiastical establishment, 
in 1803, made the old constitution still 
more inefficient, and, in 1808, the ews- 
tem of the estates was abolished; but 
an order was issued, May 1 of the same 
year, mstituting a new constitution. The 
king of Bavaria was the first among the 
sovereigns of Germany to fulfil the prom- 
ise contained in the thirteenth article of 
the ordinances of the German confeden^ 
tion, which assures the people that they 
shall receive constitutional forms of gov- 
emment The king proniulgated the 
new representative constitution May 26, 
1818. The system of the two chambers 
has been adopted. The chamber of 
peers, or, as they are called m Bavaria, 
Miicks R&the (counsellors of the realm), 
consists of the princes, the crown-officeiB, 
2 archbishops, the 16 seniors of the fiuni- 
lies which were fbrmeriy members of the 
German empire, 1 bishon, appointed by 
the king, the president or the Protesuuit 



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10 



BAVARIA— BAXTER. 



confflstory, besides 15 hereditary peers, 
and 12 who hold their stations for life, 
chosen by the king. The lower cham- 
ber consists of 14 representadves of 
the lower nobility, 1 representative of 
each of the three universities of the king- 
dom, 9 repoBsentatives of the CathoHc, and 
5 of the Protestant clergy, 2 of Munich, 
1 of Augsburg, 1 of Nuremberg, 24 of all 
the other cities and market-places, and 
56 of the land-owners (not noblemen). 
The elections in the cities are badly con- 
ducted, as they are in the hands of the 
city councils, the mayors, &c. Anodier 
great fault is, that die amount of property 
required in a representative is so great, 
tliat whole districts are excluded fit)m 
representation. The rights which tlie 
representatives have are not altogether 
insignificant; yet there are many other 
things wanted, as, a perfectiy fi«e press, 
and many real guarantees of fi^eedom, be- 
fore we can speak of it as actually existing 
in Bavaria. The ministers are responsi- 
ble, and yet their power is unconstitution- 
ally sreat. It would not be very difficuh 
for me Bavarian government to do any 
thing they pleased, without encountering 
many constitutional obstacles. The first 
meeting of the representatives was held 
Feb. 4, 1819. There is 1 representative 
for about 35,000 souls. The constitu- 
tion is a granted one, viz., given by the 
king, not a compact between two parties, 
the people and the ruler. It promises 
liberty and equal rights to all religions, 
and also fineedom of the press, which, 
however, no American or Englishman 
would call truly fi:ee. Bond-service is 
abolished. The king appoints the presi- 
dent of the representatives. 

Bavius, Maj!cus,and Mavius ; still no- 
torious as two miserable poets and pre- 
sumptuous critics, satirized by Viml. 

Bawdt-House ; a house of ill fame, to 
which persons of both sexes resort fi>r 
sexual mtercouTK. Such houses, under 
the name of hrathds or stew, are Ucensed 
by the laws of some countries. They 
were formerly licensed in Ensland, fit>m 
the reim of Henry 11 to the hist year of 
Henry V III, when they were suppressed 
by sound of trumpet, with as great cere- 
mony as the reliffious houses. The laws 
of most civilized countries prohibit the 
keeping of bawdy-houses, as tending not 
only to the corruption of morals and 
manners, but also to a breach of the peace, 
b^ bringing together disorderly and vi- 
cious people. The keeping of such a 
house 18 indictable at the common law, 
and 80 is the firequenting of it ; but these 



offences are, most generally, the subjects 
of positive statutes. In some parts of 
Europe, such houses are hcensed, ond 
under the care of the medical pohce. 

Baxter, Andrew ; an ingenious philos- 
opher and metaphysician. He was a na- 
tive of Aberdeen, and was educated at 
King's college in that city ; after which 
he was employed as a private tutor. 
About 1730, he published an Enquiry into 
the Nature of die Human Soul ; wherein 
the ImmateriaUty of the Soul is evinced 
from the Principles of Reason and Phi- 
losophy. This work was applauded by 
Warburton, and obtained for tne author a 
high reputation; though his arguments, 
which are founded on the via inerlvE of 
matter, have since been controverted by 
Hume and Cohn Maclaurin. In 1741, he 
went abroad with one of his pupils, and 
remained for some years at Utrecht, where 
he contracted an acquaintance with some 
of the Dutch Uterati. lie returned to 
Scotland in 1747, and resided at Whit- 
tingliam, in East Lothian, where he died 
in 1750, aged 63. He was the author of 
a Latin treatise, entitied Matho sive Cos- 
motheoria puerUis DiaHogus^ which he af^ 
terwards translated into English, and pub- 
lished in 2 vols. 12mo. 

Baxter, Richard, the most eminent 
of the English nouconfonnin^ divines 
of the 17th century, was bom in the vil- 
lage of Rowton in 1615. The example 
of his father, who was accused of Puri- 
tanism, gave him a serious turn vei^ early 
in hfe. After receiving his educaUon, he 
was sent to London, under the patronase 
of sir Henry Herbert, master of tne revels ; 
but he soon returned into the countrv 
with a view to study divinity, and, in 163o, 
received ordination in the church of Eng- 
land. The imposition of the oath of uni- 
versal approbation of the doctrine and 
disciphne of the church of England, usu- 
ally termed the et caiera oaihf detached 
him and many others from the establish- 
ment When die civil war broke out, he 
sided with the parliament, and, after the 
battie of Naseby, accepted the appointment 
of chaplain to colonel Whalley's regiment. 
He is said to have been, the whole of this 
time, a friend to the establishment, accord- 
ing to his own notions, and to have re- 
pressed sectaries as much as he was able. 
In 1647, he retiired, in consequence of ill- 
health, from his mihtary chaplainship, and, 
when he recovered, opposed the measures 
of those ia power, and preached urgentiy 
against the covenant He even endeav- 
ored to persuade the soldiery not to en<« 
counter the Scottish troops who camo 



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BAXTER— BAYARD. 



11 



into the kingdom with Charles II, and 
hesitated not to express an open dislike 
to the usurpation oi Cromwell, whom he 
told, in a conference very characteristie 
of both parties, that the people of England 
deemed the ancient monarchy a blessing. 
The fiict is, that B., with many more 
zc»lous religious partisans, held civil tib- 
eity to be of secondary consequence to 
wteit he esteemed true religion, and ap- 
pears, from the tenor of a sermon which 
ne preached before Cromwell, to havie 
deemed the toleration of separatLsts and 
sectaries the grand evil of his government. 
After the restoration, he was made one 
of the king's chaplains, and a commis- 
sioner of the Savoy conference, to draw 
,up the reformed liturgy. The active 
persecution of the Nonconformists soon 
followed ; and, upon the pasffing of the 
act afainst conventicles, he retired, and 
preached more or less openly, as the act 
was more or leas rigidly enforced. After 
the accession of James II, in 1685, he 
was arrested for some passages in his 
Commentary on the New Testament, sup- 
posed hostile to Episcopacy, and was 
tried for sedition. The violence of Jef- 
feries, who would neither hear the ac- 
cused nor his counsel, produced a verdict 
of guUty on the most fi-ivolous grounds. 
He was sentenced to two years' imprison- 
ment and a heavy penalty, which, after 
a short confinement, the king remitted, 
probably with some degree of compunc- 
tion for the manner of its infliction. 
Henceforward, B. lived in a retired 
manner till his death, in 1691. His wife 
cheerfully shared all his sufferings on the 
score of conscience, both in and out of 

Erison. The character of B. was formed 
y his age; his failing was subtle and 
controversial theoloc^; his excellence, 
practical piety. In divinity, he sought to 
establish a resting-place between strict 
Calvinism and hign-church Arminianism, 
by the admission of election, and the re- 
jection of reprobation. Christ died for 
some especially, and for all generally; 
that is to say, all possess the means of 
salvotion. A body called BaxterioTis long 
acknowledged these distinctions, and die 
Doncohformist clergy^ after the revolu- 
tion, were divided between tiiis body, the 
pure Calvinists, and the high-church pas- 
sive-obedient Arminians. B. was a vo- 
luminous writer: his Saints' Everlasting 
Rest, and the CaU to the Unconverted, 
bave been extraordinarSy popular. 

Batadser, in the East Indies; voung 
ipib, from 10 to 17 yean of age, who are 
nutnicted In dancing, singing, and acting 



little plays. They are under the care of 
matrons, who are experienced in all fomale 
arts, and particularly in that of pleaong. 
These select firom tiie lowest c&ases of 
the people the most beautiftil girls, of 
seven or eight years of a^, secure them, 
by inoculation, from the disfiguring conse- 
quences of the small-pox, and instruct 
them in all the arts of their profession, 
tiie object of which is to amuse the rich, 
and minister to their pasdons. Their 
presence is considered necessary, even at 
the smallest entertainments. If any of the 
spectators desires to become better ac- 
quainted with the talents of a bayadeer, 
only a hint is needed. For a girl of the 
greatest attractions, the matron to whom 
she belongs receives a hundred rupees for 
an evening, and as much for a night, 
besides a present for the girl. After their 
17th year, when their firat charms have 
faded, they retire to a pagoda (the temple 
of their idols), under the protection of the 
Bramins, but not, like public girls in Eu- 
rope, to become devotees. They continue 
to exercise their profession in the temple, 
and what they gain belongs to the Bra- 
mins, who give them food and shelter. 
Their profes^on is not thought infiimous 
in India. 

Batamo, or St. Salvador ; a town of 
Cuba, on a river which forms a port on 
the S. E. coast; 520 miles E. S. E. Ha- 
vannah ; Ion. 76° 55^ W. ; lat 2(P 46^ N. ; 
population estimated at 12,000. The 
town is about 20 miles distant from the 
port It gives name to a channel situated 
between the main land of Cuba and the 
islands called the Queen^s Gardens. 

Batard, Pierre du Terrail, chevalier 
de, called the knight without fear and wUh- 
oid reproaehj bom in 1476, in the castle of 
Bayard, near Grenoble, was one of the 
most spotiess characters of the middle 
ages. He was simple and modest; a true 
friend and tender lover; pious, humane 
and magnanimous. The femily of Ter- 
rail, to which he belonged, was one of the 
most ancient in Dauphin^, and was cele- 
brated for nobility and valor. Young B., 
educated under the eyes of his uncle 
George of Terrail, bishop of Grenoble, 
early imbibed, in the school of tliis wor- 
thy prelate, the virtues which distinguish- 
ed him afterwards. At the age of 13, he 
was received among the pages of the 
duke of Savoy, the ally of France. 
Charles VIU, who saw him at Lyons, in 
the suite of this prince, was stinick with 
the dexterity with which the youtii man- 
aged his horse : he begged him of the 
duke, and committed him to tiie care of 



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BAYARD. 



Paul of Luxemburg, count de Liffny. 
The toumaments were Ins firat field of 
gloiy. At the age of 18, he accompanied 
Charles YIII to Italy, and distin^ished 
himself greatly in the battle at Verona, 
where he took a standard. At the begin- 
ning of the reign of Louis XII, in a battle 
near Milan, he pursued the fugitives with 
such eagerness, that he entered the city 
with them, and was taken prisoner. Lu- 
dovico Sforza returned him his arms and 
his horse, and dismissed him without ran- 
som. Whilst the French were in Apu- 
Ua, B. defeated a Spanish corps, and 
made their leader, don Alonzo de Soto- 
mayor, prisoner. He treated him with 
generosity. Sotomayor, however, not only 
violated his parole by flight, but calum- 
niated B., who, according to the custom 
of that time, challenged him, and killed 
him. AAerwards, like Horatius Cocles, 
he defended a bridge over the Garigliano 
singly against the Spaniards, and saved 
the French army by cnecking the advance 
of the victorious enemy. For tliis exploit, 
he received as a coat of arms a porcupine, 
with the motto Vires agminis unus habet. 
He distinguished himself e(][ually against 
the Genoese and the Venetians. When 
Julius II declared himself a^nst France, 
B. went to the assistance of the duke of 
Ferrara. He did not succeed in his plan 
of takm^ the pope prisoner; but he re- 
fused, with indication, an offer made to 
betray him. Bein^ severely wounded at 
the assault of Brescia, he was carried into 
the house of a nobleman, who had fied, 
and left his wife and two daughters ex- 
posed to the insolence of tiie soldiers. B. 
protected the family, refused the reward 
of 2500 ducats, which they offered to him, 
and returned, as soon as he was cured, 
into the camp of Graston de Foix, before 
Ravenna. In an engagement, which 
ahortW after ensued, he took two stand- 
ards mm the Spaniards, and pursued the 
fugitives. Gaston, the hope of France, 
perished tlirough his neglect of the advice 
of B. In the retreat from Pavia, B. was 
again wounded. He was carried to Gre- 
noble ; his life was in danger. *< I grieve 
not for death," he said, ^ but to die on my 
bed, like a woman." In the war com- 
menced by Ferdinand the Catholic, he 
displayed beyond the Pyrenees the same 
talents, the same heroism, which had dis- 
tinguished him beyond the Alps. The 
fiital reverses which imbittered the last 
years of Louis XII only added a brighter 

atlendor to the personal glory of B. 
eniy VIII of Ensluid, in alliance with 
Ferdinand and Maximilian, threatened 



Picardy m 1513, and besieged Terouane. 
The French army disgracefiilly took to 
fiight. B., with his accustomed intrepid- 
ity, made aninefiectual resistance to the 
enemy: overpowered by superior num- 
bers, his troop was on the pomt of laying 
down their arms, when B., perceivinff an 
English officer at some distance m>m 
him, immediately gaUoped towards him, 
presented his sword to his breast, and 
Cried, ** Yield, or die !" The Englishman 
surrendered bis sword: B. immediately 
gave him his own, saying, ** I am Bayard, 
and your captive, as you are mine." The 
boldness and ingenuity of this action 
pleased the emperor and the king of Eng- 
land, ^ho decided that B. needed no ran- 
som, and that both captives were released 
fit)m their parole. When Francis I as- 
cended the throne, he sent B. into Dau- 
phin6, to open for his army a passage over 
the Alps, and through Piedmont Pros- 
per Colonna lay in wait for him on his 
march, expecting to surprise him, but B. 
made him prisoner. This brilliant exploit 
was the prelude to the battle of Mori^a- 
no, in which B., at the side of the l3n^, 
performed wonders of bravery, and deci- 
ded the victoiy. Alter this glorious day, 
Francis was knighted with the sword of B. 
When Charles V invaded Champagne, 
with a large army, and threatened to pene- 
trate into the heart of France, B. defended 
the weakly-fortified town of Mezi^res 
a^nst every assault, until the dissensions 
of the hostile leaders compelled them to 
retreat. B. was saluted in Paris as the sav- 
ior of his country : the lane bestowed on 
him the order of St. Michae^ and a compa- 
ny of 100 men, which he was to command 
in his own name — an honor which, till 
then, had only been conferred on princes 
of the blood. Soon aflenvards, Genoa 
revolted from France: B's presence re- 
duced it to ol^edience. But, after the sur- 
render of Lodi, fortune changed, and tlie 
French troops were expelled from their 
conquests. Bonnivet was obliged to re- 
treat through the valley of Aosta; liis rear 
was beaten, and himself severely wounded, 
when the safety of the army was com- 
mined to B. It was necessary to pass the 
Sesia in the presence of a superior enemy, 
and B., always the last in retreat, vigor- 
ously attacked the Spaniards, when a 
stone, from a blunderbuss, struck his risrbt 
side, and shattered his back-lx>ne. The 
hero fell, exclaiming, *< Jesus, my God, I 
am a dead man!" They hastened towards 
him. " Place me under yon tree," he said, 
"that I may see the enemy." For want 
of a crucifix, he kissed the cross of his 



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BAYARD. 



13 



vword, confessed to Ins squire, consoled 
his servants and bis fnends, bade fiu-ewell 
to his king and his country, and died, 
April 90, 1924, surrounded 1)7 fiiends and 
enemieB, who all shed teais of adnuration 
end grief. His body, which remained m 
the hands of his enemies, was embehned 
by theflOy given to the French, and Interred 
in a church of the Minorites, near Greno- 
ble. His monument consists of a simple 
bast, vrith a Latin inscription. (See IntL 
de P. TerraU, dit U Chevalier Bamrd sans 
Pew et sons Rtprockcj by Gayard de Ber- 
ville, new edition, Paris, 1824). 

Bata&o, James A^ an eminent Ameri- 
can lawyer and politician, was bom in 
Philadelphia, in 1767. His classical edu- 
cation was completed at Princeton col- 
lege. In the year 1784, he engaged in the 
study of the law, and, on his admission 
to the bar, setded in the state of Delaware, 
where he soon acquired considerable prac- 
tice and reputation. A few years after 
he reached his majority, he was elected a 
representative of J[)ela¥rare in congress. 
The first occasion, on which he particu- 
larly distinguished himself, was the im- 
peachment of William Blount, a senator 
of the U. States. Mr. B. was cliairmau of 
the committee of eleven, who were se- 
lected, by the house of representatives, to 
conduct that impeachment. He took the 
chief and a very brilliant part in the dis- 
cussion of the constitutional questions 
which arose out of the successfiil plea of 
the accused to the jurisdiction of the senate. 
At an eariy period of his political career, 
president Adams offered liim the post of 
envoj to the French republic, which pru- 
dential reasons induced him to decline. 
Mr. B. was one of the leaders of the fed- 
eral party in congress at tlie epoch of the 
election of Mr. JefTerson to the office of 
president. In the memorable contest in 
the house of representatives, which was 
produced by the equality of votes for Mr. 
Jefferson and colonel Burr, he finally 
prevailed upon his political coadjutors to 
adopt the mode of proceedins which ena- 
blea the friends of Mr. Jerorson to tri- 
umph. Hostile as he was to that states- 
man, and much as he had reason to 
expect of personal advantage from a diA 
fereqt issue, he sacrificed party fueling 
and ambitious hope, when he perceived 
that the peace or the countiy and the 
stability of the constitution might be en- 
dangered by continuing the struggle. In 
DO debate of the house did Mr. fi. display 
his genius more than in that which pre- 
ceded the repeal, in March, 1802, of the 
judiciaiy bilL A volume of the speeches 

vol.. II. 2 



which were delivered in this &mous con- 
troversy has been published. It was 
almost universally conceded that he was 
the ablest advocate of the system or or- 
ganization which was destroyed. He 
continued in the house of representatives 
afler the change of administration, always 
conspicuous for his sound principles, con- 
stant acuteness, extensive knowledge, and 
manly, copious eloquence. Elected to the 
senate of the U. States by the legislature 
of Delaware, he displayed, ifbr several 
years, in that assembly, the same talents 
and patriotism. In 1812, he strenuously 
opposed the declaration of war with Great 
Bntain. President Madison selected him 
as one of the commissioners to treat for 
peace imder the proffered mediation of 
the emperor Alexander of Russia. He 
embarked on this important mission, 
which had not been sought nor eiqiected 
by himself or his friends for him, from 
the port of Philadelphia, May 8, 1813^ 
and arrived at St Petersburg in July of 
thak year. The absence of die emperor 
prevented the transaction of any busmess, 
and, when all hope of advancing the main 
object seemed idle, Mr. B. proceeded 
(January, 1814) by land to Holland. 
There he leanied the willingness of the 
British court to treat direcuy with the 
American envoys. Previously to the arri- 
val of his colleagues, who, in consequence 
of this annunciation, were despatched by 
the American government, he visited 
England. At the proper period, he re- 
paired to Ghent, which was ultimately 
chosen as the scene of the negotiations 
which terminated in the treaty mat bears 
the name of that place. His share in the 
oral discussions and the written corre- 
spondence with tlie British plenipotentia- 
ries was such as might have been expect- 
ed from his peculiar fitness for the task 
of negotiation. On the conclusion of this 
business, he made a journey to Paris, 
where he remained untd he heard of the 
ratification of the treaty, and of his ap- 
pointment as envoy to tlie court of St. 
Petersburg. This he promptly declined. 
It was his intention, however, to go to 
England, in order to co-operate in the 
formation of a commercial treaty with the 
British cabinet, as he was included in the 
commission sent for that purpose; but an 
alarming illness put an end to every 
plan, except that of reaching his home as 
early as possible. He embarked at Havre 
in May, 1815, in a state of the most pain- 
ful debility, suffered unfortunate delays 
in the voya^, and arrived in the U. States 
only to die in the arms of his family.^ — 



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14 



BAYARD— BAYLE- 



Mr. B. was a logician of the first order, 
po6se8se4 a rich and ready elocution, and 
commanded attention as well by hb fine 
countenance and manly person as his 
cogent reasoning and comprehensive 
views. He acquired a reputation, both as 
a lawj^er and pohtical orator, scarcely 
inferior to that of any one of his American 
contemporaries. 

Bayle, Pierre, bom at Carlat, in the 
county of Foix (Languedoc), in 1(347, 
received his first instruction from his 
fatlier, a Calvinistic preacher. He gave 
eai'ly proofs of an astonishing memory, 
and of a singular vivacity of miiid. At 
the age of 19 years, he entered the college 
of Puy-Laurens, to fuiish his studies. 
The ardor witli which he devoted him- 
self to them weakened his constitution. 
All books were eagerly devoured by him ; 
his taste for logic led him particularly to 
study religious controversies, but Amyot's 
Plutarch and Montaigne were his favorite 
works. The latter encouraged, without 
doubt, his inclination to scepticism ; per- 
haps both contributed to give to his stjle 
that vivacity, tliat boldness of expression 
and antique coloring, so obsen^abie in it. 
In Toulouse, he studied philosophy with 
the Jesuits. The arguments of his pro- 
fessor, and, still more, his friendly discus- 
sions with a Catholic priest, who dwelt 
near him, confirmed his doubts of the 
orthodoxy of Protestantism, so that he re- 
solved to change his religion. His con- 
version was a triumph to the Catholics, 
His family, however, tried all means to 
regain him, and, afler 17 months, he re- 
turned to his old faith. In onler to 
escape from the punishment of perpetual 
excommunication, which the Cathohc 
church then pronounced against apostates, 
he went to Geneva, and thence to Copet, 
where count Dohua intrusted him with 
toe eautuidou of his sons, and where 
he siuditsd the philosophy of Des Cartes. 
But, afler some years, he returned to 
France, and settled in Rouen, where he 
was employed in teaching. From thence 
he went to Paris, where the society of 
learned men indemnified him for the fa- 
tigues of an occupation to which he was 
obliged to submit for a third time. In 
1675, he obtained the philosophicxil chair 
at Sedan, where he taught with distinc- 
tion until the suppression of tliis acade- 
my in 1(301. He was aflenvards invited 
to discharge the same duties at Rotter- 
dam. Tlie appearance of a comet, in 
1680, which occasioned an almost univer- 
sal alarm, induced him to pubUsh, in 168*2, 
his Pen96e8 diver$e8 star la Cornea work 



full of learning, in which he diseuflsecf 
various subjects of metaphysics, morals, 
theology, histoir, and {M)htics. It was 
followed by his Oriitque r6rUraU de VJHSs- 
toire du CoLmnismt at Maimbourg, This 
worit, received with equal approbation by 
the Cathohcs and Protestants, and es- 
teemed by Mahnbourg himself, excited 
the jealousy of his colleague, the theolo- 
gian Jurieu, whose RefuLaJtwn du P, 
Maimbow'g had not succeeded, and in- 
volved B. in many disputes. He after- 
ward undertook a periodical work, JVou- 
vdles de laRepublique des LettreSy in 1^4. 
A letter from Rome, published in this 
work, excited the displeasure of the queen 
Christina of Sweden, who caused two vi- 
olent letters to be sent to him. B. apolo- 
gized, and his excuses so perfectly satisfied 
the queen, that from that time she kept 
ui) a literary correspondence with him. 
The deatli of his father and of his two 
brothers, together with the reUpous per- 
secutions in France, induced him to un- 
dertake his Coimnentaire vhilosophique svr 
ces Paroles de VEvangite; Cfmtrains-les 
d'entrer; which, in regard to style and 
tone, is not worthy of him. B. hunself 
was unwilling to acknowledge it ; but 
Jurieu, who probably recognised its au- 
thor by the zeal with which toleration is 
defended in this work, attacked it with 
violence. His hatred only waited for a 
pretence to break out against B.; he 
found it in tlie Avis aux Refugtis, a work 
ui which the Protestants are treated with 
little ceremony. Jurieu riot only accused 
B. of being the author of this work (which 
certainly is not his), but also of being the 
soul of a party devoted to France, in op- 
position to the Protestants and alUed 
powers. B. repelled these charges in two 
publications; but the calumny' prevailed. 
In 1603, the magistrates of Rotterdam 
removed him from his office, and forbade 
him to give private instruction. He now 
devoted all his attention to the composi- 
tion of his Didionnaire historigue d cri- 
liquet which he first pubhshed in 1696, 
in 2 vols. fol. This was the first work 
which api)eared under his name. Jurieu 
opposed him anew, and caused the con- 
sistory, in which he had the greatest in- 
fluence, to make a severe attack upon 
him. B. promised to remove every thing 
wiiich tlie consistoiy deemed offensive; 
but, finding the public had other views, 
and prefeiTmg rather the sads&ction of his 
readers than that of his judges, he lefl the 
work, with the exception of a few trifles, 
unahered. He found two new enemies 
in Jacquelot and Le Clerc, who both at- 



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BAYLE— BAYLEN. 



15 



iBcked his reUgkm : otiieis penecuted 
him as the enemy of his sect and his new 
comitry. These contests increased his 
bodily infirmities. His lungs became in- 
flamed ; bat he was miwilling to use any 
medical appHcadons against a disorder 
which he considered as hereditary and 
incurable. He died, so to speak, with the 
pen in his hand, m 1706, at the age of 59 
years. "Bayle," says Voltaire, "is the 
first of logicians and sceptics. His pal- 
est enemies must confess that there is not 
a line in his works which contains an 
open aspersion of Christianitv ; but his 
warmest apologists must acknowledge, 
tJiat there is not a page in his controver- 
sial writings whicn does not lead the 
reader to doubt, and often to scepticism." 
He compares lumself to Homers cloud- 
compellm^ Jupiter. " My talent," he says, 
"consists in raising doubts; but they are 
only doubts." The confidence of most 
theologians induced him to undertake to 
prove that several points are not so certain 
and so evident as tney imagined. But he 
gradually passed these limits: his pene- 
tration caused him to doubt even the 
most universally acknowledged facts. Yet 
he never attacked the great principles of 
morality. Though an admirable logician, 
he was so little acquainted with physics, 
that even the discoveries of Newton were 
unknown to him. His style is natural 
and clear, but often prolix, careless and 
incorrect. He himself calls his Dictum- 
noire ^une compilation informe des pas- 
9agt8 counts a la queue Us uns des autres.^ 
I^thout assenting implicitly to this mod- 
est judgment, we must confess that the 
articles, in themselves, are of littlfe 
value, and that they 8er>e only as a pre- 
text for the notes, in which the author 
displays, at the same time, his learning, 
and the power of his logic. The charac- 
ter of B. was ffentle, amiable, disinterest- 
ed, highly modest and peaceable : he de- 
voted himself entirely to literature. The 
most esteemed edition of his Dictiormaire 
historiaue is that of 1740, in 4 vols. fol. 
(an eaition was also printed at Bale, 
the same year]. At the Hague appeared 
the Qiuvres diverses de P, Bcnde (also 4 
vols. fol.J An edition of his DicL fdstor^ 
in 16 vols., printed with great typograph- 
ical beauty, was published, in 1820, by 
Desoer, in Paris: it contains notes, and 
the life of the author. In the Disc, pre- 
IhnirUj the editor, Beuchot, reviews the 11 
ibinier editions. Gottsched has translated 
the Did, into German (Leipsic, 1741—^, 
4 vc4flL fi>L) An English translation, with 
comiderable additions, by Th. Birch, 



Lockman and others, was published, 
1734— 41, 10 vols. foL 

Batlen, capitulation of general Dupont 
at ; an event which, in July, 1806, nused 
the courage of Spain, and hastened a 
ffeneral insurrection. Joseph Bonaparte 
had entered Madrid as king; the prov- 
inces Leon, Valencia, Yalladolid, Zamo- 
ra and Salamanca had been subdued 
and disarmed. In the south alone, on the 
Guadalquivir, in the naturally fortified 
Andalusia, in Cordova, Grenada, Jaen, 
the spirit of insurrection still prevailed, 
and was excited as much as possible by 
the junta of Seville. Thither general 
Dupont directed his march, at the end of 
May, with three divisions. Cordova and 
Jaen were taken by assault, after the 
most terrible resistance. The monks 
promised the joys of heaven, without 
purgatory, to every one who should kill 
three Frenchmen. The corps of Casta- 
nos soon increased to 30,000 men. The 
able manoeuvres of this general, together 
with fiimine and sickness in the French 
army, augmented by ibe total want of 
hospitals, prepared the way for the over- 
throw of general Dupont 3000 Span- 
iards had possession or the Sierra Moreno, 
in the rear of his army. In order to re- 
establish his communication with the 
capital, he occupied the cities of B. and 
Carolina with detachments, while he 
himself took a position near Andujar, on 
the Guadalquivir. But, on the 14th of 
July, 18,000 men, with some pieces of 
heavy artillery, marched against the fiiont 
of the French position near Andujar; 
while 3000 men came through the defiles 
of the Sierra Morena upon the rear, and 
6000 men attacked Dujwut's left wing. 
He defended himself; for three days, with 
skill and courage ; but the 18tli of July 
decided the contest The Si)anish gen- 
erals Reding and Compigny attacked B. 
Peilas and Jones overawed the main body, 
under Dupont He was compelled to 
evacuate Andujar, after B. had l)een taken 
by the Spaniards. The action continued 
nine hours, when Du])ont requested a 
suspension of arms, but was told that he 
must surrender at discretion. Meanwhile 
the division of Vedel, not acqiwinted with 
the proceedings of Dupont, nad attacked 
the Spaniards anew, and taken the regi- 
ment of Cordova prisoners, together with 
two pieces of artillery, but were finally 
overpowered by superior numbers. On 
ihe 23d of July, the whole French army, 
17,000 men strong, being surrounded, 
was obliged to capitukrtc, having lost 
3000 men on the field of batde. The di- 



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16 



BAYLEN— BAYONET. 



visions of Dupont and Vedel were made 
prisoners of war: the latter was to be 
permitted to embartc at Cadiz for Roche- 
fort: the same terms were afterwards 
promised to the division of Dupont, but 
not fulfilled. General Dupont returned, 
with his staff, to France, and was arrested 
at Toulon, and subjected to triaL But, 
before a decision, he was delivered by 
the capture of Paris, March 30, 1814. 
He was afterwards appointed, by Louis 
XVIII, minister of war ; but was super- 
seded by Soult, in December, 1814. 

Batlet, Richard, M. D., was bom at 
Fairiield, Connecticut, in the year 1745. 
Having completed his medical studies, he 
w«nt to London, to attend the lectures 
and hospitals. After little more than a 
year's residence in that city, he relumed 
to New York, and commenced practice 
there in 1772. At this period, his atten- 
tion was first drawn to the then prevalent 
and fatal croup, which had been treated 
as the putrid sore throat Observing how 
iatal was the use of stimulants and anti- 
septics, he examined the nature of the 
disease, and became convinced that it was 
of an inflammatory cliaracter. He ac- 
cordingly treated it as such, witli decided 
success, and, soon after the publication of 
his View of the Croup, his opinions and 
treatment of it were universally adopted. 
In the autumn of 1775, B. revisited Lon- 
don, where he spent a winter, and, in the 
following spring, returned to New York, 
in the capacity of sivgeon in the English 
army under Howe. He resigned this 
post in 1777, and, during the rest of his 
life, continued the practice of. his pro- 
fession in the same city. In 1787, he 
lectured on surgery. In 1788, he lost his 
valuable collection in morbid anatomy, 
and some delicate preparations, by the 
violence of the famous "doctors' mob," 
who broke into his house, and carried off 
and burned his cabinet. In the spriiiff 
of 1792, he was appointed professor of 
anatomy in Columbia college, and, in 
1793, became professor of surgery, which 
was his &Tonte subject. His lectures 
were clear, precise and practical As an 
optician, be acquired great celebrity, and 
also as an experienced and successful li- 
thotomist When the yellow fever deso- 
lated New York, soon after the revolu- 
tion, doctor B. devoted hinoself to peraonal 
attention to the sick, and became practi- 
cfdly femiliar with the disease, and its 
most successful remedies. He likewise 
investigated its cause, and declared tliat 
it was the filth which polluted the docks 
and some of the streets, afiSrmingy "that 



when a more rigid police prevaOed, to 
free the city firom nuisances, no more 
would be heard of particular diseases." 
In 1797, he pubhshed his work On Yel« 
low Fever, wherein he proved ihe malady 
to be of local origin. So strong was bis 
belief on this point, and so dear his per- 
ception of the cause of the fever, that he 
predicted the very spot where it after* 
wards appeared, in the year 1799. In the 
year 1795 or 6, he was ayipointed health 
physician for the port of New Yoris, and, 
m 17Q8, pubhslied Letters fit)m tlie 
Healdi Office, submitted to the New 
York Common Council, being a series of 
letters in the years '96-7-8. One letter, 
dated Dec. 4, 1798, assigns the reasons 
why the fever in '98 was more exten- 
sively prevalent than in '95, 6 or 7, which 
he considers to be the rauis flooding large 
lK)rtions of the city, its low levels, new- 
made ground, and a hot sun. — In 1798, a 
correspondence took place between the 
cities of New York and Philadelphia, in 
the course of which a proposition was 
made by the committee of the latter to that 
of the former, soliciting their co-operation 
in a memorial to the general government 
for a quarantine law. This gave doctor 
B., who was on the New York conunit- 
tee, an opportunity of impressing Mpon 
the general government the propriety of 
estabhshing a lazaretto, below and at a 
distance from the city or port of entry. 
He was the person to whom the state of 
New York is, in fact, chiefly indebted for 
its quarantine laws, although they have 
since been altered and amended. In Au- 
gust, 1801, doctor B., in the discharge of 
his duty as health physician, enjoin^ the 
passengers and crew of an Irish emigrant 
ship, amicted with the ship fever, to go on 
shore to the rooms and tents appointed 
for them, leaving their luggage behind. 
The next morning, on going to the hospi- 
tal, he found that both crew and passen- 
gers, well, sick and dying, were huddled 
together in one apartment, where they 
hiui passed the night He inconsiderately 
entered into this room before it had been 
properly ventilated, but remained scarce- 
ly a moment, being obliged to retire by a 
most deadly sickDeiss at the stomach, and 
violent pam in the head, with which he 
was suddenly seized. He returned home, 
and' retired to his bed, from which he 
never rose. In the afternoon of the 
seventh day ibllovring, he expired. 

Batoi^et. This is the name of the 
iron blade, formed like a dagger, and 
placed upon the muzzle of the musket^ 
which is thus traoafoimed into a thrusting 



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BAYONET— BEAR. 



17 



veapoiL It was probably iDvented, about 
1640, in BayonDe, and was used in the 
Netheilands, in 1647, but was not univer- 
sally introduced until after the pike was 
wholly laid aside, in the beginning of the 
18th centuiy. Since the general war in Eu- 
rope, some officers have adopted the idea 
of former military writers (for instance, 
Guibert), of increasing the efficiency of 
the bayonet by a more regular exercise of 
the in&ntry in its use. A Saxon captain. 
Ton Selmnitz, has the merit of having 
first developed this idea in a systematic 
treatise. (See Th^ Jtrt of ISgktingvnih th£ 
Bawmet, by E. von Selmnitz, jDresden, 
18&, with coppeiplates.) As cavalry aro 
oflen counted by horses, infantiy are 
sometimes counted by bayonets. 

Batokne ; a well-built, rich, commer- 
cial city, the lai^st in the French de- 
partment of the Ixjwer Pyrenees, formerly 
capital of the district Labour, in Gascony 
(Ion. P 24' W.; lat. 43^ 29^ N.), at the 
confluence of the Nive and the Adour, 
about two miles from the bay of Biscay. 
Ii has 13,600 inhabitants, 6000 of whom 
live in the suburbs. The Nive and the 
Adour (the former of which i» navigable 
about 30, and the latter 70 miles] form a 
harbor capable of admitting men of war 
fronf 40 to 50 gims, but it has a difficult 
access. These two rivers serve to convey 
timber, tar and iron from the Pyrenees to 
R A citadel, built by Vauban, on the 
summit of an eminence in tlie suburb, 
commands the harbor and tiie city. The 
bishop of B. is under tlie archbishop of 
Toulouse, and exercises spiritual jurisdic-. 
tion over thitee depaitments. The catlic- 
dral is a beautiful ancient building. B. 
has considerable commerce with Spain ; 
French and fbreisn goods being ex- 
changed for iron, fi-uit, gold and silver. 
B. is much eu^ged in the cod and whale 
fishery, m wluch, Ijefore the revolution, 
30 — 40 vessels of 250 tons burthen were 
employed. Masts and other tunber for 
ship-building, fi-om tlie Pyrenees, are ex- 
ported to Brest and otlier ports of France. 
The hams of B, are famous. Its wine 
and chocolate are shipped to tlie north of 
Europe. Among the lower class, the an- 
cient Biscayan or Basque language is 
spoken. Catharine of Medicis had an 
important interview with the duke of Al- 
ba in B^ June 1565, The meeting of Na- 
poleon with the king of Spain, Charles 
IV, and the prince of the Asturias, also 
took place here in May, 1808, in conse- 
quence of which the two last signed (5th 
and 10th May) an agreement, by which 
the}', and all the children of the king, 
- 8* 



transferred their rights to the Spanish 
territories, in Europe and India, to the 
French emperor. Napoleon convened a 
Spanish general junta at B., June 15th^ to 
draw up a constitution. This constitution 
was puolished July 6, and Joseph depart- 
ed, on the 9th, firom B. for Madrid. The 
convention of B., between the Poles and 
France, was signed on the lOih Mav, 
1808. (See Sch611'8 7Voi«<^ (fc Pour, v6l. 
9, p9ge 28.) The transactions at B. are 
some of the most important in Napoleon's 
bfe, and disclose the wretched character 
of die royal family of Spain. 

Bazar, Bazaar, or Basar ; a market- 
place in the East The word is Arabic, 
and originally denotes sah or exchange. 
Some are open, some covered with lofty 
ceiUngs, or domes. At the bazars, or in 
the neighborhood of them, are the cofiec- 
houses, so much fiiequented in Turkey, 
Persia, &c. ; and, as tne Orientals live al- 
most entirely out of doors, the bazars of 
populous cities, besides their mercantile 
unportance, are of consequence as places 
of social intercourse. The bazar of Ispa- 
han is one of the finest places in Persia. 
That of Tauris is the largest known. At 
Constantinople are two bazars — ^the old 
and new one. In the Oriental talcs, — 
for instance, in the Arabian Nights, — the 
bazars occupy a veiT conspicuous j)lace. 
Since the system oi credit is almost en- 
tirely unkno^vn in Easteni trade, and all 
commercial transactions take place in 
merchandise and money, tlie ])laceH 
where this merchandise is brought and 
changed fitim one owner to another are, 
of course, very much frequented. — The 
word bazar hos been used, in recent times, 
also, in Europe. Thus there is the well- 
known bazar in Soho square, in London. 

Beacon. (See Si^nalSy and Lighthouse,) 

Beaole ; a species of the genus dog^ 
kept entirely for hunting bares. They 
are small, and much infenor to the hare 
in swiftness, but have a veiy delicate 
scent, and seldom &il of running her 
down. 

Bear (ursuSf L.) ; a genus of caniiv-. 
orous, or, more accurately, fi-ugi-camiv- 
orous, mammiferous quadrupeds, belong- 
ing to the family planiigrada, which tread 
on the entire soles of the [hind] feet. 
The genus is characterized by a hca^y 
body, covered with a thick, wooUv coat, 
a large head, terminating in a prolonged 
snout, with very extensible lii)5». The 
ears are of moderate size, and rather 
pointed, and the tongue smooth. The 
limbs are large and heavy, and all the 
feet ai'e five-toed, apd . furnished witl) 



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BEARr-BEAlQ}. 



very strong, hooked claws, well salted 
for burrowing. — ^Five species at present 
belong to this genu& The Unnaean genus 
comprised the raccoon, badger, &C., now, 
properly, separated i&om iu These spe- 
cies are, the brown bear of Europe (U. 
ardoa) ; the white or polar bear ( U, mar^ 
itimua) ; the American or black bear (U, 
Amencanus); the grisly bear (U.hornb- 
His), also of America; and the Malay- 
an or Asiatic bear (U. kdnatus)* — ^The 
brown bear is chiefly an inhabitant of 
cold and elevated situations, and feeds on 
a peat varietv of miinial and vegetable 
substances. During winter, this species, 
like some others, remains torpid in caves, 
whither it retires, in the autumn, very fiit, 
and comes out, in the spricg, extremely 
emaciated. The brown bear is remarica- 
ble for its sagacity, as well as the ferocity 
of its disposition, and it becomes espe- 
cially sanguinary as it advances in age. 
Besides the difierences of color and size 
which distinguish this bear iit>m those 
belonging to the old continent, it differs 
from the American bears, by having a 
convexity of front above the eyes, which 
renders its physiognomy strikingly dis- 
similar to tlieirs. Other distinctions, suffi- 
ciently obvious, present themselves when 
the species are comi)ared. — ^Tlie polar, or 
maritime bear, is only found in high 
northern latitudes, along the borders of 
the Icy ocean and northeni coasts of 
America in the vicinity of Hudson's bay. 
It does not descend to the eastern coast 
of Siberia nor Kamtschatka ; neither is it 
found in the islands lying Injtwecn Sibe- 
ria and America. It is unlfonnly white, 
attains a large size, is very powerful, fe- 
rocious and daring. It is an excellent 
diver and swimmer, being apparently as 
much at home in the ocean as on land. 
An individual of tliis species was seen, by 
the late northern explorers, in the mid- 
dle of Melville sound, swimming across, 
where the shores were at leost 30 miles 
apart. The polar bear is the most exclu- 
sively cami^'orous of the genus, tliough 
equally cauable of living on vegetd)le 
food with tne rest. He preys upon seals, 
the cubs of die whale, morse, &c., or the 
carcasses of whales left by whalers after 
removing the blubber. Individuals of 
this species are sometimes, though rarely, 
seen m caravans of wild animals in the 
U. States. A large and beautiftil one was 
exhibited in New York, in the spring of 
1826| and, notwithstandmg the coolness 
of the weather, it appeared to suffer ex- 
tremely from heat, as it bathed itself 
frequently in water provided for the pur- 



pose. When ice was placed in the ofge, 
it rolled upon it with great satisfection, 
and showed every sign of being gratified. 
— ^The black bear of America is distin- 
guished by its color and a peculiarly eon- 
vex facial outline. It is found veiy gen- 
erally in mountainous and forest lands, 
and subsists, in a great degree, on berries 
and vegetable substances, though it preys 
upon small animals, and insects, which it 
searches for industriously, by turning over 
large logs of decayed timber. It is rarely, 
if ever, known to attack man, unless m 
self-defence. It is very fond of young 
com and honey, which, being an expert 
climber, like the brown European bear, it 
obtains by plundering the wild bees. — 
The grisly bear inhabits the country ad- 
jacent to the Rocky mountains, and is, 
of all the race, tlie most dreadful for size, 
strength and terrible ferocity of nature.* 
— ^The Malay, Asiatic or long-Upped bear, 
is a native of the mountainous parts of 
India, and feeds on white ants, rice, honey, 
the fruit of tlie palm, &c. The spe- 
cies is inoffensive and timid, burrows in 
the ground, and lives in pairs, together 
with the young, which, when alarmed, 
seek safety by mounting on the backs of 
the parents. 

Beard ; the hair round the chin, on 
the cheeks and tlie upper lip, w^hich is a 
distinction of the male sex. It differs 
from the hair on the head by its greater 
hai^ess and its form. The beard begins 
to grow at the time of puberty. The 
coimexion between the beard and puber- 
ty is evident from this, among other cir- 
cumstances, that it never grows in the 
case of eunuchs who have been sUch 
from childhood; but the castration of 
adults does not cause tlie loss of the 
beard. According to Caesar, the Ger- 
mans thought, and perhaps justly, the 
late growth of the bcJud favorable to the 
deycTopement of all the powers. But there 
are cases in which tliis circumstance is an 
indication of feebleness. It frequently 
takes place in men of tender constitution, 
whose pale color indicates Utde power. 
The beards of different nations aflrord an 
interesting study. Some have hardly 
any, others a ^reat profusion. The latter 
generally consider it as a great ornament ; 
the former pluck it out ; as, for instance, 
the American Indians. 'Die character 
of the beard differs with that of the indi- 
vidual, and, in the case of nations, varies 

* For the detailed history of this and the two 
preceding species, too extensive to be introduced 
into this work, see the first volume of the Ameri- 
can Natural mnoryj by the writer of this articla. 



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BEARD— BEATIFICATION. 



19 



with the climate, food, &c. Thus the 
beard is ^nerally daik, dr^, hard and 
thin in irritaUe persons of full age : the 
same is ]the ease with the inhabitants of 
hot and diy countries, as the Arabians, 
Ethiopians, East Indians, Italiims, Span- 
iards. But persons of a very mild dis- 
))osition have a light-colored, thick and 
slightly curling b^Bod: the same is the 
case with inhabitants of cold and humid 
countries, as Holland, England, Sweden. 
The difference of circumstances causes 
all shades of variety. The nature of the 
nourishment, likewise, causes a great va- 
riety in the beard. Wholesome, nutri- 
tious and digestible food m^es the beard 
soft ; but poor, dry and Indigestible fix)d 
renders it hard and bristly. In general, 
the beard has been considered, witli all 
nations, as an ornament, and often as a 
mark of the sage and the priest Moses 
forisade the Jews to shave their beards. 
With the ancient Germans, the cutting oft' 
another^s beard was a high offence ; vrith 
the East Indians, it is iseverely punished. 
Even now, the beard is regarded as a 
marie of great dignity amons many na- 
tions m the East, as the Turks. The 
custom of shaving is said to have come 
into use during the reigns of Louis XIII 
and XIV of France, both. of whom as- 
cended the throne without a beard. 
Courtiers and inhabitants of cities tlien 
began to shave, in order to look like the 
king, and, as Frauce soon took the lead 
in all matters of fashion on the continent 
of Europe, shaving became; general ; but 
it is only since the l)eginning of the last 
centuiy, that shaving off the whole 
beani has become common. Till tlien, 
fashion had given divers forms to mus- 
taehioes and beards. Much could be 
said, and has been sfud, in a medical point 
of view, on shaving the beard. Such a 
discussion would lead us, however, here 
too far. It is not to be denied, that the 
mouth, one of the most expressive parts 
of the countenance, is shown to much 
better advantage in consequence of sliav- 
ing; but, at the same time, old age ap- 
pears to much greater disadvantage, the 
heard conceaUng the loss of the teeth. 
Moreover, the eye gains much in ex- 
pression by a ftiU beard. Every one 
knows the trouble of shaving ; and who 
does not remember Byron^ computa- 
tion of the amount of this trouble in 
Don Juan ? Seume, a German author, 
says, in his journal, ** To-day I threw my 
powder apparatus out of the wmdow: 
when will come the blessed day, that I 
■hall send the shaving apparatus ^r it !" 



— Shaving, among manj[ ancient nation% 
was the m^ of mourning; with others^ 
it was the contrary. Plutarch says that 
Alexander introduced shaving among the 
Greeks, by ordering his soldiers to cut 
off theur beards; but it appears that this 
custom had prevailed before among the 
Macedo;uan9. The Romans began to 
shave about 454 A. U., 296 B. C, when 
a certain Tieinius Mcenas, a barber from 
Sicily, introduced this &shion. Scipio 
Africauus was the first wbo shaved every 
day. The day that a young man fiiBt 
shaved was celebrated, and the first hair 
cut off was sacrificed to a deity. Adrian^ 
ifi order to cover some large warts on his 
chin, renewed the fiisliion of long beards ; 
but it did not last long. In mournings 
tlie Romans wore a long beard some- 
times ft)r years. They used scissors, ra- 
zors, tweezers, &c., to remove the beard. 
The pubhc barber shops (tonsinrw)^ where 
the lower classes went, were much re- 
sorted to ; rich people kept a shaver (ton- 
8or) among their slaves. 

Bearn ; before the revolution, a prov- 
ince of France, at Uie foot of the Pyre- 
nees, with the title of a principality ; 
about 42 miles long and 36 broad ; bound- 
ed E. by Bigorre, N. by Armagnac, Tur- 
san and Chalosse, W. by Dax, a part of 
Soule, and the Lower Navarre, and S. by 
the Pyrenees. It belonged, wiUi Navarre, 
to Henry IV, when he obtained the 
crown. The plain country is very fertile, 
and the mountains are covered with fir- 
trees, while v^athin are mines of copper, 
lead and iron; and the litde hills are 
planted with vines, which yield good 
wine. It is now included in the depart- 
ment of Lower Pyrenees. Pau was the 
capital town. Pop. about 220,000. 

Beatification, in tlie Roman Catholic 
church ; an act bv which ^e pope declares 
a person beatified or blessed after his death. 
It is the fim step to canonization, L e. 
tlic raising one to tlie honor and dignity 
of a saint. No person can be beatified 
*till 50 years afler his or her death. AH 
certificates or attestations of virtues and 
miracles, the necessary qualifications for 
saintship, are examined by the congrega- 
tion of rites. This examination o&n 
continues for several years ; oiler which 
his holiness decrees the beatification. 
The corpse and relics of the fumre saint 
are fix>m thenceforth exposed to the ven- 
eration of all ^ood Christiims ; his image 
is crowned with mye, and a particular 
office is set apart for him ; but his body 
and relics are not carried in procession. 
Indulgences, likewise, and remiasious of 



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BEATIFICATION— BEATTIE. 



fiins, aie granted on the day of his beatiii- 
cadon ; which, though not so pompous as 
that of canonization, is, however, veiy 
splendid. Beatification difTeis finom can- 
onization in this, that the pope does not 
act as a judge in determining the state 
of the beatified, but only grants a privi- 
lege to certain persons to honor him by a 
particular religious worship, without in- 
curring the penalty of superstitious wor- 
shippers ; but, in canonization, the pope 
speaks as a judge, and determines, ex ca- 
thedra, upon the state of the canonized. 
Beatification was introduced when it was 
thought proper to delay the canonization 
of saints, for the greater assurance of tlie 
truth of the steps taken in the procedure. 
Some particular orders of monks have 
assumed to tliemselves the power of be- 
atification. Thus Octavia Melchiorica " 
was beatified by the Dominicans. (See 
Canomzaiion.) 

Beaton, David, archbishop of St. An- 
drews, and cardinal, was bom in 1494. 
Pope Paul III raised him to the rank of 
cardinal in December, 1538 ; and, being 
employed by James V in negotiating his 
marriage at the court of France, he was 
there consecrated bishop of Mirepoix. 
Soon after his instalment as archbishop, 
he promoted a furious persecution of the 
refonners hi Scotland; but tlie king's 
death put a stop, for a time, to his arbi- 
trary proceedings, he being then excluded 
from afiliirs of government, and confined. 
He i-aised, however, so strong a party, 
that, upon the coronation of the young 
queen Mary, he was, admitted into the 
council, made chancellor, and received a 
commission as legate a latere fiom Rome. 
He now began to renew his persecution 
of heretics, and, among the rest, of the 
famous Protestant preacher George Wis- 
hait, whose sufferings at the stake he 
viewed from his window, witli apparent 
exultation. B. was murdered in his 
chamber, May 29, 1530. He united with 
great talents equally great vices, and left 
several children, the fruit of open concu- 
binage. 

Beattie, James, LL. D., a pleasing 
poet and miscellaneous writer, was l)orn 
at Lawrencekirk, in the county of Kin- 
cardine, in 1735. He lost his fiither when 
he was only seven years of age, but was 
placed early at the only school liis birth- 
place afforded, whence he was removed 
to Marischal college, Aberdeen. He there 
studied Greek, under the principal, Thom- 
as Blackwell, and made a genersd profi- 
ciency in every branch of education, 
except mathematics. In 1753, he ob- 



tained the depee of A. M., and accepted 
the ofiUce or school-master and parish- 
cleik to the parish of Fordoun, iooking 
forward to the chnrch of Scotland as hi» 
principal prospect, for which reason he 
still attended, during winter, the divinity 
lecnires at Marischal college. In June, 
1758, these views were somewhat chang- 
ed, by the attainment of the situation of 
one of the masters of the grammar- 
school of Aberdeen. In 1761, he pub- 
lished a volume of poems, which were 
received favorably, but which he subse- 

Suently thouffht very Uttle ofj and en- 
eavored to buy up. They nevertheless 
procured him some powerful fi-iends, 
whose patronage obtained him the ap- 
pohitment of professor of moral philoso- 
])hy and logic at Marischal college. In 
1765, he published a poem, the Judg- 
ment of Paris, (4to.), wluch proved a fkn- 
ure, altiiough it was afterwards added to 
a new edition of his poems, in 1766. The 
work which procured him the greatest 
fame was his Essay on Trutii, which 
first appeared in 1770. It was so popular, 
that, in four years, five large editions were 
sold; and it was translated into several 
foreign' languages. Among other marks 
of respect, the university of Oxford con- 
feiTed on the author the de^e of LL. D. ; 
and George III honored him, on his visit 
to London, with a private conference and 
a pension. He was also solicited to enter 
the church of England by flattering pre- 
posals fix)m the archbishop of York and 
the bishop of London ; which j)roposuIs 
he declined, lest his opponents should 
attribute the change to self-interest. The 
popularity of this celebrated essay, which 
was \vritten in opposition to the prevalent 
scepticism of Hume and othei-s, was prin- 
cipally owing to its easiness of stylo, and 
to a mode of ti'eating tlie subject, calcu- 
lated for the meridian of'slifrht scholar- 
ship and medium intellect, 'this is oflen 
a great source of immediate celebritj'; 
but, thus produced, it is usually as transi- 
tory as spontaneous, which has proved 
the case in tiie present instance. A few 
months after the appearance of the Essay 
on Truth, B. pubhshcd the first book of 
the Minstrel (4to.), and, in 1774, tiie sec- 
ond ;. which pleasing poem is, indisputa- 
bly, the wore by which he will be the 
longest remembered. To a splenditl edi- 
tion of his Essay on Truth, published, by 
subscription, in 1776, he {\(dded some mis- 
cellaneous dissertations on Poetry and 
Music, Laughter and Ludicrous Compo- 
sition, &c. In 1783, he published Dis- 
sertations, Moral and Critical (4to.) ; and 



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BEATTIE-BEAUHAKNAIS,. 



91 



in 1786, appeared his Evidences of the 
Christian Keliffion (2 vola^ 12mo.) In 
1790, he published the first volume of his 
Elements of Moral Science, the second 
of vehich followed in 1793;. and to the 
latter was appended a dissertation against 
the slave-trade. His last publication was 
an Account of the Lifb, Character and 
Writings of his eldest son, James Henry 
Beattie, an amiable and promising young 
man, who died at the age of 23, in 1790. 
This great affliction was followed, in 
1796, by the equally premature death of 
his youngest and only surviving son, in 
his 18th year ; which losses, added to the 
melancholy loss of reason by his wife, 
wholly subdued his constitution; and, 
aficr two paralytic strokes, he died at 
Aberdeen, in August, 1803. B. was a 
religious and an amiable man, but consti- 
tutionally more calculated for a poet than 
a philosopher, and for a pleader than a 
controversialist He was, however, a re- 
spectable, if not a strong writer, and 
might have been thought more of at 

£ resent, had he been thought less of 
eretofore. 

Beaucaire ; a small, well-built, com* 
merdal city of France, with 8000 inhab- 
itants (Ion. 4° 43^ E. ; lat. 43° 48^ N.), in 
Lower Languedoc, now in the depart- 
ment of the Gard, on the right bank of 
the Rhone, opposite Taiascon, with which 
it communicates by a bridge of boats. It 
has a commodious harbor for vessels 
which ascend the river from the Mediter- 
ranean, 7 leagues distant, and is famous 
for its great foir (founded in 1217, by 
Raymond II, count of Toulouse], held 
yearly, from the 22d Jul^, during 10 days. 
In former times, this fou* was fm^uented 
by merchants and manu&cturers from 
most countries of Europe, the Levant, 
and even from Persia and Armenia, so 
that many thousand booths were erected 
for foreigners in the adioining valley. 
Before 1632, the fiiir of B. was exempt 
from all taxes, and the annual sale 
. amounted to several miUion dollars. 
Since that time, B. has gradualljr declined, 
and its trade, the articles of which are tlie 
productions of the vicinity, was valued, 
m 1816, at 23,000,000 fiancs. 

Beaufort; a seaport and post-town 
in a district of the same name, in South 
Carolina, on Port Royal island, at the 
mouth of the Coosawbatchie ; 60 miles 
N. £. Savannah, 72 8. W. Charleston : 
km. 80° 33^ W.; laL 33P 31' N. ; popula- 
ikm about 1000. It is a veiy pleasant 
and healthy town, with tn excellent har- 
bor, though but little commeroe. It con- 



tains 3 churehea and a senunaiy, which 
waa incorporated as a college, endowed 
with funds amounting to 60 or $70,000, 
having a handsome edifice, ai^ a library 
of 700 volmnes, but it has hitherto aa- 
supied only the form of an academy. 

Beaufort, Henry, le^ttmate brother 
of Henry IV, king of England, was made 
bishop of Lincoln, whence he was trans- 
lated to Winchester. He was also nom- 
inated chancellor of the kingdom, and 
sent ambassador to France, m 1426, he 
received a cardinal's hat, and was ap- 
pointed leflate in Germany. In 1431, he 
crowned Henry VI in the great churdi 
of Paris. He died at Winchester, 1447. 
He was a haughty, turbulent prelate, and 
Shakspeare is considered as giving a tnie 
portrait of him, when he aesciK)e8 his 
fast scene* 

Beauharnais, Alexander, viscounty 
bom in 1760, in Martinioue ; served with 
distinction, as major, in the French forces 
under Rochamb^u, which aided the U. 
States in their revolutionary war; married 
Josephine Tascher de la Pagerie, who 
was afterwards the wifo of Napoleon. 
At the breaking out of the French revo- 
lution, he was chosen a member of the 
national assembly, of which he was, for 
some time, president, and which he open- 
edy ailer the king^ dcportorB, mritfa the 
following words: — MestieurSy U roi est 
parH cette nuU : patsona h Vordre du jour, 
in 1792, he was general of the army of 
the Rhine, and, in 1793, was appointed 
minister of war. In consequence of the 
decree removing men of noble birth from 
the army, he retired to his country-seat. 
He was falsely accused of having pro- 
ipoted the surrender of Mentz, and wo» 
sentenced to death, July 23, 1794, when 
34 years old. (For information respecting 
his son Eugene, viceroy of Itaiy, see 
Ikigene ; ^eqpecting his daughter Hon 
tense, see Louu BonaparU ; and respecfe- 
in^ his elder brother, Fran^^is Beauhar- 
nais, see the next wticle.) 

Beauharhais, Frangois, marquis dej 
bora at La Rochelle, Aug. 12, 1756 ; voted 
with the right side in the national assem- 
blV. He violently opposed the motion 
of his younger brother, the viscount Al- 
exander, to take from the king the chief 
command of the army, and would not 
listen to any of ihe amendments pro- 
posed, saying, R n'y a pomt ^amendemad 
avu PhKnmeur. He yna called, in cqii8&- 
quence of this, le fid BeaukarnaU »an$ 
amendement In 1792, with the count 
d'Hervilly, the baron de 'Viomenil and 
others, 1^ formed the {voject of a new 



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BEAUHABNAIS— BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER. 



flwht of the royal fiunily ; but the airest 
ofnis corapanioD, the biut>n Chambon, 
prevented tLe execution of the plan. He 
was appointed major-general in the army 
of the prince of Cond^, and wrote, in 
1792, to the president of the national 
assembly, protesting against their unlaw- 
ful treatment of the king, and offering to 
appear himself among his defenders. 
When Bonaparte became first consul, the 
marquis sent him a letter, in which he 
exhorted him, by the glory which he 
would gain by such a course, to restoro 
the sceptre to the house of Bourbon. 
The empress Josephine married her 
niece, the daughter of the marquis, to 
the emperor's aid, Lavalette (q. v.], and 
effected the recall of the marquis. Ap- 
pointed senator, and ambassador to the 
court of Spain, he united, in 1807, with 
tlie prince of the Asturias (now Ferdinand 
Vn), against the prince of peace, and fell 
into disgrace with Napoleon, who ban- 
ished him. After the restoration, he re- 
turned to Paris, where he died, Jan. 10, 
1819. 

Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron 
de ; bom at Paris, 1732 ; son of a watch- 
maker, who destined him for his trade. 
He early gave striking proofs of his me- 
chanical and also of nis musical talents. 
He was ufl.t;rwBrds tbo- toachpr on .the 
harp of the daughters of Louis XV, and 
was admitted into theur society. By a 
rich marriage, he laid the foundation of 
bis immense wealth. He now aspired to 
literary reputation. His Eugenie appear- 
ed in 1767 ; Lea deux Mda in 1770. The 
first still holds its place on the stage. He 
showed all his talent in his lawsuit against 
Goesman and La Blache, when he wrote 
against the former (who belonged to the 
pcaiamtnt Maupeou, so called, which was 
engaged in a dispute with the ministnr) 
his celebrated Memoires (Paris, 1774), 
which entertained all France. Had he 
remained more quiet, he probably would 
have gained his process. The fame of 
his Memoires alarmed even Voltaire, who 
was jealous of every kind of glory. The 
Barber of Seville and the Marriage of 
Figaro have given him a permanent rep- 
utation. Shortly before the revolution, 
he was involved hi the process agednst 
the banker Kommann. In 1792, he 
wrote La Mbrt coupabUj but never re- 
gained his former mme. He was once 
more in his true element in his memoir 
Me8 tix ipoques. He relates, in that 
work, the dangers to which he was ex- 
posed, in a revolution, where a celebrated 
Dame, talent and riches, were sufficient 



causes of proscription. He still poaseaih 
ed, at the age of more than sixty,! all the 
vigor of his youtk and had lost nothing 
but his gayety. Hjs contract to supply 
the U. States with military stores, donng 
their revolutionary war, had increased his 
fortune, of which he always made a noble 
use ; but he lost about a million livres by 
his famous edition of the works of Vol- 
taire, the very imperfect execution of 
which was not answerable to the im- 
mense cost He lost still more, at the end 
of 1792, by his attempt to provide the 
French army with 60,000 muskets. Dis- 
contented with the present, despairing of 
the future, wearied with struggling against 
the revolution and his creditora for the 
ruins of his wealth, he died, at the age of 
69 years, without any particular disease, 
in Slay, 1799. His biography appeared 
in 1802; and, in 1809, an edition of. his 
works, in 7 vols. — B. was a sin^Iar in- 
stance of versatility of talent, being at 
once an artist, politician, projector, mer- 
chant and dramatist He was passion- 
ately attached to celebrity. IDs Marriage 
of Figaro excited one of those extraor- 
dinary sensations, for which Paris has 
always been remariiable. The English 
modifications and versions of this comedy 
convey but a slight notion of the mis- 
chievous subtlety and deep spirit of in- 
trigue in the orieiniiJ. B. left to his heirs 
a claim against 3ie U. States of a million 
of francs for supplies furnished during the 
war, which has been repeatedly presented 
to conn-ess, but always rejected on the 
ground that B. acted only as the agent of 
me French government, from whom he 
received funds to that amount 

Beaumont, Francis, and Fletcher, 
John ; two dramatic writers. The former 
was born in 1585, studied at Oxford, and 
died in 1616 ; the latter was bom at Lon- 
don in 1576, and died there, in 1625, of 
the plague. Animated by the same in- 
clination, they both devoted themselves 
to poetry. Their plays, about 50, ap- 
peared under their joint names (London, 
1679, and lately, 1812, in 14 vols.], and it 
is impossible now to determine their re- 
spective shares in these productions. 
According to the testimony of some of 
their contemporaries, Fletcher was the 
inventing genius, while Beaumont, thoueh 
the younger, was more distinguished for 
maturity and correctness of judgment 
Shakspeare was their model, and, like 
him, they intermix pathetic and low 
comic scenes ; but their attempts to sur- 
pass their model sometimes lead them 
mto extravagances. The desir^ also, of 



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BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER-BEAVEB. 



fa 



plesaiDff the public at times induces them 
to deviate m>m a correct standard of 
aiste. They succeed best in comic scenes. 
Their contemporaries preferred them 
even to Shakspeare, ammiing that the 
English drama reached its perfection in 
them. Impartial posterity has reversed 
this decision, and adjudged the palm to 
Shakspeare. They are said to have fire- 
quented taverns and alehouses, to study 
the human character, and to have been 
arrested, while disputing in such a place 
respecting the conclusion of a play. One 
wished to have the king in the piece 
assassinated, the other opposed it; and, 
being overheard, they were apprehended 
on suspicion of conspiring the death of 
their sovereign. 

Beaumont, madame Leprince de ; bom 
at Rouen, 1711 ; died at Annecy, in Sa- 
voy, 1780 ; lived partly in France, partly 
in England, where she devoted her tal- 
ents to the instruction of youth. A sim- 
ple and easy style, a pleasmg moral, well 
chosen historical passages, and a happy 
imagination, render her writings afireea- 
ble, although much is too artmcial, and 
the theological views are no longer of 
value. She has written a great many 
romances and works for children. Her 
Magazin des Enfant was formerly the 
manual of all govemantes and French 
boarding-schools. 

Beauty. (See PkUosophy.) 
' Beaver (castor, L.) ; a genus of clavic- 
ulated, mammiferous <]|uadrupeds, of the 
order ^lires, Lu, rodentyXj C, or gnawers. 
— ^Havmg drawn up, with great care, tlie 
natural mstory of this species in another 
work (American Natural History, vol. ii., 
p. 21), we shall avail ourselves of some 
of the most interesting statements, and 
refer the reader thereto for more ample 
details, as well as for the fabulous history 
of the animal — It is only in a state of 
nature that the beaver displays any of 
those singular modes of acting, which 
have so long rendered the species cele- 
brated. These may be summed up in a 
statement of the manner in which they 
secure a depth of water that cannot be 
frozen to the bottom, and their mode of 
constructing the huts in which they pass 
tlie winter. They are not particular as to 
the site which they select for the establish- 
ment of then- dwellings, but if it is in a 
lake or pond, where a dam is not re- 

Suired, they are careful to build where 
le water is sufficiently deep. In stand- 
ing waters, however, mey have not the 
advantage afforded by a current for the 
transportation of their supplies of wood, 



which, when they build on a running 
stream, is always cut higher up than the 
place of their residence, and floated down. 
The materials used for the construction 
of their dams are the trunks and branches 
of small birch, mulberry, willow and pop- 
lar trees, &c. They begin to cut down 
their timber for building early in the 
summer, but their edifices are not com- 
menced until about the middle or latter 
part of August, and are not completed 
until the beginning of the cold season. 
The strength of 2ieir teeth, and their 
persevertmce in this work, may be fiiirly 
estimated by the size of the trees they 
cut down. Doctor Best informs us, that 
he has seen a mulberry tree, eight inches 
in diameter, which had been gnawed 
down by the beaver. We were shown, 
while on the banks of the Little Miami 
river, several stumps of trees, which had 
evidently been felled by these animals, 
of at least five or six inches in diameter. 
The trees are cut in such a vniy as to fall 
into the water, and then floated towards 
the site of the dam or dwellings. Small 
shrubs, &C., cut at a distance, they drag 
with their teeth to the stream, and then 
launch and tow them to the place of de- 
posit At a short distance above a beaver 
dam, the number of trees which have 
been cut down appears truly siurprising, 
and the regularity of the stumps might 
lead persons, unacqumnted with the habits 
of the animal, to believe that the clearing 
was tlie result of human industry. — The 
figure of the dam varies according to cur- 
cumstauces. Should the current oe very 
gentle, tlie dam is carried nearly straight 
across ; but when the stream is swift, it 
is uniformly made with a considerable 
curve, having the convex part opposed to 
the current Along with the tiiiuks and 
branches of trees 3iey mtenniiigle mud 
and stones, to give greater security ; and, 
when dams have been long undisturbed 
and frequently repaired, they acquue 
great solidity, and their power of resist- 
ing the pressure of water, ice, &c., is 
greatly increased by the willow and birch 
occasionally taking root, and eventually 
growing up into somediing like a regular 
hedge. The materials used in consmict- 
ing the dams are secured solely by the 
resting of the branches, &c. against the 
bottom, and the subsequent accumulation 
of mud and stones by the force of the 
stream, or by the industry of the beavers. 
— ^The dwellings of the beavers are fonn- 
ed of tlie same materials as their dams, 
are very rude, and adapted in size to the 
number of theur inhabitants : seldom more 



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BEAV; 



esUmxsgaria. 



dnn four old, or six or ^ht youn^ones, 
are fi>and in one of the knlges, Siough 
double that number have been eometimea 
seen. In building their houses, they place 
most of the wocnd crosswise, and nearly 
horizontally, observing no other order than 
that of leaving a cavity in the middle. 
Branches projecting inWards are cut off 
with their teeth, and thrown among the 
rest The houses are not of sticks, and 
then plastered, but of all the materials 
used in the dams — sticks, mud and stones, 
if the latter can be procured. This com- 
position is employed from the foundation 
to the summit The mud is obtained 
fiom the adjacent banks or bottom of the 
stream or pond near the door of the hut 
The beaver always carries mud or stones 
by holding them between his fore paws 
and throat. Their woric is all pertorm- 
ed at night, and with much expedition. 
When straw or grass is mingled with the 
mud used in building, it is an accident 
owing to the nature of the spot whence 
the mud is obtained. As soon as any 
portion of the materials is placed, they 
turn round, and give it a smart blow with 
ihe tail ' The same sort of blow is struck 
by them on the surface of the water 
whenthey are in the act of divinff. The 
outside of the hut is covered or plastered 
with mud, late in the autumn, and after 
frost has begun to appear. By freezing, 
it soon becomes almost as haid as stone, 
efiectually excluding their peat enemy, 
the wolverene, during the wmter. Their 
habit of walking over the work frequent- 
ly, has led to the absurd idea of their 
using the tail as a trowel. Tlic houses 
are generally from four to six feet thick 
at the apex of the cone : some have been 
found as much as eight feet thick at top. 
The door or entrance is always on tlie 
side farthest from land, and is near the 
fbundation, or a considerable depth under 
water : this is the only opening into the 
hut The large houses are sometimes 
found to have projections of the main 
building thrown out, for the better sup- 
port of the roo^ and this circumstance 
has led to all the stories of the different 
apartments in beaver huts. These larger 
edifices, so far from having several apart- 
ments, are double or treble houses, the 
parts having no communication except by 
water. It is a fact, that the muskrat is 
sometimes found to have taken lodgings 
in the huts of the beaver. The otter, 
also, occasionally intrudes : he, however, 
is a dangerous guest, for, should provis- 
ions grow scarce, it is not uncommon for 
him to devour his host All the beavers 



of a community do not ctMfpento m fiib- 
ricatinff houses for the common use of 
the whole. The oofy afiair in which 
they have « joint interest, and upon which 
they labor in concert, is the dam. Bea- 
vera also make excavations in the adjacent 
banks, at regular distances from each 
other, which have been' called washts. 
These are so enlaraed within, that die 
beaver can raise his bead above water to 
breathe without being seen, and, when 
disturbed at their huts, they immediately 
swim under water to these washes for 
greater security, where they are easily 
taken by the hunters. — ^The food of the 
beaver consists chiefly of the bark of the 
aspen, willow, birch, poplar, and, occa- 
sionally, alder I to the pme it rarely re- 
sorts, unless from severe necessity. They 
provide a stock of wood from the trees 
firat mentioned, during summer, and 
place it in the water, opposite the en- 
trance into their houses. — ^The beaver 
produces from two to five at a litter. It 
IS a cleanly animal, and always performs 
its evacuations in the water, at a distance 
from the hut: hence no accumulation of 
filth is found near their dwellings. — The 
beaver is about two feet in length; its 
body thick and heavy; the hee^ com- 
pressed, and somewhat arched at the 
ttonti the upper part rather narrow ; the 
snout much so. The eyes are placed 
rather high on the head, and the pupils 
are rounded ; the eara are short, elliptical, 
and almost concealed by the fur. The 
skin is covered by two sorts of hair, of 
which one is long, rather stiff, elastic, ahd 
ofa gray color for two thirds of its length 
next the base, and terminated by shining, 
reddish-brown points ; the other is short, 
thick, tnfled and soft, being of different 
shades of silver-gray or light lead color. 
The hair is shortest on the head and feet 
The hind legs are longer than the fore, 
and are completely webbed. The tail is 
10 or 11 inches long, and, except the 
tWrd nearest the body, is covered with 
hexagonal scales. The Uiird next the 
body is covered with hair like that on the 
back. {See Godman's Am. JVcrf. /&/., 
vol. ii, p. 19, et seq.) 

Beccaria, Cesare Bonesan'a, marchese 
di, bom at Milan, 1735, was early excited, 
by Montesquieu's LeUres Persants, to the 
cultivation of his philosophical talents, 
and afterwards favorably known as a phi- 
losophical writer by his memorable worft, 
full of a noble phiknthropy, Dei Delitti c 
deUe Pent (On Crimes ana Punishments^ 
Naples, 17d4, and several others. Witt 
the eloquence of true feeling, and a livdy 



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BECCARIA^-BECKET. 



25 



iimgimticai, he ojypoaea capita} punish* 
ments and the tortUre. This -work led to 
the estabiishment of more settled and 
more eotrect principles of penal law, and 
contributed to excite a general horror 
against inhiunan punishments. B» was a 
true friend, a gpoa aon, a tender husband 
and a real philanthropist He is also 
known, in ItaJy, as the author of a philo- 
sophioal ^ramoMur and theory of style, 
Rieerche vntomo aUa JSTatura dtUo StUo 
(Milan, 1770), and of several good trea- 
tises on stylc^ on rhetorical ornament, &c., 
contained in the journal II Caffe^ edited 
by him, in copjunotion with his friends 
Visconti, Veni and others. A fit of apo- 
plexy put an end to his useful life in No- 
vember, 1793. 

Beccaria, Giovanni Battista; bom, 
1716, at Mondovi ; went to Rome iu 1732, 
where he studied, and afterwards taught 
grammar and rhetoric^ at the same time, 
he a{)pUed himself with success to math- 
ematics. He was appomted professor of 
philosopliy at Palermo, and aner\vards at 
Rome. Charles Emanuel, king of Sar- 
dinia, invited him to Turin, in 1748, to jfiU 
tlie professorabip of natural philosophy at 
the university there. Electricity had, at 
that time, tnrough the experiments of 
Franklin and others, become an object of 
universal jnterest He therefore published 
his IMT Elettrxcigmo naturcde ed artifiziale 
(Turin, 4to). The experiments which 
this work conuuns on atmospherical elec- 
tricity are so numerous and various, tliat 
Priestley affirmed, in his History of Elec- 
tricity, that Beccaria's labors tiu* surpass 
all that had been done, before and ailer 
•liim, on this subject The academies in 
London and Bologna elected him a mem- 
ber. He wrote many other valuable 
works on this subject The most impor- 
tant, DeW EleUncismo eaiifixiele (1772), 
contains all that was then known of elec- 
tricity. Franklin, who esteemed the 
works of B., had them translated into 
English. In 1759, the kmg employed 
him to measure a degree of die meridian 
in Piedmont He begax^ the measure- 
ment in 1760, together with, the abbot 
Canonica, and published the resuk in 
. 1774. The doubts expressed by Cassbii 
of the exactness of this measurement, 
drew from him his LeUert d'un BaHiam ad 
vat Parigino^ in which he showed the in- 
fluence of tlie proximity of the Alps on 
the deviation of the pendulum. As his 
thoughts were entirely absorbed by his 
studies, he often neglected the nicer rules 
of good-breeding, without losing, however, 
the general esteem. He died April 27, 1781. 

VOL. II. 3 



Becher, John Joachim ; author of the 
first theory 4>f chemistry ; bom at Spire, in 
1635. He finished his restless life at Lon- 
don, in 1685, after having resided in many 
parts of Germany; He had many ene- 
mies, and has been accused, not entirely 
vnthout justice, of charlataniy ; yet his in- 
fluence' on the science of chemistry gives 
him still a claim to remembrance. He 
brought it into a nearer connexion vriih 
physics, and sought for the causes of all 
the phenomena of the inorganic universe 
in these two departments of science. 
This is the object of his principal work, 
Physka aubttrranea. At the same time, 
he began to form a theory of chemistry ; 
and conceived the idea of a primitive acid, 
of which all the others Were only modifi- 
cations. He also made researches into 
the process of combustion. He mam- 
tained tliat every metal consists of a com- 
mon earthy matter, of a common com- 
bustible principle, and of" a peculiar mer- 
curial substance. If we heat a metal so 
tliat it citanges its fonn, we disengage the 
mercurial s\ibstance, and nothing remains 
but tlie metallic calx. This was the first 
genn of the yili logistic theory, wliich was 
further developed by Stahl, and prevaile<l 
until the time of Lavoisier. The numer- 
ous works of B. are, even now, riot >vith- 
out interest. 

Beck, Christian Daniel; one of the 
most active living philologists and histori- 
ans, bom in Leipsic, Jan. 22, 1757. He 
is professor at the university' in that city, 
and has rendered himself famous by a 
great number of excellent works. His 
editions of the classics are in high esteem. 
Between 1787 and 1806 appeared the 4 
volumes of his work. Introduction to a 
Knowledge of the General History of the 
World and of Nations, until the Discov- 
eiy of America. He also translated Gold- 
smith's History of Greece, and Ferguson's 
History of the Roman Republic. Of his 
theological works, we may mention his 
C6mmenlarii hxstond Deerdorum Rdigio- 
nx8 Chriatuaue^ et Fhrmula Luther (Leipsic, 
1800). He has also edited a learned pe- 
riodical work* 

Becket, Thomas, the most celebrated 
Roman CathoUc prelate in the English an- 
nals, was bom in London, 1119. He was 
the son of Gilbert, a London merchant. 
His mother is said to have been a Saracen 
lady, to whose father Gilbert was prisoner, 
in Jerusalem, being taken captive in one 
of the cmsades. The lady is said to have 
fidlen in love with the prisoner, and to 
have followed him to London, where he 
married her. After studying at Oxford 



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96 



BECKET. 



and Pazifl, B. was sent, by the fiivor of 
Theobald, archbishop of Canterbuiy, to 
study civil law at Bononia, in Italy, and, 
on his return, was made archdeacon of 
Canterbury and provost of Beverley. His 
claim to the good opinion of Theofalald was 
founded on nia skill in negotiation shown 
in a matter of the highest importance to 
Enffland— the soliciting &om the pope the 
prohibitoiy letters against the crownmg of 
Eustace, the son of Stephen, by which 
that design was defeated. This service 
not only raised Becket in tlie esteem of 
the archbishop, but in that of king Heniy 
II, and was the foundation of his high 
fortune. In 1158, he was appointed high 
chancellor and preceptor to prince Henry, 
and at this time was a complete courtier, 
conforming, in everv respect, to the hu- 
mor of the king, fie was, in fiict, his 
prime companion, had the some hours 
of eating and goinff to bed, held splendid 
levees, and courted popular applause. In 
1159, he made a campaigii with tlie king 
in Toulouse, having ui his own pay 700 
knifhts and 1200 horsemen; and it is 
said he advised Heiuy to seize tlie person 
of Louis, king of France, sliut up in 
Toulouse witliout an army. This coun- 
sel, however, so indicative of the future 
martyr, being too bold for the lay coun- 
sellors of one of the boldest monarchs of 
the age, was decluied. In the next year, 
he visited Paris, to treat of an alliance be- 
tween the eldest daughter of the kuig of 
France and prince Henry, and returned 
with the young princess to England. He 
had not enjoy^ the chancellorship more 
than four years, when his patron Theo- 
bald died, and king Henry was so &r mis- 
taken as to raise his favorite to die pri- 
macy, on the presumption that he would 
md him in those poUtical views, in respect 
to church power, which all the sovereigns 
of the Norman line embraced, and which, 
in fact, caused a continual struggle, until 
its teiiuination by Henrv VIIL It has 
been asserted, that B. told the king what 
he was to expect from liim ; but, inde- 
pendent of the appointment itself, there 
IS evidence to prove his eagerness to ob- 
tain tlie dignity, and the disgust entertain- 
ed by Henry at the first symptoms of tlie 
real temper of the man whom he had been 
so anxious to promote. B. was consecra- 
ted archbiflhop in 11G2, and immediately 
affected an austerity of character which 
formed a very natural prelude to the part 
which he meant to play. Pope Alexan- 
der III held a general council at Tours, 
in 1163, at which B. attended, and made 
a formal complamt of the infringements 



by the laity on die ri^ifats and inmumitiefl 
of the church. On his return to En^and, 
he be^ to act in the spirit of this repre- 
sentation, and to prosecute several of^the 
nobihty and others, holding church pos- 
sessions, whom he also proceeded to ex- 
communicato Henry, an able and polidc 
monarch, was anxious to recall certain 
privileges of the clergy, which withdrew 
diem mm the jurisdiction of the civil 
courts ; and it was not without a violent 
strug^e, and the mediation of the pope, 
that B. finally acquiesced. The kmg 
soon afler summoned a convocation or 
parliament at Clarendon, to the celebrated 
constitution of which, although the arch- 
bishop swore that he would never assent, 
he at lengtii subscribed it, and, alleging 
something like force for his excuse, by 
way of penance, suspended himself from 
his arcniepiscopal functions until the 

Eope's absolution could arrive. Finding 
imself the object of the king's displeas- 
ure, he soon after attempted to escqie to 
France ; but, being intercepted, Henry, in a 
parliament at Northampton, charged him 
with a violation of his allegiance, and all 
his goods were confiscated. A suit was al- 
so coimnenced against him for money lent 
him diuring his chancellorship, and for the 

Eroceeds of the benefices which he had 
eld vacant while in that capacity. In 
this desperate situation, he, vvith great 
difiBculty and danger, made his escape to 
Flanders, and, proceeding to the pope at 
Sens, humbly resigned his archbishopric, 
which was, however, restored. He then 
took up his abode at the abbey of Pon- 
tigny, in Normandy, whence he issued ex- 
postulatory letters to the king and bishops 
of England, in which he excommunicated 
all violators of the prerogatives of the 
church, and included in the censure the 
principal officers of the crown. Henir 
was so exasperated, that he banished all 
his relations, and obliged the Cistercians 
to send him avva^ from the abbey of Pon- 
tigny; from which he removed, oh the 
recommendation of the king of France, 
to the abbey of Columbe, and spent four 
yean there in exile. After much nego- 
tiation, &sort of reconciliation took place 
in 1170, on the whole to the advantage of 
Becket, who, being restored to his see, 
with all its fonner privileges, behaved, on 
the occasion, with excessive haughtinessL 
Afler a triumphant entry into Canterbury, 
the younff king Henry, crowned duiinc 
the life-time of his fitther, transmitted 
lihn an order to restore the suspended and 
excommunicated prelates, which he re* 
fused to do, on the pretence that the pope 



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BECKET— -BEDE. 



ar 



plone could miit the &var, althou^ the 
kOer had lodged the instniiiMiiti of oen- 
flure in hk handiB. The prelttteB immedi- 
ately appealed to Heniy in Normandy, 
iiiio, in a state of extreme exasperation, 
exclaimed, <* What an unhappy prince am 
I, who have not about me one man of 
spirit enou^ to rid me of a single inso- 
lent prelate, the perpetual trouble of my 
hfer These mAk and too significant 
words induced four attendant barons, 
Reginald Fitz-Urae, William de Tracy, 
Hugh de Morville and Richard Breto, to 
resolve to wipe out the king's reproach. 
Having laid their plans, they forthwith 
proceeded to Canterbury, and, having 
ibrmaliy required the archbishop to re- 
store the suspended prelates, thev return- 
ed in the evening of the same day (Dec. 
29, 1170), and, placin|^ soldiers in the 
court-yard, ru^ed, with their swords 
drawn, into the cathedral, where the 
archbishop was at vespers, and, advan- 
cing towards him, threatened lum with 
death if he still disobeyed the orders of 
Heniy. B., without the least token of 
fear, replied, that he was readv to die for 
the rights of the church ; and magnani- 
mously added, ^ 1 charge you, in the name 
of the Almij^ty, not to hurt any other 
person here, for none of them have been 
concetned in die late transactions." The 
confederates then 8tit>ve to drag him out 
of die church ; but, not beine able to do 
so, on account of his resolute deportment, 
they killed him On the spot with repeated 
wounds, all which he endured witnout a 
groan. — ^The conduct of Heniy, and the 
consequences of this assassination, form b 
part of Endish history wherein the dis- 
cerning student will perceive the subtle 
policy of the court of Rome, which eager- 
ly availed itself of this opportunity to ad- 
vance its general object, with a due 
regard to the power of Henry and his 
strength of character. The perpetrators 
of the deedf on taking a voyaie to Rome, 
were admitted to penance, and allowed to 
expiate their enormity m the Holy Land — 
Thus perished Thomas BeckeC, in his 
59d year, a martyr to the cause which he 
espoused, and a man of unquestionable 
vigor of intellect. He was canonized 
two years after his death, and miracles 
^abounded at his tomb. In the reign of 
Henry HI, his bodv was taken up, and 
placed in a magniaeent shrine, erected 
%y archbiBhop Stephen Langton ; and of 
fb» popularity of the fnlgriniaces to his 
tomb, the Caoterbuiy Tales of Chaucer 
will prove an enduring testimony. 
BBcxMAinr, John, tor almost 45 yean 



professor of philoBophy, econoniy, policy, 
finance and commerce in G6ttingen, was 
bQmatHoyauil799. In 1763, he was ap- 
pointed, on Bto^hing's recommendation, 
professor of the Lutheran gymnasium in 
Sl Petersburg. In 1766, he became pro- 
fessor in G^ttingen, where he lectured 
with great success. B. died in 1811, be- 
ing a member of most of the learned so- 
cieties of the north of Emrope. There 
are a number of text-books, in the differ- 
ent sciences above-mentioned, by him. 
Amon^ his other works is a Historv of 
Inventions, Leipeic, 1780—1805, 5 vols. 

Bed, in fuimery; the fiame of tim- 
ber or planks in which cannon, mortars, 
&c are placed, to give them a steady and 
even position, neoessaiy for aiming. 
Bin OP JusTiCB. (See LU de JiisUct.) 
Beoe, or Beda, an eminent ecclesiastic 
of the eighdi century, usuallv called the 
ventrahU Bede^ was liom in the year 672 
or 673, in the neighborhood of Wear- 
mouth, in the bishopric of Durham. 
From the a^ of 7 to that of 19, he pursued 
his studies m the monastery of St Peter, 
at Wearmouth. Being then ordainea 
deacon, he was employed in the task of 
educating the youth who resorted to the 
monastery fer instruction, and pursued 
his own studies With unremitting ardor. 
In his thirtieth year, he was ordained 
finest ; and, his fame for zeal and erudi- 
tion reaching the eara of pope Sergius, he 
was invited to Rome, bu^ in consequence 
of the death of that pontiff^ never went 
there. It is not even certain that he ever 
lefl Northumberiand, which, of course, 
reduces the incidents of his life to his lit- 
erary pnreuits and domestic occupations, 
as he accepted no benefice, and never 
seems to have interfered in civil transac- 
tions. His church history was published 
in 731. His last literary labor was a trans- 
lation of the Gospel of St John into Sax- 
on, which he completed, with difiicultv, 
on the very day and hour of his death. 
The writings of Bede were numerous 
and important, considering the time in 
which the^ were written, and the sub- 
jects of which they treat, which extended 
to ecclesiastical afrairs, religion and edu- 
cation only. His English Ecclesiastical 
History is the greatest and most popular 
of his works, and has acquired additional 
celebrity by the translation of king Alfred, 
The collections which he made for it 
were the hdbor of many years. Besides 
his own personal investigations, he kept 
up a correqiondence witii the monaste* 
ries throughout the Heptarchy, to obtain 
archives uid records fer his puqiose ; and 



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BEDE— BEDFORD. 



thus nearly all the knowledge possessed 
of the early state of Christianity in bis 
country is due to B.. There have been 
several editions of the oridnail Latin, 
which is easy, although not elegant. The 
latest and best is that of Dr. Smith, Cam- 
bridge, 1722. There is a translation into 
English by Thomas Stapylton, D. D., Ant- 
werp, 1505, l)esides the Saxon version of 
Alfred. B. ^vas also the author of many 
other works, a catalogue of which he sub- 
joined to his history. Several of these 
were jirinted early ; but the first general 
collection of his works was that of Paris, 
1554, 3 vols. fol. Some of his treatises 
have been i)ublished by Mr. Wharton, 
fi*oni MSS. in the library at Lambeth pal- 
ace, London, 4to, 1693. Wlule the num- 
ber and variety of the writings of B. show 
the extent of his erudition, his probity, 
moderation and modesty insured him 
general respect ; and his disinterestedness 
is proved by the fact, that he was never 
any thing but an unbeneficed priest A 
letter of advice, which he wrote, late in 
life, to Egbert, archbishop of York, proves, 
at once, the purity of his morals, tnc lib- 
erality of his sentiments, and the excel- 
lence of his discernment ; his wish being 
to curtail the number of monasteries,' and 
to increase the efficacy and .respectability 
of the secular clergy. Notwithstanding 
the veneration with which he was regard- 
ed, not a single niii^ocle is recorded of 
him ; and, as monks were tlie great mira- 
cle mongers, and his views of monastic 
reform such as we have mentioned, this 
is not surprising. The manner -of the 
death of this virtuous ecclesiastic was 
striking and characteristic. He was dic- 
tating a translation of tlie gospel of St 
John to an amanuensis. The young man 
who wrote for him said, " There is now, 
master, but one sentence wanting ;" upon 
which he bade him write quickly ; and, 
when the scribe said, ** h is now done," 
the dying sage ejaculated, '*It is now 
done," and a few minutes afterwards ex- 
pired, in tlie act of prayer, on the floor of 
his cell, in the 63d year of bis age, in the 
month of May, A. D. 735. 

Beddoes, Thomas; a physician and 
author ; born, 1760, at Shinhal in Shrop- 
sliire ; died 1808. He was educated by 
his grandfather. He made ereat progress 
at school, in classical studies, and dis- 
tinguished himself at Oxfbid by his 
knowledge of ancient and modem lan- 
guages and literature. The great discov- 
eries in physics, chemistry and physiology, 
irresistibly attracted him. He contuiued 
his studies with success in London and 



Edinbui^h. In' his 26tb year, he took 
his doctor's degree, afterwards visited 
Paris, and formed an acquaintance with 
Lavoiaer. On his return, he was appoint- 
ed professor of chemistry at Oxford. 
There he pubtished some excellent chem- 
ical treatises, and Observations on the 
Calculus, Sea-Scurvy, Consumption, Ca- 
tarrh and Fever. But, dazzled by the 
splehdid promises of the French revolu- 
tion, he offended sonde of his former ad- 
mirers, and excited such a clamor against 
him by the pubhcation of his political 
opuiions, that he determined to resign his. 
professorship, and retired to the house of 
his friend Mr. Reynolds^ in Shropshire. 
There he composed his observations on 
the nature of demonstrative evidence, in 
which he endeavors to prove, that mathe- 
matical reasoning proceeds on the evi- 
dence of the senses, and that geometry is 
founded on experiment. He also pub- 
Ushed the History of Isaac Jenkins, wnich 
was intended to impress useful moral 
lessons on the labormg classes in an at- 
tractive manner. Above 40,000 copies of 
this popular work were sold in a short 
time. After he' had married, in 1794, he 
formed the plan of a pneumatic institu- 
tion, for Cluing diseases, particularly con- 
sumption, by means of factitious airs or 
gases. He succeeded, with the assistance 
of the celebrated Wedgewood, in opening 
this institution, in 17S6. He engaged, as 
superintendent of the whole, a young man, 
Humphrey Davy, tlie foundation of whose 
fiiture fkme was laid here. The chief 
purpose of the institution, however, was 
never realized, and B.'s zeal gradually re- 
laxed, e(o that hp relinquished it one year 
before his death, after having published a 
number of valuable works upon the ap- 
pUcation of factitious airs. In the last 
yeai's of his hfe, he acquired the reputa- 
tion of the best medical writer in Great 
Britain, particularly bv his Hvgew, in 3 
vols., a popular work, which contains 
passages of extraordinary eloquence. 
His political pamphlets, mm 1795—87, 
are forgotten. 

Bedford, John, duke of; one of the 
younger sons of Henry IV, king of Eng- 
land ; famous as a statesman and a war- 
rior. Shakspeare, who calls him jnrmce 
John qf Lancaster, introduces him, m his 
plays of Henry IV, as distingiiishing him- 
self by his youthfbl courage in the battle 
of Shrevesburv, in 1403, and fonmng a 
kind of moral contrast to his more dissi- 
peted brother, the prince of Wales. Du- 
ring the reign of Henry V, he participated 
in me fiune acquired by the conquest of 



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France ; but his talents were fully dis- 
played when, after the death of that king, 
he became regent of France, having been 
appointed to this ])ost by Hernr, in his 
will. At Vemeuil, in lixi, he cUsplayed 
h^ military talents ; and the difSiculties, 
^^ich, £rom various causes, he experi- 
enced in endeavoring to maintun pos- 
sesraon of the conquered provinces in 
France, afforded frequent occasion for 
the manifestation of his ability. The 
greatest blemish in his character is his 
cruel execution of the nuud of Orleans, 
in 1431. He survived this event about 
ibur years, and dying, in 1435, at Rouen, 
was buried in the cathedral of that city. 
The duke deserves notice also for his 
patronase of the arts. A curious monu- 
ment of^his taste still exists— the Bedford 
Missal. Mr. Dibdin, in his BibKomamcif 
p. 253, gives an account of it. It was 
made for the duke and duchess, and con* 
tains 59 large, and more than lOOO smedl 
miniature pdntings. In 1786. it was 
purchased, by Mr. Edwards, for 215 guin- 
eas, from the collection of the duchess 
of Portland ; and, a few yean after, 500 
guineas were offered for it In a histOTi- 
cal point of view, it is interestuig on ac- 
count of several portraits of eminent per- 
sons ; some of which have been engraved 
by Vertue, for his portraits to illustrate 
the history of {England. For the anti- 
quarian and the student of the fine arts, 
it is one of the most interesting monu- 
ments of that age. Gougfa, the antiqua- 
rian, published a woik in 8vo., describing 
the Bedford Missal. 

Bedford; a town in England, and 
capital of the county of Bedfbid, to which 
it gives name, situated on the Ouse ; 22 ' 
mfles S. E. of Northampton, 50 N. of 
London ; Ion. 0°.27' W. ; lat. 52° S' N. ; 
pop. 4605. It contains 5 churches, 3 on 
the north and 2 on the south side of the 
river, 3 independent meeting-houses, and 
a free grammar school liberally endowed. 
The principal manufacture is lace. It is 
a place of^ considerable trade, which is 
much assisted by the river, navigable to 
Lynn, and is the (mly maiket<town of 
the county, on the north side of the Ouse. 
The soil about it is fertile, particularly in 
excellent wheat. It sends two repre- 
sentatives to pariiament It has two 
markets weekly. 

Bedford; a borough town, and capi- 
tal of Bedford county, Pennsylvania ; 91 
miles E. hj S. of Pittsburo, 190 W. of 
Philadelphia: population oftlie borough, 
789 ; including the township, 211C, It is 
finely situated on a branch of the Juni- 
3* 



atta, regularlv laid out, and built on an em > 
inence enveloped by mountains. Wiirs 
mountain, on the west side of the town, 
is 1300 feet high, and Dunnihg's moun- 
tain, on the east side, is 1100 feet high. 
A mile and a half south of the town, 
there are mineral springs, which were 
diKovered in 1804, and are much resort- 
ed to, and found useful in cutaneous 
complaints, ulcers, riiernnatisms, chronic 
complaints, &c.^— There are several other 
towns and counties of the same name ui 
the U. States : as, B. in the state of New 
Yoric, Westchester county, population 
nearly 2500 ; B. county m me south of 
VirKinia ; and another in West Tennessee. 

Bedford Levei. ; a large tract of land 
in England, in the counties of Cambridge, 
Norfi>lK, Suffolk, Huntingdon, Northamp- 
ton and Lincoln, formerly full of fens and 
marshes, and, in rainy seasons, for the 
most part under water; but drained, at 
the expense of £400,000, by the noble 
femily of Russell, earls and didi:es of 
Bedford, and othera ; bv which means 
100,000 acres of good land have, been 
brought into use. 

Bedford; New ; a seaport in Massa- 
chusetts. (See AVw Bedford,) 

Bedouins, or Bedoweens (that is, tn- 
habitants of the desert) ; k ^numerous Mo- 
hammede^ race, which d\vells in the 
deserts of Arabia, Egypt and Nortliem 
Africa. It is still doubtml whether they 
belong to the same race with the Arabs, 
or differ from them in their descent, as 
they do in their manner of living. The 
Bedouins live at a djstance from cities 
and villages, in femilies, under sheiks^ or 
in tribes, under emirs. Their dwellings 
are tents, huts, caverns and ruins. With 
their henls and beasts of burden, whioii 
cany their littie properly, they wander in 
quest of fresh water and pasture. They 
are all good horsemen, and are generally 
fond of hunting. Th^ peacetul tribes 
exchange horses (which they raise with 
great care) and fat cattle, fer arms and 
cloth, witn the neighboring nations. 
Other hordes are such open robbers, that 
it is dangerous to travel through their 
country without a guard or a passport, 
wliich the different chiefe sell. They not 
only plunder but murder, even when tiie 
travellers offer no resistance. Notwith- 
standing this bad^arous custom, the Bed- 
ouins hold the rights of hospitality sa- 
cred ; and the most defenceless enemy is 
sure of their protection, if they have once 
allowed him sheker. But the Bedouin 
considers every one his enemy who Is 
not his brotlier, kinsman or ally. Always 



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BEDOUINS— BEE. 



careful of his own safety, he attacks no 
caravan or camp without being sure of 
liis superiority. To superior numbers, and 
a bold resistance, he yields, and saves 
himself by a speedy flight A terror to 
the neigliboring nations, tlie rapacuous 
Bedouin lives in a state of contmual 
watchfubiess; poor, ignorant, wild and 
rude, but free, and proud of his liberty. 
This people is remariiable for lempei-ance 
in regai'U to food, amounting almost to 
abstinence. 

Bee (apis meUificOy L.) ; a species of 
hynicnopterous insect, belonging to the 
family apiaria, — The honey-bee is uni- 
versally celebrated for its singular instincts, 
and highly prized for tlie valuable prod- 
ucts of its industry. A vast number of 
intpresting facts have consequently been 
rullected in relation to the economy of 
the specie^ for the detail of whose history 
a vohime of considerable size would he 
required. We shall therefore be able to 
present nothing more than a sketch of 
tlie most striking generalities^ obtained 
from the admirable works of Huber, Cu- 
vier, &;c., and to these autlientic sources 
must refer the reader desirous of more 
ample information. — ^Three sorts of indi- 
viduals are found to form a community 
of honey-bees ; the female, motlicr, or, as 
slie is commonly called, queen ; the males, 
or drones ; and the working bees, improp- 
erly termed neuters, as tliey are actually 
frmales, tliough, in a peculiar respect, 
imperfect. A hive commonly consists 
of one mother, or queen, from 6 to 800 
males, and fi-oin 15 to 20,000 working 
l)ees. The last mentioned are the small- 
est, have 12 joints to their anienna, and 
6 abdominal rings : the first joint or 
square portion oi the posterior tarsi is 
enlarged at the posterior angle of its base, 
and shaped Uke a pointed auricle, having 
its internal surface covered witli a fine, 
short, close, silky down. They are pro- 
vided with stings. The mandibles are 
spoon-shaped, and not dentated. There is, 
on the outside of the hind lep, a smooth 
hollow, edffed with hairs, called the 6cm- 
ket : die siUty brush of the first joint of 
the posterior tarsi has 7 or 8 transverse 
stricB. The mother, or queen, has the 
same characteristics, but is of larger size, 
especially in the abdomen: she has a 
shorter sucker or trunk, and the mandi- 
bles grooved and velvet-like ^eath the 
tip. The males, or drones, tlifiTer from 
both the preceding by having 13 joints to 
the antennas ; a rounded bead, with larger 
eyes, elongated and united at the summit ; 
smaller and more velvety mandibles, and 



shorter anterior feet, the two firet of 
which are arched. They have no auric- 
ular dilatation nor silky brush on the 
square part of the posterior tarsi, and are 
destitute of stings. The genitals consist 
of two bom<4haped bodies of a reddiab- 
yellow color, with a broad-ended peni& — 
When we examine the internal structure 
of this insect, we find at the superior base 
of the trunk or sucker, below the Idbrumy 
a considerable aperture, shut by a small, 
triangular piece, which has been callc,d 
tongue, epipharynx, &c. Tins opening 
receives the food, which is thence con- 
veyed by a delicate jxsophagus, through 
tlie corselet, to the anterior stomach, 
which contains the honey; tlie second 
stomach receives the pollen of fioweisy 
and has, on its internal surface, a number 
of transvei-se apd annular wrinkles. The 
abdominal cavity of the oueen and work- 
ing bees also contains the little bag of 
poison communicating with the sting. In 
the queen, there are, moreover, two large 
ovaries, consisting of a great number of 
small cavities, each containing 16 or 17 
eggs. These ovaries open near the anus, 
previous to which they dilate into pouch- 
es, where the egf^ is delayed to receive a 
viscous coating fix>m an adjacent gland. 
The inferior half^cii-cles, except the first 
and last, on the abdomens of working 
bees, have each on their inner surface 
two cavities, where the wax is formed in 
layers, and comes out firom between the 
abdominal ripgs. Below these cavities 
is a particular membrane, fi)nned of a 
very small, hexagonall^-meshed network, 
which is connected whh the membrane 
lininff the walls of -the abdominal cavity. 
— ^Wax, of which the combs are formed, 
is elaborated fxoia honey. The pollen 
collected from flowers, mixed with a 
small quantity of wax, constitutes tlie 
food of^ bees and tlieir larves ; and this 
food appears to be modified in its com« 
position, according to the sort of indi- 
viduals it is intended for. Another sub- 
stance collected by bees firom the opening 
buds of poplar and other trees, and used 
by them for lining tlieir hives, stopping 
holes, &C., is cdled propolis, — Besides 
the distinctions remarked in the female, 
male and working bees, Huber regards 
the working bees as of two sorts ; one 
devoted to the collection of provisions, 
and all the materials necessaiy to the 
comb, as well as to its construction ; these 
he cidls driirts. The others are more 
delicate, small and feeble, and employed 
exclusively within tlie hive, in feecung 
and taking care of the young<— The re- 



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BEE— BEECH. 



31 



semblance existing between the woiking 
and female bees firet led to the idea that 
they were of the same sex, and the in- 
genious experiments and accurate obser- 
Tations olf Huber enabled hiin to estab- 
lish this fact in the most satisfactory 
manner. Having deprived a hive of the 
raotlier or queen, he found that the work- 
lug bees immediately begaiv to prepare a 
larve of their own class to occupy tliis 
important station. This was effected by 
enJarginff the cell to tlie dimensions of a 
niatemal or royal chamber, and feeding 
the selected individual on food exclu- 
sively destined for the nourishment of 
tlie royal larves. If merely fed upon tliis 
food, without an accompanyinff enlarge- 
ment of the cell, the maternal faculties 
were but imperfectly acquired, as the 
female did not attain the proper size, and 
was incapable of laying any^eggs but 
those which produced males.— The cells 
of the comb compose two opposite ranges 
of horizontal hexagons, with pyramidal 
l)ases : each hiyer of the comb is perpen- 
dicular, and attached by the summit, and 
separated from the rest by a space suffi- 
cient for the bees to pass in and out. 
The comb is always built from above 
downward. The cells, witli tlie excep- 
tion of those for the female larve and 
nymph, are nearly of equal size, some 
containing the urogeny, and others the 
honey and pollen of flowers. Some 
honey cells are left open, others are 
closed for future use by a flat or sligfitly 
convex covering of wax. TJie matenial 
or regal cells vary from 2 to 40 hi num- 
ber, are greatly superior in size, nearly 
cylindrical, and soipe\vhat larger at the 
extremity. They have small cavities on 
the outside, and commonly depend from 
the comb like stalactites, so that the lai-ve 
has its head downwards. — ^Tbe season of 
fecundation occurs about tlie begiiming 
of summer, and the meeting between the 
females and males takes place higli m 
the air, whence the female returns with 
the sexual parts of the male attached to 
the extremity of the abdomen. This one 
fecundation is tiiou^t to be sumcient to 
vivify the eggs which the motfier may 
lay in the course of two years. The lay- 
ing begins immediately afterwards, and 
continues until autunm, Reaumur states 
that the female, in the spring, lays as 
many as 12,000 eggs m the lapse of 24 
days. Each sort of egg is deposited in 
the appropriate cell, unless a sufficient 
number of^ cells have not been prepared : 
in this case, she places several eggs in 
one, and leaves to the woriring bees the 



task of subsequently arranging them. 
The eggs laid at the commencement of 
fine weather all belong to the working 
sort, and hatch at the eiul of 4 days. The 
larves are regularly fed by the workers 
for 6 or 7 days, when they are enclosed 
i^i their cell, spm a cocoon, and become 
nymphs, and in about 12 days acquire 
their perfect state. The cells are then 
immediately fitted up for the reception 
of new eggs. The eggs for producing 
males are laid two months later, and 
those for the females immediately after- 
wards. This succession of generations 
forms so many particular communities, 
which, when increased beyond a certain 
degree, leave the parent hive to found a 
new colony elsewhere. Three or four 
swarms sometimes leave a hive in a sea- 
son. A good swarm is said to weigh at 
least six or eight pounds. The life of the 
bee, like that of all tlie other insects of 
its class, does not continue long after the 
great business of providing for the con- 
tinuance of the species is completed. — 
The history of tlie bee, as already stated, 
is too extensive to aUow us . to attempt 
more than this brief sketch. But to such 
as have leisure, and are desirous of in- 
structive amusement, we know of no 
study which promises a greater decree 
of satisfaction ; and there is no book oet- 
ter adapted for this purpose, than the 
excellent treatise of Huber, which may 
almost be regarded as the n« jdua vUra of 
its. kind. A beautiful httle poem, called 
The BeeSy written by the Florentine Gi- 
ovanni Ruccllai, appeared in 1539. 

Beech. The beech (fagus aylvatica)^ 
one of our handsomest forest-trees, is 
known by its waved and somewhat oval 
leaves, and its triangular fiiiit, consisting 
of three cells, and enclosed, by pairs, in a 
husk, which is covered vritn simple 
prickles. — Beech woods are very com- 
mon in almost all the New England and 
Middle States, in tlie states of Maine, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, &c. They are very 
luxuriant in their growtli. These woods, 
it has been observed, are peculiarly dry, 
and pleasant to walk in, and, under tlieir 
shaik, afford to the botanist many inter- 
esting plants, such as the bird's nest 
[mofnoiropa)y winter-green (mrola\ and 
some rare orehidea. Beecn-trees bear 
lopping well, and may be trained so as to 
forin loflj^ hedges, which are valuable for 
shelter, since the leaves, though faded, 
remam through the winter, and the 
twisted branches mfiy be formed into a 
veiy strong fence. The wood is hard 
and brittle, and, if exposed to the air, ia 



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BEECH— Bras. 



fiable Boon to decay. It is, howefver, pe- 
culiarly usefbl to cabinet-^makeiB and 
ti2ttnerB : caipentera' planee, &c. are made 
of it When split into diin layers, it is 
used to make scabbards for swords. 
Chaixs, bedsteads and other furniture are 
occasionally formed of beech. Tlie fruit 
of this tree, which has the name of beech- 
fiuut^ and falls in September, is Tery pal- 
ataMB, but, if eaten b great quantity, 
it occaaons giddiness and headaches; 
when, however, it is dried and powdered, 
it ma^ be made into a wholesome bread. 
The mhabitants of Scio, one of the Ionian 
islands, were once enabled to endure a 
memorable siege by the beech-mast 
which their island supplied. This fruit 
has occasionally beeii roasted, and used 
as a substitute for coffee. Wlien sub- 
jected to pressure, it yields a sweet and 
palatable oil, which is equal in quality to 
the best olive-oil, and has the advantage 
of continuing longer tlian that without 
becoming rancid. Beech-oil is manufac- 
tured in several parts of France, and is 
used by the lower classes of Silesia in- 
stead of butter. The cakes wliicli remain 
after the oil is extracted are a wholesome 
food, and may be also advantageously 
employed for the fattening of swane, 
poultry and oxeu. In some. countries, 
the leaves of the beech-tree are collected 
in the autunm, before they have been 
injured by the frost, and are used instead 
of feathers, for beds ; and mattresses 
formed of them are said to be preferable 
to those either of straw or chan. 

Beef-'Eaters (a corruption from the 
Fi^ench buffetiers, firom iuj^^^ sideboard) 
are yeomen of the guard of the king or 
Great Britain. They are stationed by the 
sideboard at ^at royal dinners. There 
are now 100 m service and 70 supernu- 
meraries. They are dressed after the 
fesliion of the time of Henry VIII. 

Bekiapoor (Bija-pur, a corruption of 
V^cyorpwri^ the city of victory, tiie orig- 
inal name of tlie capital) ; a large prov- 
ince of Deccan, between the Idtli and 
18tli degrees of N. lat ; bounded N. and 
E. by Aurungabad and Beder, 9* by 
North Canara and the river Toonibudra, 
and W. by the sea ; about 350 miles long, 
and 200 broad. It is watered by tlie 
Crishna, Toombudra, Beemah and 6at- 
purba; and is traversed by tlie Ghaut 
mountains. The soil is generally fertile, 
and provisions plmitiful. The chief cities 
are Beejapoor, JBoonah (the capital of tlie 
Malirattas), St. Kuttany and Nubely. 
Four fifths of the country are subject to 
the Mahrattas, the rest to the Nizam. 



The population is esdmated at 7,000^000$ 
one twentieth Mohammedans, ^ reel 
Hindooft The province is divided hito 
15 territorial diviaona In the soutfaem 
part of ConCan, one of these divisions^ 
Goa ( Gowahi or, more prop^!jly, Goveaf\ 
the camtal of the Portuguese settlements 
in the East, is situated. (See Goa.) The 
productions •f B. are. in general, similar 
to those of tlie rest or the Deccan. One 
part— the neighborhood of the Beemah — 
IS celebrated for its breed of horses, and 
supplies the best cavalry in the Mahratta 
arniies. 

Begapoor; the former capital of the 
above province. (See B^a-jnar,) 

Beek, David, a portralt'-painter of con- 
siderable merit, was bom in 1€21, at Am- 
heim, in Gruelderland ; became a pupil of 
Vandyck ; resided, for some time, at the 
court of Sweden, and died in 1656. It is 
related of him, that, on a journey through 
Gemiany, he fell sick, and became, to 
appearoitce, dead ; when one of his ser- 
vants pouring a glass of wine into his 
throat, to amuse his companions, B. 
opened his eyes, and, after a while, re- 
covered his health. 

Beelzebub fin Hebrew, (he god of 
flies) ; an idol or the Moabltes or Syrians. 
This tenn is applied, in the Scriptures, to 
the chief of the evil spirits. We must 
remember what a terrible torment insects 
often are in the East, in order to conceive 
how this name came to be given to one 
of the sreatest of the imaginary, spirits of 
evil. We find that ahnost all nations, 
who believe in evil spirits, represent the^ 
as the rulers of disgustuig, tormenting or 
poisonous animals — ^flies, rats, mice, rep- 
tiles, &c. The Greeks worshipped sev- 
eral of their chief deities under tne char- 
acter of protectors against these animals ; 
for instance, Apollo Z/ifydev^, the destroyer 
of rats. Every one knows, that Christ 
was charged by the Jews with driving 
out demons by the power of Beelzebub. 
(MaU, xii. 24.) 

Beer. (See Me and Brewing.) We 
have evidence of the use of this hquor for 
more than 2000 years. The Grecian poet 
and satirist Arehiiochus, who lived about 
700 B. C, and the Grecian tragedians 
iEschylus and Sophocles, who Uved more 
than 4p0 B. C, call it wvne qf barky, Dio« 
dorus of Sicily, who lived about the time 
of Julius Ctesar, about 50 B. C, mentions 
beer in liis History (lib. i. chap. 20). Pliny 
also, about tlie middle of the first century 
after Christ, speaks of this beverage m 
several places of his Natural History. He 
says that it is prepared in difierent ways, . 



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BEEIU-BEET. 



and that there it a species more intoxi- 
cating than wine. He says, further, that, 
in Spain, it is called edia and ceria ; but, 
in Gaul and in other proyinces of the 
Roman empire, c^reviaia ; that it was in 
general use among the ancient Ctermans, 
who also called it cerevisia^ (from Cerea^ 
the ffoddess of grainy, and visy power.) 
The Egyptians, as the first promoters of 
agriculture, are said to have invented beer, 
and to have prepared a kind, in later times, 
at Pelusium, which was called by tlie 
name of that city, and was much cele- 
brated. Beer was afterwards unknown 
in E^ypt, until the French army intro- 
duced it anew, since which it is said that 
l)e€r is still brewed there. We are igno- 
rant how far the beer of the ancients 
resembled the modem artiele. The word 
beer may most naturally be derived firom 
bibere, to drink. 

Beer, Micliael, sometimes called Mi- 
chael Berr^ a learned Jew in Paris, bom at 
Nancy, in 1784, was the first of his reU- 
gion who pursued the profession of an 
advocate in France. His success in this 
career was brilliant; but he Soon gave 
hunself up exclusively to literature, and 
received the honor, never before confer- 
red on a Jew, of beuiff adfiiitted into the 
learned academies of France. He was 
elected a member of the royal society of 
antiquaries, of the philotechnic society, 
of the aciidemies of Nancy, Strasburg, 
^ Nantes and G6ttingen. Napoleon in- 
vited him, in 1807, to the assembly 'of 
Jews, who were to advise concerning 
the amehoration of the condition of that 
people; and the general sahhedrim for 
France and Italy chose him their secre- 
tary. At the erection of the kingdom of 
WestpheJia, on account of his knowledge 
of the language of the comitry, he receiv- 
ed an appointment in the ministry of the 
interior, and, afterwards, vrua appointed to 
a corresponding office in the French min- 
istry : he also delivered a course of lec- 
tures on German literature in the athense- 
um of Paris. Amone his niunerous worics 
is an ISoge de Chanes VtUers. 

BEERuva, Vitus, captain in the Russian 
navy, bom at Horsens, in Jutland, being a 
skilful seaman^ was employed by Peter 
the Great in the navy, which ne had 
newly estabhshed at Cronstadt His tal- 
ents, and the undaunted courage display- 
ed by liim m the naval wars against the 
Swedes, procured him the honor of being 
chosen to command a voyage of discovery 
in tlie sea of Kamtschatka. He set out 
from Petersbm^, Feb: 5, 1725, for Siberia. 
In the year 17S&, he exammed the north- 



ern coasts of Kamtschatka as ftr as lat 
67° 18^ N., and proved that Asia is pot 
united to America. It remained, however, 
to be determined whether the land oppo- 
site to Kamtseiiatka was, in reality, the 
coast of the American continent, or mere- 
ly islands lying between Asia and Amer- 
ica. June 4, 1741, he sailed, with two 
ships, from Ochotsk, and touched the 
north-western coast of America, between 
lat 35° and 69° N. Tempests and sick- 
ness )»revented him from pursuing his 
discoveries: he was cast on a desolate isl- 
and, covered with snow and ice, where 
he grew dangerously sick, and died Dec 
8, 1741. . The straits between Asia and 
America have received the name oTBeer- 
w's gtraits {aHao called JhtianX, and the 
island on which he died that oiBeering^a ' 
island, (See MfiUer's Voyages et IMcow. 
faiUespar Us Rusaes^ Amsteraam, 1766]. 

Beeriivo's Isi.Ain> ^ an iskmd in N. Pa- 
cific ocean, about 90 miles long, and 25 to 
30 wide; Ion. 163° 12^ to 164° 12^^; lat 
54° 45^ to 56° lO' N. Neither thunder nor 
the aiuora borealis have ever been observ- 
ed here. The island has springs of excel- 
lent water, and beautiful cataracts. No 
animab are found here but ice-foxes, seals, 
sea-bears, sea^^Uons, sea-cows, &c No 
wood grows here, but several kinds of 
plants axe seen. The island is uninhab- 
ited. It was discovered by Vitus Beering 
(q. V.) in 1741. It is sometimes classed 
with the Aleutian chain. 

Beerino's Straits; the narrow sea 
between the north-west coast of N. Amer- 
ica and the north-east coast of Asia; dQ 
miles wide in the narrowest part; Ion. 
168° 15^ to 169° 20^ W.; lat 65^46^ to 65° 
52^ N. There is a remarkable simikrity 
in ^e portions of both continents nortn 
of the strait : both are without wood ; the 
coasts are low, but, &rther firom the sea, 
they rise and form considerable moon- 
tains. The. depth, in the middle of the 
straits, Is fit>m 29 to 30 fathoms ; towards 
the land, the water on the Asiatic side is 
deeper. Cafitam Vancouver, who visited 
these shores in 1740, gave this name to 
the straits in honor of Vitus Beerina 
(q. v.), because he thmks that he anchored 
there. Some have also called these straits 
Cook^s siraUs. 

Beet (beta vulgaris) is a well-known 
valuable succulent root, which is culti- 
vated in our kitchen ^[ardens, and grows 
wild in several countnes of the south of 
{lurope. There are two principal vari- 
eties of beet, one of which is of a deep 
red x>r purple color, and the other is while, 
crossed with bands of red.— Red beet is 



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BEET—BEETHOVEN. 



{nrSnciptlly used at table, in aalad, boiled^ 
and cut into alices, aa a piekle, and some- 
timea stewed with anions ; but, if eaten in 
great quantity, it is saod to be injurious to 
me stomach. The beet niay be taken out 
of the ground fbr use about tbe end of 
August, but it does not attain its full eaze 
and perfection till the month of October. 
When good, it is lai^, and of a deep red 
color, and, when boiled, is tender, sweet 
and palatd^le. It has lately been ascer- 
tained, that beet roots may be substituted 
for malt, if deprived of the greater part of 
their juice by pressure, then dried, and 
treated in the same manner as the grain 
intended for brewing. The beer made 
from the beet has \^en ibund perfectly 
wholesome and paktidale, and httle infe- 
rior to that prepared from malt. — ^From 
the white beet the French, during the 
late wan in Europe, endeavored to pre- 
pare sugar, that article, as British colo- 
nial prGKduce, having been prohibited in 
France. For this purpose, tne roots were 
boiled as soon as possible after they were 
taken from the etuth. When cold, they 
were sliced, and afterwards die juice was 
(Hissed out, and evaporated to the con- 
sistence of sirup. Hie sugar was obtain- 
ed from this sirnp by ciystallization. 110 
pounds weight of me roots yielded 41^ 
pounds ofjulce, which, on further evap- 
oration, af^ed somewhat more dian 4j| 
pounds of brown sugar; and these, by a 
subsequent operation, produced 4 pounds 
of well-grained white powder sugar. The 
reaiduum, together with the sirup or mo- 
hisses which remained, produced, after 
distilladon, 3) .quarts of rectified spirit, 
oomewhat similar to rum. But many 
subsequent experiments, both in Fiance 
and in Prussia, have tended to prove, that 
sugar can never be advantageously man- 
uoictured from the beet upon a large 
■cala^ it yielding, unon a &ir average, 
bare^ an^ugh lo denay the expenses of 
making. The leaves of the beet, when 
raised in richly-manufed soil, have been 
found to yieM a considerable quanti^ of 
pure nitre, proceeding, in all probability, 
from die decomposition of the animal 
matter contamed in the manure ; but this, 
like the sugar of the ropt, will probably 
never pa^ the expenses of cultivation, 
whidi wul bUbo increase rather than 
diminish ; so that it may be considered 
Tahnble, at present, only as an esculent 
ijant The French, however, and other 
Europ^iB natioos, still persevere m man-* 
ufiictunng beet sucar, and make great 
quantities of it, alttiougfa it can never 
Bupenede the use of common sugar, unless 



its production be encouraged by bounties 
ana prphibitions. 

Beethoven, Louis von, bom in Bonn, 
1772, was the son of a man who had been 
a tenor singer in that place (according to 
another account, in FayoUe's Dictionary 
of Musicians, a natural son of Frederic 
William II, king of PrussiaV. His great 
talent fbr music was early cultivated. He 
astonished, in his eighdi year, all who 
heard him, by his execution on die violin, 
on which he was in the habit of perform- 
ing, with sreat diligence, in a little garret. 
In his 11th year, he played Bach's Wohl 
Temperirtes ekmier, and, in his 13th, 
composed some sonatas. These promis- 
ing appearanc^ of great talent induced 
the then reignL^ elector of Cologne to 
send him, in 179!^ in the character of hia 
organist, and at his expense, to Vienna^ 
that he mig^ht accomplish himself there 
in composition, uniAer the mstmction of 
Haydn. Under Haydn and Albrechtsber- 
ger he made rapid progress, and became, 
likewise, a great player on the piano forte, 
astonishing eveij one by his extempore 
performances. In 1809, he was invited 
to the new court of the king of Westpha- 
lia, at which several men of distinction, 
and among them his pUpil in music the 
archduke Kodolph,now bishop of Olmfltz, 
persuaded him to remain, by the promise 
of a yearly salaiy. He composed his 
principal works after 1801. A few years 
Defore his death, a cold, which he had 
caught by composing in the open air^ 

Sroduced a deamess, which became, by 
egrees, very ^reat He lived, afterwards, 
very much retired, in the village of M6d- 
lingen, near Vienna. Instrumental music 
has received from his compositions a new 
character. Beethoven united the humor 
of Haydn with the melancholy of Mozart, 
and the character of his music most 
resembles Cherubini's. His boldness is 
remarkable. Reichhardt, in a comparison 
of Beethoven with Haydn and Mozart, 
says, « The QuarUU of Haydn was the off- 
spring of his amiable and oriffinal charac- 
ter. In naivete and good hamor he is 
unrivalled. The more powerful nature 
and richer imagination or Mozart embra- 
ced a wider fidd, and many of his com- 
positions express the whole lieight and 
depth of his character. He placed more 
value also on exquisite finish. Beethoven, 
early acquainted with Mozart's composi- 
tions, gave a still bolder cast to his ideas.** 
Besides his great sjrmphonies and over- 
tures, his ouintetts, quartetts, and trios 
lor stringea instruments, his numeioua 
sonatas, variations, and other pieces |br 



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BEETHOVEN^BEGLEBBEO. 



Ike iMano fiurte, in wblch he shows the 
great richttesB <xf his imagination, he also 
composed vocal music, but with leas suc- 
cess. To this department belongs his 
opera Leonore (in its altered state, called 
FMio), some masses, an oratorio (Christ 
OB the Mount of Olives)^ and songs for 
the piano forte, among which the compo- 
sidon of Matthison's Mdaidt^ called, by 
the EngluA, RotaUt^ and some sonp of 
€roethe are celebrated. R died March 
9^ 1827, near Vienna, in the greatest 
poverty. 

Bestlx (scorakBut, L.) ; a tribe of co- 
leopterous insects, beiongmg to the &mily 
lamdlicorniua, 0. The beeUe tribe com- 
prises a large nunfiber of insects, among 
which some are very remarkable for pro- 
jections or horns growing from the head 
and corselet The species found in warm 
climates are generally of large size and 
formidable appearance, though by no 
means noxious. The^ all are wingeo, fly- 
ing with much rapidity and force ; when 
on the ground, their movements are slow 
and heavy. The body of the perfect insect 
is onJ, or nearly so, and the mitetmct are 
composed of eight or ten pieces, inserted 
into a cavity under the border of the head. 
From the arrangement of the anUrmcBf 
which is pecuhar to this family, its essen- 
tial or distinctive character is formed. 
The extremities of the antenna are club- 
shaped, and composed of plates or joints, 
either disposed like the leaves of a book, or 
arranged perpendiculariy to the axis, like 
the teeth of a comb. . The two first legs 
of beetles, and even the others, in some 
instances, are dentated externally, and 
suited for burrowing. The trachea are all 
vesicular. — ^The larves or young are soft, 
flexible, whitish, somi-cylindric worms, 
having the body divided into 12 rin^^, 
and having a scaly head, armed with 
stronv jaws. They have nine sti^matcL, or 
breathing holes, on e<ich side ; and the feet, 
which are dx, are scaly. The body is 
thicker at the posterior than at the aute- 
nar extremity, rounded, and almost uni- 
formly curved downwards, so that the 
larve moves with difficulty over an even 
surfiice, and ffref}uentJy tumbles down. 
The period dunng which the larves 
remain in the state of destructive worms 
varies in different species ; those of some 
kinds becoming nymphs at the end of 
several months, and or others, not sooner 
than in three or four years. During this 
period, they live in the earth, where they 
feed upon the roots of vegetables, animal 
matter in a state of decomposition, &c. 
It is in this stage of their existence that 



various species Pfowe esDsedii^ily ii^ini- 
ous to femiers, vom tfaehr great numbers 
and voracity. When about to undergo 
their change of finrm, they make an egg- 
shaped cover or cocoon fit)m firagmenti 
gnawed off wood, &C., whidi are stuck 
together by a peculiar glutinous fluid fbr- 
nished by their bodies. The larves have 
a cylindnc stomach, surrounded fay three 
ranges of minute caco, a very short, small 
intestme, an exceedingly large colony abd 
moderate-sized rechmu In the perfect 
insect, none of these inequalities exist, as 
there is but one long intestine, of equal 
size throughout. All of the beetle tribe 
are not destructive or injurious in their 
inceptive state, as many of them breed in 
the dunff-heap, or feed upon the excre- 
ment of animals, which they serve to 
prepare more completely as manure. The 
tumble-bug, which is well known, forms 
a ball of dung, in the centre of which the 
egff is deposited, rolls it off to a distance, 
and buries it m the ground. Great num- 
bers, uniting in this work, speedily dear 
away excrementitious matter, that might 
otherwise soon prove offensive. Among 
the ancient Egyptians, a species of beede 
was held in great veneration, and Euse- 
bius infonns us (De Prop, Evarif.) that it 
was regarded as the animated 'image of 
the sun. We find it generally embalmed 
with the Egyptian mummies, placed im- 
mediately upon the root of the nose. A 
numberof models of these insects, in clay 
and stone, have been found in the places 
already explored in the ancient domin- 
ion of the rharaohs. LinnaBus bestowed 
the name of scarabiBus aacer on this 
species, which is found in Africa and 
Europe. 

Bef ANA (Ital. ; fi^m Befaniay which sig- 
nifies Epiphany) is a figure, generally repre- 
senting an old woman, wbicli is exhibited, 
in Italy, on tlie day of Epiphany, by chil- 
dren, or in shops, &c., where things for 
children are sold. In Germany, presents 
are given to children on Chnsmias-eve, 
and in France, on new-year's evening, but 
in Italy, on the day of Kpiphany, and it is 
said that the befaua brings them to good 
children. Generally, a little bag is hung 
in the chimney, and, next morning, the 
children find the presents there. 

Beg (prince, or lord) ; the title of certain 
Turkish ofi[icer8, several of whom are 
subject to a beglerbe^. (See Bey.) 

Beooart. (See Pauperism,) 

Beolerbeo i^prince of prineeSf or lord 
of lords) is the tide of a lugti ofilcer among 
the Turks, the governor of a province, 
called a h^lerbegUc^ who has under him 



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86 



BEGLERBEG— BEHN. 



sevdFBl BaojBpacfl^ beffs, asiiSi &c The 
governors of Sophia, funtfuia and Damas- 
cus, in paitipular, have this title. 

BEenARBs, or Beoha&ds. (See Be- 
guines.) 

Beguines {heguUa); females who, with- 
out having taken the monastic vows, or 
bound themselves to obey the rules of an 
order, unite for the purpose of devotion 
and charity, and form societies, living 
together in houses called beguinages 
(wJiicb have been frequently eniiched 
DY donations), distinguishing fiiemselves, 
above otliers of the laity, by weir industry, 
their retired hfe, and their attention to the 
education- of children. These societies 
originated, towards the end of the lltli 
century, in Germany and the Netherlands, 
and were very flourishing in the 12th and 
13th centuries. They ^1 exist in con- 
siderable numbers in the Netherlands. In 
imitation of them, males formed similar 
societies, under the name of be^kards. 
These societies, whose names signify sup- 
pliants, or beggars, underwent many per- 
secutions from the jealousy of the clerical 
orders, and were sometimes confounded 
with the Lollards. (See Brotherhoods,) 
There are, in some places of Geniiany, be- 
guinagea, which ai-e, however, only elee- 
mosynary institutions, whefe unmarried 
. females, of the lower class of people, have 
a lodging free of expense, and enjoy some 
otlier advantages. 

Behai9i, Martin, bom at Nuremberg, 
about 1430, is distinguished as one of the 
most leanied matliematicians and astron- 
omers of his age. He was engaged in 
commerce, and travelled, for the purpose 
of carrying on his business, from 1455 
to 1479 ; but he also devoted himself to 
the study of the mathematical and nanti- 
cal sciences, in which liegiomoiitanus is 
said to have been his master. He went 
from Amwerp to Lisbon, in 1480, where 
he was received with marks of distinction. 
He sailed in tlie fleet of Diego Can, on a 
voyage of discovery, and explored the 
islands on tlie coast of Africa as far as the 
river Zaire. He is also said to have dis- 
covered, or, at least, to have colonized, the 
island of Fayal, where he remained for 
several years, and assisted in the discovery 
of the other Azores. He was afterwards 
knighted, and returned to liis native coun- 
try, where he constructed a terrestrial 
glol)e, in 1492, which bears the marks of 
die unperfect acquauitance of that ase 
with the true dimensions of the earth. B. 
died, after many voyages, in Lisbon, 1506. 
Some ancient Spanish historians assert 
that he mode many discoveries, and tliat 



he gave to his fiiend ColuinbuB the idet 
of another hemisphere. Robertson (in hit 
History of Amenca)and others contradict 
this statement. It m also rejected by 
Irving. 

Beheadino ; a capital punishment, 
wherein the head is severed ftom the 
body l^ the stroke of en axe, BW<nd, or 
other cutting instrument. DecoUatioy or 
beheading, was, a military punishment 
among die Romans. In eany times, it 
was performed with an axe, aiid after- 
wards with a sword. It is wordi remark- 
ing, that, in all countries where beheading 
and hanging are used as capital punish- 
ments, the former is always considered 
less ignominious. Thus, in EIngland, 
beheading is often the punishment of 
nobles, when commoners, for the same 
crime, are hanged. The crime of high 
treason is there punished with beheading. 
Commoners, however, are hanged before 
the head is cut oft*, and nobles also, unless 
the king remits that part of the pmiish- 
ment. In Prussia, formerly, a nobleman 
could not be hanged, and, if his crime was 
such tliat the law required this punish- 
ment, he was degraded before the execu- 
tion. At present, hanging is not used in 
that country, and, since so many mstances 
have occurred of extreme suffering, on 
the part of the cruninal, caused by the 
unskilfulness of the executioner in behead- 
ing with the sword, this mode of execu- 
tion has been abolished. Beheadmg, in 
Prussia, is now always performed with a 
heavy axe, the sufierer being previ- 
ously tied to a block. In France, during 
the revolutionary government, beheading 
by means of a niachine, the guillotine 
(q. v.), came into use, and still prevails 
there, to the exclusion of all other modes 
of ca])ital punishment. A person who 
has murdered his father or mother, how- 
ever, has his right aim cut ofi^the moment 
before he is guillotined. In the middle 
ages, it was, in some' stales, the duty of 
tlie youngest magistrate to perform the 
executions with the sword. In China, it 
is well known that beheading is practised, 
sometimes accompanied with the most 
studied torments. In the U. States of 
America, beheading is unknown, the hal- 
ter being the only instrument of capital 
punishment Respecting the bad or good 
consequences of public beheading, the 
same remarks may be made, which are 
apphcable to pubhc executions in general 
In many £u|*opean countries, beheading 
with the sword still prevails. 

Behn, Aphara. a lady of some celebrity 
as a writer of plays and novels, was de- 



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BEHK— BSKKER. 



ar 



annded from a good &mily in Center- 
boxy, of tlie name of Johnson, and was 
born in the reign of Charles I. Her &tber, 
through the interett of his relation, lord 
Wtilou^by, being appointed lieutenant- 
Mieml of Surinam, embarked with his 
nmily for the West Indies, taking with 
ham Aphara, who was then very yoong. 
The fetber died at sea; but his &mily 
arrived safety at Surinam, and remain'^ 
ed there some years, during which time 
Aphara became acquainted with the 
-American prinoe Ofoonoko, whom she 
made the sabj<^ct of a novel, subsequently 
dramatized by Southern. On her return 
to England, she married Mr. Behn, a mer- 
eha&t jof London, of Dutch extraction ; 
but 'Was probablj a widow when selected 
by Charles II aa a proper person to ac- 
ouire intelligence on the continent during 
the Dutch war. She accordingl'y took up 
her rendence at Antwerp, where she en- 
' gaged in gallantries for the good of her 
country ; and it is said that, by means of 
one of her admirers, she obtained advice 
of tha intention of the Dmch to sail up 
the Thames, which she transmitted to 
England. This intelligence, although true, 
being discredited, sfa£ gave up politics, 
returned to England, and devoted herself 
to intrigue and writing for support ; and, 
as she had a cood peraon and milch con- 
versational tafent^she became ftdhioiiaHle' 
among the men of wit and pleasure of 
the time. She pubhsbed three volumes 
of Doems, by Rochester, Etherege, Crisp 
and others, with some poetry of her own ; 
and wrote 17, plays, me heartless licen- 
tiousness of which was disgraceful both 
to her sex and to the age which tolerated 
the performance of them. She was. also 
the author of a couple of volumes of 
novels, and of the celebrated loVe-letters 
between a nobleman and his Mster-in- 
law (lord Gny and lady Henrietta Berke- 
ley). ' Pope, m his character of women, 
alludes to Mrs. Behn, under her poetical 
mune cfAttrea : 

The ata^ hcnv lootdy does Astrea tread, 
Who Aiirly puts all cnancfters to bed. 

She d^ed in 1669, between 40 and 50 
years of age, and was buried in the clois- 
ters of Westminster abb^. 

BERKmo, Berriro's Straits, Berr- 
iifo's IsLAim. (See Beernig,) 

BsiRA t aprevince of Portugal, bounded 
chiefly by the river Douro on die north, 
by Spain on the east, by the Tagos and 
Portognese Estremddura on the somh, 
and by the Atlantic on the west Its 
extent is computed at 11,000 square miles, 
and the popiAitkMi at nearly 900,000, 

VOL. II. 4 



which is f£out 82 persons to a square 
mile, or rather leas than the average num- 
ber &r the whole kinadom. B. contains 
7 episcopal cities, and about 230 other 
towns : toe chief one is Coimbnu (cuv*) 
It is mountainous and w^ watered. The 
produce of wine and olives is conndera- 
ble. {See PotiugaL) 

Beiram. (See Bammu) 

Bekker, Elizabeth; an ornament of 
putch literature in the depaitinent of the 
belles-lettres. FeW female authora have 
miited with iso great talents so much dig- 
nity ani purity of morals. The influence 
of 'her numerouis works was much in- 
creased by her character, and several of 
them are considered classics in Dutch 
literamre; particulariy her ifnuances Wil-« 
lem Xeevend, in 8 vols. ; Lettere of A. 
Blankart to C. Wildschut, and the His- 
tory of Sara BOrgerhait. She wrote her 
most important works in conjunction with 
her friend Agatha Ddcen [q. v.), and the 
share of each in the composition of them 
is unknown. Ehzabetli was bom at 
Flushing, in 1738, and died at the H^ie, 
in 1804.' Her inseparable friend in life 
followed her nine days later in death. 

Bekker, Immanuel, member of the 
academy of sciences, and raofessor in the 
university of Berlin, is known for bis 
learning in the ancient languages, partic- 
ulariy flie Greeki displayed in many val- 
uable works. He was born at Berlin, in 
1785. He was a pupil of the famous nbi- 
lologet Wolf, at Halle, who declared nmi 
the person most capable of continumg 
hifi researches in philology. B. was ap- 
pointed pityfessor m the new academy of 
Berlin, and set out. May, 1810, for Paris, 
wiiere he remained until Dec, 1818, and 
made use of the manuscripts of the libraiy, 
principally collatinff those of Plato, and 
some rhetorical and grammatical writers. 
The academy of sciences of Berlin elected 
him a member m 1815, and sent him back 
to Pfflis to exawesM the papen of Four- 
mom, fertile sake of a Cwyua ^Mcr^rfM- 
num Onecatum, which they intended to 
pulifish. He retomed the same year. In 
1817, he was sent to Italy, to examine, 
with his colleagoe Ooschen, the Institu- 
tions of Gains at Verona, discovered by 
Niebuhr in a Codex rescrifhtSy and to pre- 
pare an edition of Aristotle, i»*ich the, 
academy had iA view. He sp^t two 
wintera in Rome, particnlariy ftvored in 
the use of the libraries by mf^ans of his 
friend Niebuhr. In 1819, he went throng^ 
Turin to P^iis ; spent the summer of IfissO 
in England, prindipally in Oxfbrd, Cam- 
bridge and. London ; and letomed through 



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B£LIBARIU&*-B£IJL. 



rrd of the emperor, ao(» afler obtained 
chief cQinmaiid of an army of ^25,000 
men, stationed on the Persian fiontierB, 
and, in the year 5d0, gamed a complete 
Tictory over a Persian army of not leas 
than 40,000 soldiers. Tlie next year, how- 
ever, he lost a battle against the same en- 
emy, who had forced Ins way into Syria — 
the only battle which he lost during his 
whole career. He was recalled fit>m the 
nnny, and soon became, at home, the sup- 
porf of his master. In the year 532, civil 
commotions, proceeding m>m two rival 
parties, who called themselves tlia green 
and the Hue, and who caused great disor- 
ders in Constantinople, brought the lifb 
and reign of Justinian in the utmost peril, 
and Hypatiue was aheady chosen empe- 
ror, when 5, with a small body of feith- 
ful adherents, restored order. Justinian, 
with a view of couquerinff tlie dominions 
of Gelimer, lung of the Vandals, sent B., 
with an army of 15,000 men, to Africa. 
Afler two victories, he g^cured the peraou 
and treasures of the Vandal king. GelK 
mer was led in triumph through the 
streets of Constantinople, and Justinian 
ordered a medal to be struck, witli the in- 
scription Belisaritis gloria Romanoinmj 
vi4iich has descended to our times. By 
the dissentions existing in the royal fairo- 
1y of the Ostrogoths (see Goths) in Italy, 
Justinian was induced to attempt to bring 
Italy and Rome under his sceptre, a, 
vanquished Vitiges, kmg of the Goths, 
made him nrisoner at Ravenna (540), and 
conducted him, together with many other 
Goths, to Constantinople. The war in 
Italy against the Goths continued; but 
B., not being sufficiently supplied /with 
money and troops bv the emperoi', de- 
manded his recall (5^8). He afterwards 
commanded in the war against the Bulra- 
rians, whom he conquered in the year 5o9. 
Upon his return to Constantinople, he 
was accused of having taken part in a 
conspiracy. But Justinian was copvinced 
of his innocence, and is said to have re- 
stored to him his propert)' and diiaiities, 
of which he had been deprived. B. died 
in tlie year 565. His history has been 
much colored by the poets^ and particu- 
larly by Marmontel, in his otherwise ad- 
mirable pohtico-philosophical romance. 
Accoiding to his narrative, the emperor 
caused tlie eyes of the hero to be struck 
out, and B. was compelled to beg his 
bread m the streets of Constantinople. 
Other Mrriters say, that Justmian had him 
thrown into a prison, which is still shown 
under the appellatran of the iotMr ofBel^ 
* — "^ From this tower be is reported 



to have letdown a bag ftstened to a io|i«, 
and to have addressed the passengers in 
these words:— l>firte ^ Beliiario obolumj 
quern virtus evexU^ iuoidia d/epre$sit (Give 
an obolus to Belisarius, whom virtue ex- 
alted, and envy has oppressed). Of this, 
however, no contemporary writer makes 
any mention, Tzet^s, a alighdy-esteemed 
writer of tlie ^Si^h century, was tlie first 
who related this faUe. Certain it is, that, 
through too great indul||[ence towards his 
wife Antonina, B. was impelled to many 
acts of injustice, and that he evinced a 
servile submissiveness to tlie detestable 
^ Theodora, the wife of Jusdnian. 

Belknap, Jeremy ; an American cler- 
gyman and author, of considerable repu- 
tation. He was bom in June, 1744, 
graduated at Harvard college in 1762, 
and ordained pastor of the church in Do- 
ver, New Hampshue, in • 1767. Here he 
spent 20 years in the dih^nt performance 
of his clerical duties, and the cultivation 
of Ut^rature. It was during this period 
that he composed his History of New. 
Hampshire, a work by which he estab- 
Ushed himself as, an author in the good 
opinion of his countrymen. In 1787, he 
took charge of a church in Boston, where 
he continued to officiate until his deaths 
in 1798. Besides Ins History, he publish- 
ed twp volumes of his imfinished Ameri- 
can Biography, and a number of political, 
religious and literary tracts. Doctor BL 
wrote with ease and correcmess, thoucb 
not with elegance : h^ was more reman- 
aUe for research and exten^ve informa- 
tion, than for brilhancy or orLrinaUty of 
talents. The Histoiy of New Hampshire 
and the American Biosraphy, above men- 
tioned, are often consulted. His sermons, 
and many dissertations, are but htde 
known. As a public preacher and citi- 
zen, he enjoyea the highest estimation. 
He was one of the founders of the Mas* 
sachusetts historical society, whose Col- 
lections are important to me pubhc an- 
nals. 

Bell. Church bells originated m Ita- 
ly, being formed, by decrees, out of the 
cymbals, small tinkling bells and hand- 
bells of vthe East, used, in rehgious cere- 
monies, as a means of honoring the gods^ 
or of summoning them to the roast. The 
feast of Osuris,.paiticularly, is known ta 
have been announced by beUs, and, ia 
AthenS) the priests of Cybele made uae 
of them at their sacrifices. Pliny sa^ 
that bells were invented lony befere his 
time. They were called fm^Mma&tcloi ; 
and Suetonius tells us that Augustus 
caused one to be hung before the temple 



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BE»X— BELLA. 



41 



of Jupiter. Aflnoog Christiaas, thev ware 
first employed to call together religiouB 
coDgregationB, for which purpose nuiners 
had b^n employed before. Afterwards, 
Uie people were assembled by the sound 
of little pieces of board stnick together ; 
hehcG called sacred boards. To the ora- 
ent day, the Catholics use such boaros in 
Pas^on-week and Lent, because the noise 
of bells seems to them unsuited to the so- 
Wmnity of the season. On the first day of 
E^aster, the beUs ring again, and the return 
of the accustomed sound produces a very 
cheerfid efiect Paolinus, bi8h<Hy of Nola, 
in Campania, is said to have mst intro- 
duced cnurch bells, in the fourth centunr, 
and thence the Latin names of the bell, 
eampcma and nokij are said to have origi- 
nated. In the sixth cenmry, bells were 
used in the convents ; they were suspend- 
ed on the roof of the church in a mune. 
Towards the end of this century, bells 
were placed on some churches at the 
expense of certain cities.. Abgut 550, (bey 
were introduced into France. Pope Se- 
bastian, who died in 605, first ordered that 
the hours of the day should be iannounced 
by striking the bell, that people might 
better attend to the hone ca/umiaBj that is, 
to the hours for onginff and praying. In 
610, Clothair besieged Sens, when Lupus, 
bldiop of Orleans, ordered me bells of St 
Stephen to be rung. The sound so fright- 
ened Clothair, that he eave up the siege. 
In the eighth century, me custom of bap- 
tizing and naming bells began. (Seer 
JBc^phsni,) Church bells were probkbly 
introduced into England soon after theur 
invention. They are first mentioned by 
Bede, about the close of the seventh cen- 
tury. In the East, they came into use in 
the ninth century; in Switzerland, in 
1090 ; at what period they were brought 
into Germany is uncertain. In the 11th 
century, the cathedral at Aupburg had 
two bells. The same spirit which induced 
people to bmld immense minsters, and to 
apply their wealth in ornamenting tlie 
places of worship, made them vie with 
each other in the size of their bells. The 
great beU of Moscow, cast in 1653, in the 
reign of the empress Anne, is said, by Mr. 
Clarke, to be computed to weigh 443,772 
lbs. A bell in the church of St. Ivan, in 
the same city, weiffhs 127,836 lbs. ; anoth^ 
er, 356cwt; and[ the one cast in 1819 
weighs 1600 cwt, the clapper alone weigh- 
inff 18 cWt On the cathedral of Paris a 
beU was placed, in 1680. which weighed 
340 cwt., and measured x5 feet in circum-* 
ibrence. In Vienna, a bell was cast, In 
17)1, of 354 qwt In Olmfitz is one of 
4* 



358 cwt • The fiuuous bell at Erfim, in 
Germany, which is considered to be of 
the finest bell-metal, having the hrpst 
proportion of silver in it, and is baptized 
^SWm^ie, weighs 375^ cwt, is more than 
24 feet in circumference, and has a clap- 
per of 4 feet, wei^^g 11 cwt Great 
Tom, of Christ churchy Oxford, weifdis 
17,000 lbs.,; of Lincohi, 9894 lbs. ; the beU 
of St PauFs, London, 8400 lbs.; a bell at 
Nankin;, in China, is said to weicb 50,000 
lbs.; and seven ajt Pekin, lUBfiOO lbs. 
each.' The inscriptions on old bells are 
curious, and. in some cases, have even 
historical value.;, and, at this time, when 
curiosities of all kinds are eagerly sought 
' fer, a collection of these inscriptioDat' would 
not be uninteresting. The different uses 
of bells have given -rise to many poems, 
some of which are inscribed on the beUs 
themselves. Onis of the most conmion is 
the following: 

FWera plaiiigo, fiilgofa finuigo,nbbata paogo 
Ezcito leotJos, cUssipo venUM^paoo cnieqtos. 

Perhaps the finest poem which has ever 
been written oa beds is Schiller's poem. 
Die Glodx (The Bell), m which he de- 
scribes the castuig of the bell, and all its 
uses, in a highly poetical manner. This 
has been translated itato many lan- 
guages, and lately into Greek and Latin, 
by |i professor at Liege. (For the metal 
of which , bells are made, called MI* 
meUd, see Copper,) A bell is divided into 
the body or barrel^ the dcmper^ and the 
ear or caiman^ — ^The word out is used in 
many arts and sciences for instruments 
similar in form to church bells. 
Bbll. (See Lancaster.) 
Bell-Metal. (See Copper.) 
Bell-Rock, sometimes called hich cape ; 
a dangerous rock of Scotland, about 12 
miles from Ari>roath, nearly opposite the 
mouth of the river Tay ; Ion. 2P 22^ W. ; 
lat 56° 29^ N. A hght-house has been- 
erected on it, finished in 1611, 115 feet 
high. During high, tides, the rock is en- 
tirely covered. It is. said that,* in former 
ages, the monks of Aberiirqthock caused 
a oeU to be suspended on this rock, which 
was rung bv tne waves, and warned the 
marinera of this hiffhly dangerous place. 
The Bell-rock hght^ouse is famous fer its 
construction. 

Bella, Stefimo de la; an engraver, bom 
at Florence, in 1610. He followed, at 
first, Callot's manner, but soon adopted 
one of his own. In 1642, he went to 
Paris, where he was emploved bv cardi- 
nal Richelieu. He returned to Florence, 
and became the teacher, in diawikig, of 
Cosmo, the son of the great duke, and 



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48 



B£LI«A--BfeLL£.ISL£. 



died in 1664. It 10 said <hat he engrayed 
1400 plates. 

Be&lamy, James, a Flemisli poet, was 
bom at Flushinir, in the year 1757, and 
dM in 1796. He was 35 years old, and 
following the trade of a baker, when, in 
the year 1772^ the second secular festival, 
in commemonition of the foundation of 
Jdie repuUic, was celebrated throughout 
Holland. HLs senius, suddenly inflamed 
by the ioveof nis native land, rendered 
him a poet, and Ins first productions met 
with success. He studied Latm, made 
himself better acquainted with his mother 
ton|[ue,and cosnposed several pieces of 
ment sufficient to induce the society of arts 
at the Hague to incorporate them in their 
colIectionB. He puUished his patriotic 
sonjis under thetitle VaderkMdse-Gexefigen, 
which secure [liflr a p9aoe among the first 
poets of his nation, > B. sung, likewise, the 
praise of love. The later works of this 
poet betray a certain inelahcholy, which 
renders them still more . interesting. A 
biographical account of him has been 
written by G. Kniper. He may be placed 
by the side of Biiderdyk, Helmers, Loots, 
IL Feyth, &c., as one of the Testorefcs bf 
modem Dutch poetry. 

Bellahhin, Robert, a cardinal, and 
celebrated controversialist of the Roman 
church, was bom at Monte Pulciano, in 
Tuscany, in 1542. At the age of 18, he 
entered into die college of Jesuits, where 
he soon distinguished himself; and his 
reputation caused him to be sent into the 
Low Countries, to oppose the projgress of 
the Reformers. He was ordained a, priest, 
in 1569, by Jansemus, bishop of Ghent, 
and placed in the theological chair of the 
university of Louvain. After a residence 
of seven years, he returned to Italy, and 
waseent py Sixtus V to France, as com- 
panion to the legate. He was made a 
cardinal, on account of his learning, by 
Clement VIII, and, in I60S, created arch- 
bishop of Capiia. At the elections of 
Leo XI and Paul V, he was thought of 
ibr-th^ pontificate, and nnght have been 
chosen, tiad he not been a Jesuit. Paul 
V recalled him' to Rome, on which he 
resigned his arehbish(^c without retain- 
ipg any pension <m it, as he might have 
done. In 16121, he left his apartments in 
the Vatican, and returned to a houete of 
Ins order, vvliere he died the seme year, 
at the age of 71. So impressed were the 
people with the idea of Ins sanctity, that 
It was necessary to place guards to keep 
4>ff the crowd, which pressed round to 
touch his body, or procure some relics of 
his garments. B. had the dooblc merits 



with the coccrt of KoHfe^ of sanportmg her 
temporal power and spiritual supremacy 
to the utmost, and of strenuously opposing 
the Refomiers* The talent he displayed 
in the latter controversy called forth 
all the similar abili^ on the Protestant 
side ; and, for a number of years, no em- 
inent divine among the Reformers fiiled 
to make his arguments a particular sub- 

iect of refutation. The great work which 
le coraj^osed in this war&re is entitled 
A Body of Controversy f vmtten in Latin, 
the style of which is perspicuous and pre- 
cise, without any pretension to purity or 
eile^an6e. He di^^lays a vast amount of 
Scriptural learning, and is deeply versed 
m the doctrine and practice of the church 
in all ages, as becomes one who deter- 
mines every point by authority. To his 
credit, he exhibits none of the lax moral- 
ity of Ills order, and, in respect to the 
doctrines of predestination and efficacious 
grace, is more 9 follower of St. Augustine 
Uian a Jesuit. His maxims on .the right 
of pontiff to depose princes caused his 
work on the temporal power of the poped 
to be condemned at Paris. On the other 
hand, it did not satisfy the court of Rome, ' 
because it asserted, not a direct, but an 
indirect, power in the popes in temporal 
matters; which reservation so offended 
Sixtus V, that he placed it among the list 
of proliibited books. These dinerences 
amoitg the Catholics necessarily gave 
strength to tlie Protestant side, and pro- 
duced a work from Mayer in exposition 
of them. In the rancor of controversy, 
some malignant calumnies were uttered 
against the morals of B. ; but it is evident, 
that he inclined to superstition in faith^ 
and scmpulosity in practice. At his death, 
he bequeathed one naif of his soul to the 
Virgin, and the other to Jesus Christ His 
. society thought 60 higl^dy of his sanctity, 
that proofi were collected to entitle him 
to canonization ; but the fear of giving 
offence to the sovereigns, whose rights he 
oppugned, has always prevented a com- 
pliance with the ardent widies of tlie 
Jesuits. Tlie best edition of his contro- 
versial works is that of Prague, 1721, 4 
vols., foho. 
Belle Alliance. (See WisUedoo.) 

BlfeLLE-ISLE, or BELLE-ISLE-EIV-MEa 

(anciendy VindUis); an island in the bay 
of Biscay, 115 miles from the westxoast 
of France, about nin^ miles liiu^,. and 
from two to four broa4,*'Surr6uhded by 
sharp rodcB, which lekve 'only .three 
fortified passages to the island. The 
soil is diverse, consisting of rock, salt 
marsh, and fertile grounds. Palais is the 



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BELI^ISLE— BELLES-LETTRES. 



It contBiiiB three other 'small 
townsi and many villages. Loii.dP6^W.; 

Bbli^e-Isle, or jBellisub; an island 
K. £. of the golf of St Lawrence, about 
31 miles in circuit ; on the north-west side 
has a small harbor, fit for. 401811 craft, 
^Bailed LarkharhoTf within a little island 
which lies close to the shore. At the east 
point, it has ; another small harbor or 
€X)Ye, that will only admit fishin(| shallops ; 
from whence it Is about 16 miles- to the 
coast of Labrador. Th^ narrow channel 
between Newfoundland and the 'coast of 
Labrador is .called the draU$of BdUtU ; 
* 15 miles N. Newfoundland. Lon. 55^^ 15^ 
W.;lat52«'N. 

Bellboa&de, count,bom at Chamberry, 
in Savoy, in the year. 1760, of one of the 
oldest Savoyard families, early entered 
the Austrian service, and distinguished 
himself during the campaigns of 1793—96 
in such a manner as to become a member 
of the archduke Charles's counsel of war, 
and, in 1796, field-marshal lieutenant. , In 
this capacity, he concluded, in 1797, an 
armifitice, at Leo'ben, with Bo^pQrte,^and, 
in 1799, oonunanded the corps that was 
to maintain the connexion between Su-. 
waroff and the archduke Charles. After 
the campiign in Italy, in 1800, he was 
made privy counsellor of the archduke 
FVedenc, who commanded the army of 
Italy. In July, 1805, the chief command 
in the territories of Venioe was committed 
to him. In 1806, he was created field- 
marshal, and appointed civil and military 
governor of -both the Galicia& In the 
campaign of 1809, he distinguished him- 
self at Aspem. B.'aftierward9became pres- 
ident of the council of war at Vienna, act- 
ed in Italy against Murat, was appointed 
governor of Lombardy, and lives now 
retired fifom the service on account of a 
disorder in his eyes. 

BzLLEQAKBK, €rabriei du Pac de ; bora 
at the palace of Belle|pude, in the year 
1717 ; one of the mbst mdeiatigable com- 
pilers of history, who has thrown much 
light on the historical events of the 17th 
century. 

' Beuueisle (Charles Louis Auguste 
Fouquet), count de, maraud -of France, 
bom at Villeftanche, Sept 22, 1684, dis- 
tinguished himself during the fiimous 
siege of Lille, and became brigadier in 
the n^ forces. After the condusion of 
the war of the Spanish succession, he 
went, with marshal VilkM, to Rastadt, 
Where he dkplayed diplomatic talents. 
The oesBion of Lorraine to France, in 
1796^ was principal^ bis work. CaidiBal 



Fleury reposed confidenee in him ; Loiua 
XV made him governor of Melz and the 
three bishoprics of Loiraine^ which office 
he held until his death. Beme the break- 
ing out of the war, in 1741, he visited the 
pnncipal comrts of Gennany with the 
design of disposing them, after the death 
of Charies VX to choose the elector of 
Bavaria emperofr of Germany; and 'he 
displayed so much address, on this occa- 
sion, as to excite the admiration of Fred- 
eric II. After his return, he placed him- 
self, together with Broglio,'at the head of 
th^ French forces, to oppose those of 
Maria Theresa. He took Prague by as- 
sault; but, the king of Prussia having made 
a separate peaee, he was compelled to a 
retreat^ which he performed with admi- 
rable skill In Dec., 1744, when on a 
diplomatic journey to Bniin, he was 
arrested at Elbintferode, a Hanoverian 
post,, and sent to England, where he was 
exchanged,, however, in 1746. . In the 
following year, he forced general Browne, 
who had entered the south of France 
from Italy, to raise the siege of Antibes, 
and to retreat over the Var. In 1748, the 
king made him a duke and peer of Fiuice, 
and the department of war was committed 
to bis charge. He reformed the army by 
abolishing many abuses, enlarged the mil- 
itary academy, and caused an order of 
merit to be established. The city of Metz 
is indebted to him for an academy. He 
died in 1761. 

Bellerden, William ; a Scottish writer 
of the 17th century, disdnguished for the 
elegance of his Latin style. He was edu- 
cated at Paris, where he was professor 
of beUes-rlettres in 1602, imd, though he 
was made master of requests by James I, 
he still continued to reside in the French 
metropolis. In 1606, he published a work 
entitled dcero Princepg, containing a se- 
lection ftpm the works t>f Cicero, consist- 
ing; of passages relating to the duties of a 
prmce, &c: He afterwards republi^ed 
this work, with some other treatises, in his 
BdlmdenuB de Statu. This work was 
published again, in 1787, by an anony- 
mous editor, since known to have been 
doctor Samuel Parr, who added a Latin 
preftice on the pohtics Off that time. 
Beulerophon. ^See Hapwnieiu.) 
Beluss-Lettrbs {DrenA) signifies the 
soma with poUte UUmhare. It is impossh- 
ble to give a satisfiu^xr explanation of 
what is or has been called %eUes-leUrt$: 
in ftct, the Vaguest definition would be 
the best, as almost every branch of knowl- 
edge has, at one time, been included in, 
at another, excluded fi«an,thi»dfflimniiia*' 



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BELLES-L£TTR£6-^BELLONA. 



tion. The most correct definitioD^ tliere- 
Ibre, would be, periiaps, such as enibrdced 
all knowledge and eveiy science, not 
merely abatiact, nor simply useful. In 
the division of the departments at the 
lyceum of arts, established at Paris in 
179S,the be]les4ettre8 comprehended gen- 
eral grammar, langua^ rhetoric, geog- 
raphy, histonr, antiquities and numismat- 
ics ; whilst philosophy, mathematics, &c., 
were called, in contradistinction, $cienciea. 
If the name of heUe84ettre8 ought to be 
retained at all, it would seem proper to 
include under it poetry, rhetoric, and all 
prose which has pretensions to elegance. 
A historical worii, therefore, would fall 
within the definition of belles-letties, only 
if its style was distinguished for elesance. 
The same would be the base with pooks 
of travels, &;c. It is, however, to be hoped 
that this vague, unnecessary name will 
soon be ahandoneiQ, in imitation of the 
example of the Germans, who, bavinff 
investigated the philosophy of the arts and 
sciences more thoronghly than any other 
nation, and critically anidyzed their prin- 
ciples, have rejected the term; so that it 
is known in Germany only as matter of 
history. They class poetry with the fine 
arts, and its history, like the history of 
any other art, science, nation or thing, 
with the sciences. Rhetoric, too, is . call^ 
a. fine art. It was formeriy said, that the 
difierence of heUes4dires and. heij^ux-arls 
consisted in the difierence of the means 
employed by each respectively. The for- 
mer, it was said, used arbitrary signs^ by 
which was meant language ; the latter, 
natural signs, L e., sounds and visible 
forms. It is easy to see how untenable 
this division is. 

Bkllevue (Fr. fne jtrosptdX This 
name is given to several villas and pijdaces, 
but particularly to a beautiful country 
palace in the neighborhood of Paris, situ- 
ated on the ridge of those mountains 
which stretch mm St Cloud towards 
Meudon. Mad. de Pompadour (q. v.] 
built It The building was commencea 
in July, 1748, and finished in November^ 
1750. After the death pf Louis XY , the 
use of it was granied to the aunts of 
Louis XVI, m^ames de Franee. The 
first French artists 6f the time, Coustou, 
Adam, Salu, PigaUe, Gragenard, Laprenue, 
' had exerted aJl their talents in embellish- 
ing Bellevue ; so that this palace, at the 
period when it was built, was considered 
the most charming in all Europe. Afler 
the revolution, the convention decreed 
that Bellevue should be kept in repair at 
the eiqpense of the nation, and that it 



should be devoted to public amusemaiittl 
Nevertheless, it was pubCcly sold, during 
the highest phch oi revolutionary excite- 
ment, and the purchaser, M. iJench^re, 
a iK>8t-ma8ter in Paris, had it demolished, 
quite in the spirit of the. Bamdt noirt. 
(q. V.) Its -ruins aie frequently visited, on 
account of the beautiful view. of Paris 
fit>m this spot 

- Beixini, James, and his two sons. Gen- 
tile and Giovanni (who surpassed their 
fiither) ; celebrated painters, who made a 
new epoch in the Venetian school Of 
James's works nothing has been lefl ; but 
several of Gentile's (e. g.,'a Si, Mark) have ^ 
reached our times. In the year 1479,* 
Gentile went to Constantinople, M6ham- 
med II having sent to Venice for a skil- 
fbl painter. He is said tp have there 
copied the bass-reliefs of the column of 
Theodoeius, and to have died at Venice, 
in the year 150L The most distinguished 
of the fiimlly was Giovanni B., who was 
bom at Venice, about 1^, and died about 
1516. He studied nature diligently, and 
his drawing was good. He contributed 
much to make oil paiiiting popular, and 
has lefl man^r excellent pictures, of which 
one, the Savior pronouncing his Benedict 
(ton, is to be found in the gulery of Dres- 
den. His own reputation was much in- 
creased by that of his celebrated disciples, 
namely, Titian and Gioi^one. As their 
instructer, he is somfetimea called the 
founder of the Venetian schooL 

Belli^le. (See BeUe-Idt.) > 

Beli.hai?n, Charies Michael, the most 
original atnong the Swedish poets, was 
bom at Stockholm, in 1741, and grew up 
in the quietude of domestic life. The 
first proofs which he gave of his poetic 
talents were reli^ous and pious effusions. 
The dissipated life of young men,at Stock- 
holm, devoted to pleasure, was afterwards 
the subject of his poems. By these his 
name was spread over all Sweden. Even 
the attention of Gustavus III was attract- 
ied to him, and he received fi^m the king 
an appointment, which enabled him to 
devote himself almost entirely to poetical 

Sursuits, in an easy independence, until 
is death, in 1795. His songs are truly 
national, principally describing scenes of 
reveliy.. 

« Bellona; the goddess of vnir; daugh- 
ter of Phorcys andf Ceto. She was caUed 
by tiie Greeks Enyo, and is often con- 
founded with Minerva. She was anciently 
called DueUionOy and was the sister ot 
Mars, or, according to some, his daugh- 
ter or his Wife. She prepared his chariot 
when he was going to war^and drove his 



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BEU^ONA-BELLOy. 



46 



Med» through lh9 tumult of the battle 
with a bloody scourge, her hair.diaheveU 
led, and a torch ia her hand* The Ro- 
mans paid great adoration to her ; but she 
was held in (he highest veneration by the 
Cappadocions, chiefly at Cotpaua, where 
she had above 3000 priests. Her temple 
at Rome was near the Porta Carmentali^ 
In it the senators gave audience to foreign 
ambassadors and to generals returned Scorn 
war. At the gate was a stoall coIun:in, 
called the column qf tpcoTf against which 
they threw a spear, whenever war was 
declared. The priests of this goddess 
consecrated themselves by making ffreat 
• incisions in their bodies, and particularly 
in the thi|;h, from which they received 
die blood m their hands to offi^r as a sac- 
rifice to tlie goddess. In their wild en- 
thusiasm, they oflen predicted bloodshed 
and wars, the defeat of enemies, or the 
besieging of towus. 

Bellows ; a machine so formed as to 
expire and mspire air by turns, by the 
enWgement and contraction of the ca- 
pacity. As soon as men began to make 
use of fire, the importance of bellows was 
felt, since the natural bellows, if we xuay 
give this name to the lungs, coul4 not be 
applied to any great extent. The inven- 
tion of bellows is ascribed to Anacharsis 
the Scythiaji. Probably, this invention, 
like so many others, took place in difier* 
ent countries, since the want which, oc- 
casioned it is universal. The first devia- 
tion firom the pncieut, and stiJl cominon 
form of the J^ows, was piade by the 
Germans, aiwut 100 years ago, and the 
forms at present are very various, as many 
attempts nave been made for the improve^ 
ment of Uiis highly impwtant machine, 
which becomes necessary wherever « 
powerful flamie is reqilired in the arts. 
As mining is carried on extensively in 
Germany, and great hea^ is required in 
smelting die ores^ and working the metals, 
many new kinds of bellows have been 
invented in that country, of which we 
only mention that of Mr. von Baader, in 
Munich (known as the inventor of a new 
kind of rail-roads). It consists of an emp- 
ty box, which moves up and down m 
another, partially filled with water. Be- 
tween die bottom of the empty box and 
surface of the water is a space filled ^ith 
air, which is driven out by the desceat 
of the endoeed box. • BeUow^ of very 
great power are generally ealled Uowtt^- 
raackmes. One of the kar|^ ia that re* 
ceody erected m England, at the amhh- 
eiy in the king's dockryard« at Woolwich. 
It m adequate to the supply of air ibr 40 



forge firea, amongst vbich are aeveral 
foi* the fhrffne of anchors, iron knees, and 
many other heavy pieces of (unidiery. 
The common Chinese 'bellows consist of 
a box of wood about two feet long, and 
one foot square^ in which a thick, square 
piece of board, which exacdy fits the 
mtemalcavity of the box, is puwed back- 
wards and fi)rward8. In the bottom of 
the box, at ^ach end, there is a sniall coni- 
cal or plug valve to admit the air, and 
valves above to discharge it. 

BfiLLOY, Pierre (jaurent Buirette die, 
die first French dramatist who success- 
fully introduced i^itiv(9 heroes upon the 
French stage, instead of those of Greece 
and Rome, or the great men of other na- 
dons, was bom at §t Flour, in Auvergne, 
in. 1727. . He went tx> Paris when a child, 
lost his fioher soon ^fier, and was sup- 
ported by his uncle, a disdnguished ad- 
vocate in the parliament of Paris, who 
designed him fi>r.the same profession. 
He applied hin^self to this profession with 
reluctanoe, while he showed much genius 
for .the drama. His uncle oppos^ this 
taste, and the young man secredy left 
hi^ house. He now made his appearance 
at several northern courts, as an actor, 
under the name of'DormofU de fieUoy, 
Every where his character gained him 
love and esteem. - He spent several years 
in Petersburg, where the empress Wmt- 
beth showed him mUch kindness. In 
1758, he returned to Fnmee, with the in- 
tendon of having his tragedy Tihu rep- 
resented. His uncle obtuned a warrest 
of imprisonment against him, in case he 
should appear on the stage. B. had 
hoped to reconcile his famuy to him by 
the success of TUut, but this hope was 
disappointed by the fiulure of the piece ; 
and the audior virent once more to Pei> 
tersburg. Shordy after, his unde died, 
and B. returned again to France, where 
he brought out his tragedy Zdndn^ 
which was acled with .the most complete 
success. In 1765 followed his SUgt de 
CakMt a tragedy which produced a great 
sensation, aim is sdll esteemed, though it 
owes the applause bestowed on it rather 
to its subject than to its poedcal merit 
He received the medal 'promised by the 
king t6 those poets who should produce 
three successrul pieces, and which baa 
been awarded only on this occaaioii. On 
account of the great applause with wMoh 
the Siege of Calais was reoetved, it was 
ooui^ted as two, it being, in fiiet, onl^ the 
second successfiil piece of B. The city of 
Calais sent him the fipe^om of the eity, in 
a gold box, with the inseiiption .' 



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46 



B^LLOY— BELZONI. 



hditj emeam rte^pt B. has written sun- 
dry other, dramatic pieces, of which Gtu- 
ton et Bt^orof procured his reception into 
t^eAcadimitFrangaMt. Upon the whole, 
he was not happy in the oxpression of 
tragical pathos. . He died in 1775. 
Bell-Rock. {See BeiiL-JZocX^) 
Beloochistan. (See Bdajiatan) 
Belt, the Great and Little ; two straits 
of Denmark, connecting the Baltic with 
the Cattegat The former hins between 
the islancb of Zealand and Funen, and is 
about 15 miles in width, where it is Crossed 
fiom Nybon^, in Funen, to Corso^r, in 
Zealand. The greatest breadxh of the 
strait is 20 miles. The navigation is veiy 
dangerous, on account of the many small 
islands and sand4NU]Ju, by which the 
channel .is impeded. Vessels sailing 
through this strait pay tribute at Ny- 
borg. The Little Belt is between the 
island of Funen and the coast of Jutland, 
and the narrowest part of the strait is not 
more than a mile in width. At this place 
stands the fortress Fredericia, where the 
tolls are- paid^ T)ie fortress i commands 
completely the entrance from the Catte- 
gat The- sound between Zealand .and 
me Swedish coast is preferred for all 
large vessels 

JBelujistazt, or Beluchistan ; a coun- 
try in Asia, situated on the north-west of 
mib peninsula of Hindostan, formerly be- ' 
longing to Persia; now connected with 
GabulStan. It comprehen()s,'in ii^ ' most 
eztensivB acceptation, all die space -4)6- '•' 
tween Ion. 58^ and 67^ E.; lat. W and 
3(f N. It extends fio'm the country of. 
the Afghans on ^e north* to the Indiaii. 
ocean, and from die provinces of Lari^tan 
and Kezman on the west to that of Sind 
on the east It contaiijs ^ principal di- 
visions : — I. Jhalawan and Sarawan, with 
the district of Kelat ; 2. Macran and Les ; 
3. Kohistan, that is, the mountainous re- 
mon west of the Desert ; 'Aj. the Desert ^ 5. 
Cach Gandavah ai^d tb^ district of Her- 
rend Dajel ; 6. the prpvince of Sind. It 
is very mountainous. Many of the moun- 
tains are of great height, covered' with* 
snow. In the plains, the heat is very 
great; in summer, water is raieraUy 
scarce. The rivers are the Pooralle 
Muktoo, Dast, Nughor, Sinroo and Sud- 
gee. The desert of Belujistan is 300 
miles Imig, and upwards of 200 broad, 
consisting of waves of sand ejctremely 
difficult to be traversed. The minerals 
are gold, silver, lead, iron, copper, tin, 
rock sah, alum, saltpetre and sulphur. 
The soil produces jpnin, cotton, indigo, 
madder and asBaftstida. The Belooches,' 



or Balojes,' consist of three tribes — the 
Beluches, the Brahuis, the Dehwara. 
They are wariike and semi-barbarous. 
They live a pastoral life, and are of the 
Mohammedan reti^ion. Little was known 
of this country, till Mr. Pottinger, and 
some other enterprising officers in the 
East India company's service, explored it 
in 1809 and 1810. 

Belvedere (Ital. iEne sigU. See BdU" 
ime.) The name of buildings in Italy des- 
tined for the enjoyment df prospects. 
The name is also given to the small cupokiB 
on houses, which are ascended for the 
sake of fresh air, or of the view which 
they afford. Many of the buildings in 
Rome are furnished with such cupolas ; 
yet the term hdotdert is generally applied 
only to those on. the pamces of the rich. 
In France, the name oeUevut is given to 
smitU countrv-seats, in a simple style^ 
or to arched bowers at the end of a gar- 
den or park, intended for the enjoyment 
of fresh air, er as places of sheher against 
the burning sun. This vi the name, also, 
of a port oithe Vatican, where the famous 
statue of Apollo is placed, which, on this 
account, is called ApoUo Belvedere, 
' Belzoni, Giambattista, that is, ^ohn 
Baptist ; bom at Padua, and educated at 
Rome. He was destined for the monastic 
life^ but left the city when it was occu- 
pied by the French armies, and, in 1803, 
went to England, where he acted the 
parts of Apouo and HeKsule^ at Astley's 
mnpliitheatre. Here he acquired, besides 
an acquaintance with the English lan- 
guage, much knowledge of the science 
of hydraulics, the study of which had 
been his chief occupation in Rome, and 
which afterwards carried him to Egypt: 
He left England, after a residence of nme 
years, accompanied by his vrife (who 
faced the Arabs with the courage of an 
Ama^on), and took his way through 
Portugal, Spain and Malta to Egypt 
There he hved, from 1815 to 1819, at 
first as a dancer, till he won the favor of 
the pacha, who made use of his services. 
K, though often alone amidst the rude 
inhabitants of the country, kept them in 
awe by his extraordinary stature and 
strength. He succeeded m opening, not 
only the pyramid of Ghiza, which had 
been already opened, in the 17& century, 
by Pietro della Valle, and to which the 
French, dnring their expedition to Egypt, 
could not find the entrance, but, a£lo, a 
second, known by the name of Cepkrenes^ 
9^d several catacombe n^ar Thebes, es- 
j^cially'one, m a fine state of preserva- 
tion, in the valley of Biban e) Molook, 



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B£LZONI--BEMBa 



yMch iB coandeved to be theroauspleum 
of Psamnus (400 B. C). The drawings 
which he has ftmished of these an- 
tiquities are the most exact which we 
possess. In the year 1816, his perpe- 
TCrance and skill succeeded in trans- 
porting the bust of Jupiter Memnon, |o- 
gether with a sarcophagus of alabaster, 
u>und ui the catacombs, fiom Thebes to 
Alexandria, from whence they came, to 
the British itiuseum. On the ilst of 
August, 1817, he opened the temple of 
Ipeambul, near the second cataract of the 
Nile, which two Frenchmen, Oailliaud aitfd 
Drovetti (the French consul-ffeneral), had 
discoFered the year before, out had not 
succeeded in opening. B discovered a 
subterraneous temple in its ruins, which, 
until that time, had been unknown. He 
then visited the coasts of the Red sea, and 
the city of Berenice, and made an expe- 
dition into the Oasis of Jupiter Anmion. 
His joiuney to Berenice was rewarded by 
the discoverv of the emerald mines of Zu- 
bara. 3. refuted Cailliaud^s assertion, that 
he had found the femous Berenice, the 
great emporium of Europe and India, hy 
subsequent investigations on the spot, and 
by the actual discovery of the ruins of 
that great city, four days journey from the 
place which Cailliaud had taken for Bere- 
nice. B.'s Narrative of the Operations 
and recent Discoveries within me Pyra- 
mids,, Temples, Tombs and Excavauons 
in Ein^pt and. Nubia ; and of a Jouniey to 
the Coast of the Bed Sea, in Search of 
Berenice ; also of another to the Oasis of 
Jupiter Ammon (London, 1820) ; acpom- 
panied by a folio vol of 44 copper-plates ; 
was received with general approoation. 
Padua, his native city, requited nis present 
of two Egyptian statues from Thebes, 
with a medal by Manfredini. ^Concerning 
the models, which B. placed m Bullock's 
museum, see Afuseum.) In the year 1823, 
this enterprising traveMer had niade prep- 
arations for passing from Benin to Hous- 
sa and Timbuctoo, when he died, at 
Gate, on his way to Benin, Dec. 3, 1823. 
He believed the Nile and the Niger to be 
different streams, and that the Niger emp- 
ties its waters into the Atlantic ocean. 

Bembo, Pietro ; one of the most cele- 
brated of the Italian scholars, that adorned 
the 16thcenturv ; bom at Venice, m i47Q. 
He very early learned the Latin, and af- 
terwards^ at Messina, under the direction 
of Lascaris, the Greek kn^age ; afler 
which ha letumed to his native country, 
and there published a small treatise on 
mount Etna* In compliance with the 
Will of his ftther, he entered upon the 



career of public btta&eas, but, soon eon- 
ceiving a dislike for it, he devoted him- 
self to science and the theological pro- 
fession. At Feirara, where he completed 
his philosophical studies, he entered intp 
a condeadon with Eroole Strozzi, Tibal- 
deo, and particularly with Sadoleto. From 
Ferrara he returned to Venice, where a 
literary sodetyhad beep established, in 
the house pf the printer Aldus Manutius. 
B. became one of its principal members, 
and, for some time, took pleasure in cor- 
recting the beautiful editions which pro- 
ceeded from this celebrated press. After 
visiting Rome, lie went, in 1506, to the 
court of Urbkto, at that time one pf those 
Italian coiuts where the sciences stood 
higheet in esteem. He lived there about 
suL years, and niined several powerful 
friends. In 1512, he went to Rome with 
Giuho de' Medici, whos^ brother, pope 
Leo X. made lum h» secretary, and gave 
him his fii^nd Sadoleto for a colleague. 
About this time, B; became acquainted 
with the young and beantiful Morosina, 
with whom he lived, in the most tender 
union, during 22 years. She presented 
him- with two sons and a daughter, whom 
he educated with the ffreatest care. His 
many labors, arising mm hi6 office, as 
well as his literary pursuits, and, perhaps, 
tod ||;reat an induIgenGe in pleai^ure, hav- 
ing unpaired his health, he was u^g the 
baths of Padua, when he was apprized 
of the death of Leo X. Being by this 
time possessed of several church bene- 
fices, he resolved on withdrawing entirely 
from business, and on passing his days at 
Padua, (the air of wluch he had f^und 
very beneficial), occupied only with lit- 
erature and science, and enjoying the so- 
ciety of his fiienda. The leamcSl mem- 
bers of the famous university of this city 
eagerlv fi*equented his house, and stran- 
gersi also flocked thither. B. collected a 
considerable library : he had a cabinet of 
medals' and antiquities, which, at, that 
time, passed for one of the richest in Ita- 
ly, ana a fine botanical jgarden. He spent 
me sprintf and autumn at a villa called 
J^ozzo, which had always belonge(^ to bis 
.fanuly. He devoted, the leisure of a 
country life principally to his literary pur- 
suits. In the year 1529, kfler the death 
of Andreas Navagero, tlie office of histo- 
riographer of the republic of Venice was 
offered to him, which he accepted, afler 
some hesitation^ and declbiuig the salary 
connected with it. At the same time, he 
was nominated librarian of the library of 
St. Mark. Pope Paul IH, havin{|; re- 
solved upon a new promotion of cardmals, 



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B£MBO~.BleNARES. 



ftom iSm inofit dMngtiifliwd men of his 
Hme, conferred on mm, in 1599, the bat 
of a cwdinaL From that time, B. re- 
nounced the belles-lettrea, and made the 
ftthenB and the Holy Scriptures his chief 
study. Of his former labors, he continued 
only the Histoiy of Venice. Two years 
later, Paul III bestowed the bishopric of 
Gubbio on him, and, soon after, tlie rich 
bishopric of Bergaino. He died, loaded 
with honors^ 1547, in the 77th year of his 
ftge, B. united in his person, his chaiiac- 
ter and conversation, all that is amiable. 
He was tbe restorer of a pure style, as 
Well in Latin composition, in which 
Cicero, Vii^il and Juhus Ctesar were his 
constant models, as in the Italian, in which 
he chiefly imitated Petrarca. ^ He wa? so 
rigorous with regard to puritv of style, 
that he is said to have had 40 diflereht 
partitions, through which his writings, as 
he polished them by degrees, successive- 
ly passed ; nor did he publish them till 
they had sustained these 40 examinations. 
A collection of all his works, which were 
fiequently printed singly, appeared, in 
1729, at Venice, in 4 folio vols. The 
most important of them are, Histoiy of 
Venice from 1487 to 1513, in 12 books, 
which he wrote both in Latin and Italian ; 
Le Proscj dialogues, in which the rules 
of the Italian language are laid down : 
Gli AsoUmiy dialogues on the nature of 
love; Ia Rime, a collection of beauti- 
jful sonnets and canzonets; his letters, 
both in Latin and Italian: De VtrgUii 
CuUce et Terentii Fabidis Liber ; Ccmm- 
no, which are ingenious and elegant, but 
mora free than the author's profession 
would lead us to expect ; besides scveml 
others. 

Ben [Hehretp, son); a preiKwitive syl- 
lable, found in many Jewish names ; as, 
Bendavidj Benasser, &c., which, with the 
Jews in Germany, has been changed into 
the German Sohn (son)) e* g<, Mendds- 
wAn, Jacohs9fihn^ &c. liie origin of this 
manner of naming is to be found in the 
ancient custom of the Israelites' having 
no fiuiiily names, which is still their Usage 
in many countries. 
Beitares ; a t9wn and district in the 
ipvinoe of Allahabad, in Bengal. It 
as an area of 12,000 square miles, 10,600 
of which are rich.*cultivated flats on each 
«de of the Ganges. The heat, in sum- 
mer, is excessive, but, in winter, fires are 
requisite. Garden-stufl^ grain of differ- 
ent kinds, flax for oil (no Unens are man- 
ufactured here), and sugar, are the prin- 
cipal objects of cultivation. Thcjjross 
revenue, in 1813, amounted to 4,562,707 



I 



rupees (£570,338). Muslins, silks and 
^uzes, sah, indigo and opium are made 
m this district The principal towns are 
Benares, Miraa-pur, Chunargarh and 
Ghazi-pur. The population exceeds 
3,000,000, and the Hindoos are to the 
Mussulmans as 10 to 1 in the town, and 
as 20 tQ 1 in the villages. The rajah 
Chet Suiffh was expelled by Mr. Has- 
tmgs in 1/81. 

Benares (in Sanscrit, Vara Nasi, from 
the two streams, Vara and Nasi) stands 
in lat 25° W N., and ton. 83« 1' E., on 
the high bank and northern side of the 
Ganges. The town rises like an amphi- 
theanrie. The height of the houses and 
narrowness of the streets give it all the 
usual 'inconveniences of an Asiatic town. 
Its inhabitants are more than 600,000, of 
whom 8000 are said to be Bramins ; and, 
at the great Hindoo festivals, the concourse 
is immense ; for Coii, or Cashi, the tpUndid, 
as the Indians commonly caTl it, is one 
of the most sacred places of pilgrimage in 
all India. To die at B. is the greatest 
happinesB for a Hindoo, because he is 
then sure of immediate admission into 
heaven. The number of pious founda- 
tions and temples is exceedingly great. 
Several of the Hindoo princes have agents 
here to offer up sacrifices in their behalf 
The ]3rincipal temple is called Fhweswar 
or Bisesar, and is dedicated to Siva, 
whose sacred relic it contains. Aurung- 
zeb built a splendid mosque on the high- 
est ground in the city, and on the nims 
of a temple. At the end of the 17th cen- 
tury, an observatory was erected in this 
city, which still exists ; and a college for 
the instruction of Hindoos in their own 
literature was established by ^e British 
ffovcmmeni in 1801 ; but it h«a not yet 
done much for the revival of Icammg 
among the natives, owing to the pride of 
the Bramins. B. has long been tlie great 
mart for diamonds and other gems, 
brought principally from the Bundel- 
cund. xhe merchants hnd bankeiB 
are numerous and wealthy. There are 
few English inhabitants, except the ffov- 
emment officers and the members of the 
circuit court Casi yras ceded to the 
East India company by the nabob of 
Aud'h (Oude), m 1775, and, since 1781, 
has enjoyed uninterrupted tranquillity. 
The inhabitants are better informed than 
the natives of the countiy in^^neraL 
The reader will find an interesting ac- 
count of B. in bishop Heber's Narrative 
of a Journey through the Upper Prov- 
inces of India, in 1834—26; Londom 
1828, Philadelphia, 1829, vol. 1. 



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49 



Bkr AYiDBfl ; an outlaw and pirate, 
who, for several years, proved the scourge 
of the aoittheni parts of Chile. He was 
a native of Qninhue, in the {Province of 
ConcepcioD, and entered the patriot army 
as A common soldier at the commence- 
ment of the revolution. Having deserted 
to the Spaniards, and being made pris-s 
oner by the ChiUans, at me batde of 
Membnlla, in 1814, he was to have been 
tried for desertion, but effected his es- 
cape. Being made prisoner again at the 
battle of Maypu, in 1818, he was sen- 
tenced to be shot, and was supposed to 
have been killed \ but, although shoc]|:- 
ingly wounded, and left for dead, he re- 
covered, and, having obtained a com- 
mission from the Spanish commander 
Sanchez, he commenced a war upon the 
southern frontier of Chile, never surpass- 
ed in sava^je cruelty. He laid waste the 
country with fiie and sword, murdered 
bis prisoners, and perpetrated the most 
homd cruelties upon the unarmed peas- 
ants, including women and children, who 
chanced to &U into his power. Notwitk- 
standing repeated engiagements with the 
Chilean ibrces of th^ province of Con- 
cepcion, he sustained himself^ for a Ions 
time, in diis atrocious course. At length 
he undertook to establi^ a navy, and, for 
this purpose, piratically seized upon sev- 
eral English and American vessels, which 
unsuspectingly stopped for refreshment 
not &i from the town of Arauco, the 
centre of his operations. So intolerable 
had the {^evance become, that, in 1821, 
the Chihaos fitted out an expedition 
against Arauco, and succeeded m break- 
ing up the robber's strong hold. He at- 
temptied to escape to Fern in a launch, 
but, being captured, was condemned to 
death, and executed Feb. 23, 1822.— Ht9- 
tory oflitv» in Sppmsk Americcu 

Bej(bow, John ; an English naval 
character of distinguished merit ;• bom in 
Shrewsbury, about 1650, and brou«[ht up 
to the sea in the merchant service ; fought 
so desperately against a pirate from Sal- 
lee, in one of h& trips to the Mediterra- 
iMsan, about the year 1686, as to beat her 
off, though oeatly his superior in men 
and metal. For this gallant action, he 
was promoted at once, by James II, to 
the command of a ship of war. William 
III employed him in protecting the Enj^- 
Ush trade in the channel, which he did 
with great efiect His valof and activity 
secured him the confidence of the nation, 
and h^ was soon promoted to the tank 
of rear-admiral, and cfairrged with the 
Uockade of Dunkirk. 'But. the squadron 

VOL. I. 5 



in that port, under Uie command of Du 
Bart, managed to slip out of port ; nor 
could Benbow, though he sailed instantly 
in pursuit, overtake >t In 1701, he sailed 
to the West Indi^ with a small fleet, 
haviilg accepted a coininand previously 
declined by several of his seniors, from 
the supposed superiority of the enemy's 
force m that quarter. In August of 
the following year, he fell in with the 
French fleet under t>u Casse, and for 
five days maintained a nmning nght with 
them, when. he at length succeeded in 
bringing the enemy's stemihost ship to. 
close quarters. In the beat of the action, 
a chain-shot carried away one of his legs, 
and he was tdien below ; but the mo- 
ment the dressing had been anpUed to 
the wound,' he caused himself to be 
brought again on deck, and continued 
the action. At this criti<»l instant, beinff 
most disgracefully abandoned by sevenu 
of the captains under his conunand, who 
signed a mper expresshig their opinion 
that ** nothing more was to be done," the 
whole fleet effected its escape. B., on 
his return to Jamaica, bsQUffht the delin- 
quents to a court-martial, by- which two 
of them| were convicted of cowardice and 
disobedience of orders, and condemned 
to be shot ; which sentence, on their arri^ 
val in England, was carried into execution 
at Plymouth. B., who suffered equally 
in nund mid body firom this disgraceful 
business, gradually sunk under lus feel-' 
ings, and expired at Jamaica, Nov. 4, 1702. 
Bemcoolen, or BERKA9in;.£ ; a seaport 
of Sumatra, on the S. W. coast ; Ion. 102° 
11' E.; laL 3° SO' a The English set- 
tled here in 1685, and, in 1690, the East 
India company buuh a fort here, calling it 
fart York. A convenient river on its N. 
W. side brings the pepper out of the in- 
land country f but tbere is great incon- 
venience in shipping it, by reason of a 
dangerous bar at the river's mouth. The 
place, which is almost two miles in com- 
pass, is known at sea by a high, slender 
inountam, which rises in the eountir, 20 
miles beyond it, called the Sugar-Locf. 
It is inhabited by a mixed population. 
The medium heat throughout the year is 
fit)m SV to 82^. B» is the chief establish- 
ment of the East India company on the 
island of Sumatra. The settlement, lat- 
terlv, is of but little importance. Pepper 
is Ane only {nroduce of the adjacent coun- 
tty, which is mpontsdnous and woody. 
The air is fiiU of msMgnaiir vapors, and 
the mountains always covered with thick 
clouds, which burst m storms of thunder, 
rain, &c 



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BXaiDA— BENEDICT. 



BszvDA, Geoiigei director of the ehftpel 
at Gotha, bom at Junfibuntzlau, in Bo- 
hemia, 1731, received mm Fredmc II 
the place of the second violinist in the 
chai)el at Berlin, but, in 1748, entered the 
service of the duke of Gotba, as chapel- 
master, where he constantly cultivated 
his talents for composition, particulariy 
of sacred music. His Ariadne, an opera, 
was received with enthusiastic applause 
in Germany, and afterwards' in all Europe, 
being distinguished for ori^ality, sweet- 
ness and ingenious execution, nis com- 
positions are numerous; but his Ariadne 
IS his best work. He died' in the neigh- 
borhood of Gotha, 1795. His absence of 
mind has given rise to many amusing 
anecdotes.' His elder brother, Francis, 
was a distinguished violinist Their fa- 
ther was a poor linen- weaver. 

Bender (in the Moldau language, Ti' 
gino) ; the cliief city of a district in the 
Russian province Bessarabia, on the 
Dniester ; Ion. 24<»46' E. ; lat. 46° 51' N. ; 
population, 10,000. It is built in the 
shape of a crescent, is well fortified, has 
12 mosques and 1 Armenian church. 
The streets are narrow and dark. Its 
commerce is important, and it .carries on 
some branches of manu&cture. Here 
resided Charles XIL j(q. v.) In 1771, the 
Russians took the place, and killed most of 
the troops and citizens, amounting to 
neariy 30^000 persons. The peace of 
Cainardsbi, in 1774, restored it to Turkey. 
In 1809, it was conquered by the Rus- 
sians, but again restored to the Turks by 
the peace of Jassy. Since the peace of 
Bucharest, in 1812^ it has belonged to 
Russia. 

Benedict XIV (Prosper Lambertini), 
bom at Bologna, in i675^of a very respect- 
able &mily, distinffuished himself in his 
youth, by a rapid j^ogiess in all the 
sciences. His mvonte author was St 
Thomas. He applied himself vnth suc- 
cess to the canon and civil law, and be- 
came advocate to the consistory at Rome. 
Afterwards, he was appointed nramoior 
JUeij and wrote a valuable worn on the 
Ceremonies used in BeatiAcatioiis (Boloff- 
na, 1734, 4 vols. foL) He veas passionateTy 
fond of learning, of historical research^ 
and monuments of art, and also associated 
with the disdnguished men of his time; 
among others, with fother Montfaticon, 
who said of him, , ^ Benedict has two 
wmls; one for science, and the o&er for 
flodeQr." He abo made himself fiuniliar 
with the best poedcal works, whereby 
his mind became devated and his style 
animated. Benedict XIII made him, in 



1797, bishop of Ancona ; in 1738, caidinal^ 
and in 1733, archbishop of B<riogna. In 
every station, he displayed great talents, 
and flilfiUed his duties with the most 
conscientious zeal. He opposed fonati- 
cism even at the risk of his own safety, 
defended the oppressed, and expressed 
himself with the greatest frankness to 
Clement XII, without losing his favor. 
When, after the death of Ctement XII, 
in 1740, the election of a new pope in 
the conclave was retarded by the in- 
trigues of cardinal Tencin, and the car- 
dinals could not agree, Lambertiiu, With 
his Usual good nature, said /to them, <* If 
you want a saint, take Gotti ; if a politi- 
cian, Aldobrandi ; if a good old man, 
myself." These words, thrown out in a 
humorous manner, operated on the con- 
clave like inspiration, and Lambertini, 
under the name of Benedict XTT, ascend- 
ed the papal throne. His dboice of the 
ipinisters and fiiends, whom he assembled 
around him, does the greatest honor to 
his judgment The condition of the 
chui^, and of the Roman court, had not 
escaped his penetration. Since the ref- 
ormati<Mi, princes no longer trembled at 
the thunders of the Vatican. The popes 
had renounced their pretensions to wond- 
)y authori^, and Lambertini knew that 
respect for the papal authority could be 
mamtained only bv a wise moderatioit 
He constantly regulated his measures by 
this principle, and thus, succeeded, even 
in difficult circumstances, in satisi^g, 
not only the Catholic, but even the Prot- 
estant princes. The sciences were a 
special object of his care. He established 
academies at Rome ; promoted the pros- 
perity of the academy at Bologna ; caused 
a degree of the meridian to be measured ; 
the obelisk to be erected in the Campus 
Martius ; the church of St Maroellino to 
be built after a plah projected by him- 
self ; the beautiful pictures in St Peter's 
to be executed in mosaic ; the best Eng- 
lish and French works to be translated 
into Italian ; and commanded a cataloffue 
of the manuscripts contained in the Vati- 
can library (the number of which he had 
enlarged to 3300) to be printed. His gov- 
ernment of the papal states did eqnfel 
honor to Ins wisdom. He enacted severe 
laws agamst usury, fiivored commercial 
liberdr, and diminished the number of 
holydays. His jnety was sincere, yet 
enlightened and forbearing. * He strove 
to maintain puritv of doctrine and of 
morals, giving^ in his own character, the 
most praiseworthy example. He died» 
after a painftil udoieeBi during which Ins 



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BENEDICrr-^BEN£]lICTINE& 



SI 



ehaerfbhiflfli and yvm^ never deeened 
him, Maj 3; 1758. The sole reproach 
broucfat agaixiBt him by the Romans ynm, 
that ne wrote too much, and governed 
too litde. ffis works compose, in the 
Venice edition, 16 vols. ^L The most 
important of his woiics is that on the 
synods, in which we recognise the great 
canonist. 

Benedict, St ; the rounder of the first 
religious order in the West ; bom at Nor- 
cia, m. Spoleto (in the present Ecclesiasti- 
cal States), 480. In the 14th year of his 
age, he retired to a cavern situated in the 
desert of Subiaco, 40 miles fipom Rome, 
and, in 515, drew up a rule for Ids monks, 
which was first introduced into the mon- 
astery on Monte Ca8sino,in the neighbor- 
hood of Naples, founded hy him (529) in 
a grove of Apollo, after the temple had 
b^n demolianed. This gradually be- 
came the rule of all the Western monks. 
The abbots of Monte Cassino afterwards 
acquired episcopal jurisdiction, and a cer- 
tain patriarchal authority over the whole 
order. B., with the intention of banish- 
ing idlene^ prescribed, in addition to the 
work of God (as he called prayer and the 
readipff of reli^ous writings), the instruc- 
tion of youth m reading, writing and ci- 
phering, in the doctrines of Christianity, 
m manual labors (including mechanic aru? 
of every kind), and in the management 
of the monastery. With regard to dress 
and food, the rule was severe, but not 
extravagant B. caused a libraiy to be 
fbunde<^ fi>r which the aged and infirm 
brethren {ordo gcnpioTius) were obliged to 
copy manuscripts. . By this means he 
contributed to preserve the literary re- 
mains of antiqmty fit>m ruin ; for, thoush 
he had in view only the copying of reli- 
gious writings, yet die practice was after- 
wards extended to classical works of 
every kind; and the learned world is 
indebted for the preservation of great 
literary treasures to the order of St &ne- 
dict (See Btnedidines.) 

BENEOicTBEnRN ; formerly an abbey, 
situated in the Bavarian circle of the 
Jser, about 40 miles distant fit)m the city 
of Munich, on the descent of the moun- 
tains towards the Tyrol. The convent 
was founded as early as 740. . In our 
days, it is only remarkable for the manu- 
fictoij of optical instruments belonging 
to Reichenbech and Liebherr, who have 
fiumished instruments to almost all the 
observatories of Europe. 

Benedictines. From the 6th to the 10th 
century, almost all monks, in the West, 
might bie so called, because they followed 



theiule of StBenediot of Norcia. fSee ibk 
article, JIfimiufety and Order.) Tne rules 
which, at that tim^ the monasteries, iQ 
Spain and France, received firom theb 
bishops^ as welt as the rule of the Irish St 
Columba (bom 560, died 615\, were essen^ 
tially the same as those of St Benedict ; 
and, in die progress of his order, the monas- 
teries in Spain and France, as well as those 
of the order of Columba, united themselves 
with it Monte Cassino, the magnificent 
primitive monastery, of die Benc^ctines, 
became the model of all others. At that 
time, the monasteries, having no common 
superiors, were under the immediate con-i 
trol of the bishops in their respective dio^ 
ceses, and differed firom one another in 
many qualifications of the primitive rule. 
Not even the color of their dress vfas the 
same. The disciples of Columba wore 
white garments, like the fafst Benedictine 
nuns, who originated in France, in the 6tb 
century. After the'unions which tookplace 
at. a later period, all the members or this 
order wore black, as the founder is said 
tp have done* The decline of monastic 
discipline, after the 8th centunr, occasion-^ 
ed the reforms of Benedict of Aniana, in 
France, the renewed inculcation of the 
old rule, and the adoption of new ordi- 
nances suited to the times, by the coun- 
cil of Aix-la-Ghapelle (817), as well as the 
particular rules and ficatemities of theceU 
ebrated monasteries in France, Germany 
and England, which, in those barbarous 
times, became seats of dvilization ; and, 
finally, the institution of the Cluniacs, a 
new branch of the Benedictines,. which 
proceeded fix)m the convent of Clugny, in 
Burgundv, founded in the year 910. The 
Benedicnne monasteries, in thp middle 
ages, were often asylums in which sci-; 
ence took refiige, and found protectioni 
In the place of the discordant and uncer-r 
tain rules which had hitherto existed, the 
Cluniacs made Hxed regulations concern* 
ing the hours of worship, the obedience, 
discipline and common government of idl 
the monasteries belonginff to their order, 
which were soon imitated in all Europe. 
In the 12th century, their order contamed 
2000 monasteries, whose luxury fiequent- 
Iv called (or reforms, and finally became 
tne chief cause of their decline. The rer 
mains of the Cluniacs united themselves, 
in the 17th century, under the patronage 
of Richelieu, vrith the Benedictine |rater<i 
nities of St Vannea and St Maurus, the 
latter of which, founded in 1618, had, in 
the beginning of the 18th century, 180 
abbeys and priories .in France, and ac- 
quired, by means of its learned members. 



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BENEDICnNES^BENEFIT OF CLERGY. 



such as Mabillon, Mont&ucon, Mait^ne, 
merited distinction. To this family be- 
long thosie new orders, established on the 
foundation, and observing the rule of St. 
' Benedict, which have originated since the 
11th century, and are distinguished fiiom 
the proper Benedictines by then- dress, 
names and particular regulations ; e.g., the 
Camaldulians, the monks of VallombrQsa, 
the Syivestriansythe GrandimontenseSjthe 
Carthusians, the Ccelcstines, the Cister- 
cians and I^mardines, the Tiappists, and 
the monks of Fontevraud. (q. v.) The 
Benedictine monasteries never constituted 
one society, constitutionally re^^lated and 
governed under an aristocratical or mo- 
narchical form : on the contrary, a great 
many monasteries, which descended from 
the old Beipedictines, were Compelled, by 
the council of Trent, to unite them- 
selves gradually into particular fratenii- 
ties. Among these, the Benedictines of 
Monte Cassino, of Afonte Ver^ine, and 
Monte 01iveto{who call themselves Oil- 
vetcmians)^ in Itely and Sicily, where tliey 
have flourished unintemmtedly even to 
the present time ; those of^Valladolid and 
Montserrat, in Spain, where they are 
among the wealthiest orders^ those of 
Hirscbau and Fulda, together lyith Burs- 
feld, which have now ceased to exist, and 
that of Mbelk, in Grermany, deserve par- 
ticular notice, on aecount of^the extent of 
their- possessions, the 'magnificence of 
their churches, and the mildness of their 
rules. To the fraternity of Moelk, which 
still exists, but accommodated to the spirit 
of the times (the govermnent haying or- 
dered its revenues to be applied to. the 
public service), the rest of the Benedictine 
convents in Austria are joined. Many 
of the nunneries of this order are reserved 
for the nobility, because the places in 
them are equal to the most lucrative bene- 
fices. The Benedictines in Sicily, who 
are, for the greater part, the younger sons 
of distingui^ed fiimilies, live under very 
lax rules. In Modena, they have settled 
again, and received a convent^ with rev- 
enues for their support. 

Benediction signifies the act of con- 
ferring a blesdng (q. v.). — Benedktio be- 
oHca ; the blessing bestowed on the pen- 
itent sick. It is also called viaticum. — 
BenedicUo ^acerdotalis is the nuptial ben- 
ediction pronounced by tlie m'iest on the 
occasion of a wedding.— 2b give the 
bemdidiony is an expression used with 
regard to tlie pope, the cardinals, bishops 
or papal nuncios, when thev l^stow a 
blessing, either in the church, or in the 
street, with the sign of the cross, on the 



people, ix some private person. The 
pope g^es a solemn benediction three 
times every year ; viz. on Maundy-Thurs- 
day, on Easter, and on Ascension-day. 

Benefit of Clerot was a privilege of 
clergymen, which originated in a pious 
regard for the church, whereby the clergy 
of Koman Catholic countries were either 
partially or wholly exempted firom the 
jurisdiction of the lay tribunals. It ex- 
tended, in England, only to the case of 
felony ; and, though it was intended to ap- 
ply only to clerical felons or clerks, yet, 
as every one who could read was, by the 
laws of England, considered to be a clerk, 
when the rudiments of learning came to 
be diffused, almost every man in the 
community became entitled to thjs privi- 
lege. Peers were entitled to it, whether 
they could read or not; and by the 
statutes of 3 and 4 William and Mary, 
c. 9, and 4 and 5 William and Mary, c. 
24, it was extended to women. In the 
earlier ases of the English Roman Catho- 
lic church, the cleric, on being convicted 
of j^lony, and claiming the benefit of 
clergy, wa^ handed over to the ecclesias- 
tical tribimal for a new trial or puliation, 
the pretty unifi)rm result of which was 
his acquittal. This pretended trial or 
purgation g^ve rise to a great deal of 
abuse and perjury, so that, at length, the 
secular judges, instead of handing over 
the culprit to the ecclesiastics for purga- 
tion, ordered hiix^ to be detained in prison, 
until he should be pardoned by the king. 
By the statute of 18 Elizabeth, c 7, per- 
tons convicted of felony, and entitled to 
the benefit of clergy, were to be disdiarged 
fix>m prison, being first branded in the 
tliumb, if lavmen, it being left to the dis- 
cretion of the judge to detain them in 
prison not exceeding one. year; and, bv 
the statute of 5 Anne, c. 6, it vi^as enacted, 
that it should no longer be requisite that 
a person should be able td read, in order 
to be entitied to the benefit of clei^, so 
that, firom the passing of this act, a felon 
was no more hable to be hanaed on Re- 
count of defect of learning. The English 
statutes fbrmeriy made specific provisions, 
that, in particular cases, the culprit should 
not be entitied to benefit of deny, but 
the statute of 7 and 8 George IV, c. 28, 
provides, that "benefit of clenjy, with re- 
spect to peisohs convicted of felony, shall 
be abolished.^' — ^This privilege has been 
fonnaUy abolished in some of the United 
States, and 'allowed only in one or two 
cases in others, while, in others again, it 
does not appear to have been^ known at 
all By the act of congresB of April 9(^ 



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BENEFIT OF CLERQY— BENEZET. 



53 



1790^ It 10 enadedt <^ that benefit of deiigy 
flhall not be used or allowedi upon con- 
viction of any crime, for which, by any 
statute of the United States, the i^unish- 
raent is, or shall be, declared to be 
death.'' 

Bkitetxnto ; a dukedom in the Nea- 
politan province Principato Oltia (86 
square miles, with 20,348 inhabitants), 
mich, includmg a ci^ and eight villages, 
belongs to the pspal see. In 1806, Napo- 
leon made a jHesent of it to his minister 
TallejTand, who received thence the dtle 
of frvnct ^ jBeneoetUo. In 1815, it was 
restored to the pope. Cattle, grun, wine, 
oranges and dead game are exported. 
The public revenue amounts to 6000 dol- 
lars. In 1820, the inhabitants revolted. 
In the most remote times, the state of 
Benevento belonged to the countnr of the 
Bamnites. The Lombards, in 571, made 
it a dukedom, w^iicb, long after the ex- 
tinction of the Lombard kingdom, re- 
mained independent. At a later period, 
it fell into the hands of the Saracens and 
Normans. The city, however, was not 
conquered by the latter, because Heniy 
III had given it to the pope, Leo IX. The 
dty of B. (km. 14° » E., lat 40° 6^ N.), 
on a hill between the rivers Sabato and 
Galore, has 13,900 inhabitants, 8 churches 
and 19 convents. Since 969, it has been 
the se^ of an archbishop. It has several 
manufactories. Few cities in Italy doi- 
serve so much attention, on account of 
the antiquities which -they contain, as B. 
Almost every wall consists of fing^ents 
of altars, sepukhres, columns and entab- 
latures. Among other things, the well- 
preserved, magnificent triumphal arch 
of Trajan, built in 114, deserves particu- 
lar mention. It is now called ipmiA ceur 
rea (the golden gate), and is a gate of the 
city. The cathedral is a gloomy buUd- 
'me^ in tho old Gothic style. 

Beitezxt, Anthony; a distinguished 
philanthropist, bom at St QUentin, in 
France, January 1713. His parents were 
opulent, and of noble descent On the rev- 
ocation of the edict of Nantes, the family 
associated themselves with tiie Hugue- 
nots; and, on this account, his father's 
^tate was confiscated, in 1715, who there- 
upon sought temponuy refuge in Holknd, 
and afterwardB m Enfflan^ where An- 
thony received his education. Of An- 
thony's juvenile halnts and dispositions, 
but au imperfect account is preserved : it 
is only known that he became a memb^ 
of the society of Friends, about the 14th 
year, of his age. In 1731, four yean 
subsequent, he arrived, along with his 



parentB, in Phibdelphia. His fiist em- 
ployment was that of an instructor of 
youth at Germantown — a calling which 
led him to prepare and pubtish, several 
elementary books for the use of schools. 
The leading traits of his charaeter-<en-. 
thusiastic benevolence and jMrofound pie* 
tv — ^were developed at this i>eriod. About 
the year 1750, he was particulariy struck 
with the iniqui^ of the slave trade, and 
the cruelty which was exercised bv too 
many of those who purchased and em- 
ployed the negroes. His voice and his 
pen were now employed in behalf of this 
oppressed portion of his' fellows-beings. 
Finding the blacks in Philadelphia nu*^ 
merous, and mi$eral]fly ignorant, he estab- 
lished an evening School fbr them, and 
taught them himself gratuitously. IM 
this office he was fengnall^ successJ%L 
and accomplished the additional g;ood of 
removing prejudices a^^ainst the mtellect 
of the Ne^ by exhibitmg the p^rotfciency 
of his pupils. His first attempts to rouse 
the public feeling, on the subject of Negro 
slavery, consisted in short essays in al- 
manacs and newspapers, which hd was 
indefiitigable in -circulating. He soon 
published a variety of more elaborate ^and 
extensive tracts, among which are tiie 
following :--An Account of. that Part of 
Afiica inhabited by the Negroes, 1762: 
a Caution and .Warning to Great Britain 
and her Colonies, on the calamitous 
State of the enslaved Negroes,' 1767.: 
an Historical Account of Guinea, its 
Situation, Produce, and the general Dis< 
position of its Inhabitants; with an En^ 
auiry into the Rise and Progress of the 
slave-Trade, its Nature and calamitous 
Effects. These works were printed at 
his own'expende,and distributed, without 
charge, wherever be thought they would 
makeanimpresaon. , He addressed them 
directly, with suitable letters, to most of 
the crowned heads of Europe ; and to 
many of the most illustrious divines and 
philosophers. The fervor of his style, 
and the force of his fiicts, obtained fbr 
his philanthropic efiK>rts the notice which 
he sought for the benefit of his cause. 
Great personages, on both sides of the At« 
lantic, corresponded with him, and it is 
certain that he giave the briginal impulse 
to dispositions and messures which in- 
duced the abolition of the slave-trade by 
England and the United States. Clark- 
son, the British philanthropist, whose la- 
bon contributed so largely to the accom- 
plishment of that object) acknowledges, 
that his Understanding was enlightened, 
and bi» zeal kindled, by one of B.% books, 



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54 



BENEZET--BENGAI. 



when he was about to treat the question 
submitted to the senior bachelon of arts 
in the university of Cambridge, Anne 
liceat woUoa in aerviiukm dan%-B. re- 
ffarded all mankind as his brethren. 
About the year 1763> the wroDfls inflicted 
on the aboriginal race of North America 
excited his susceptible mind, and prompt- 
ed him to publish a nract, entitled, Some 
Observations on the Situation, Disposition 
and Character of the Indian Natives of 
this Continent. He addressed the British 
govemois and militfury commanders, on 
Sie effect of hostilities against the natives, 
with chancteristic boldness and pathos. 
His various philanthropical efforts, and 
liis excellent qualities, obtained for him 
peculiar consideration in the society of 
Friends, — In 1780, he wrote and pub- 
hshed a Short Account of the religious 
Society of Friends, commonly called 
Quakers ; and, in 1782, a Pissertation on 
the Plainness and innocent Simplicity 
of the Christian Religion. About the 
same time, he issued several tracts against 
tlie use of ai'dent spirits. — "the person of 
B. was small, and his face far from hand- 
iBome, though benignity might be traced 
in his animated aspect, even by those 
who knew not how his whole being and 
small estate had been devoted. His un- 
derstanding was . originally strong, and 
much improved by i^ing and observa- . 
iion. His private habits, morals and pur- 
suits were adapted to endear and digni^ 
his public career. He died at Philadel- 
phia, May 5, 1784, aged 71 years. When 
it was. announced (hat he was seriously 
ill, a multitude of his fellow-citizens pre- 
sented tliemselves at his dwelling with 
anxious inquiries ; and he conveised lu- 
cidly with hundreds after his case was 
pronounced to be hopeless. There is ex- 
tant a full and interesting memoir of his 
hfe, by Roberts Vaux. . 

Bemoal; an extensive and valuable 
provuice of Hindostan, situafted between 
the 21st and 27th degrees of N. lat, and 
between the 86th and 92d decrees of E. 
Ion., being in length about 400 miles, and 
in breadth, 300. On the north and east, 
it is defended by the mountains of Ne- 
paid, Assam and Ava; on the south, by 
a Une of inhospitable and dangerous sea- 
coast, containing but one haitior capable 
of admitting ships of any considerable 
size, and even that one guarded by iiinu- 
merable shoals : on ^e west, it joins Behr 
and Oude ; and, althou^ rather exposed 
to invasion on this frontier, it is, neverthe- 
less, better defended by nature than an^ 
province of similar extent on the conti- 



nent <^ Asia: and should the Engh'sh be 
ever driven firom all the other parts of In- 
dia, as long as they shall retain their mari- 
tiiAe pre-eminence; they vrill find in 
B. a secure asylum against theur ene- 
mies. Thus guarded firom a foreign foe, 
they are equally safe firom any insur- 
rection of the natives, whose mildness 
of disposition and aversion to war are 
such, that nothing short of the most atro- 
cious cruelty, or relinous persecution, 
(^uld induce tliem to draw tneir swords 
against their present rulers. — The fertile 
soil of B. produces evei^ thing requi- 
site for the sustenance of hfe, and in such 
abundance, that the crops of one year 
are sufiScient for the epnmmiption of its 
inhabitants for two. It abounds in fruits 
and animals of many varieties, and yields < 
every article essential to the comfort, or 
even luxury, of man. Its ingenious in- 
habitants are well vened in all the arts 
of useful industry ; and, whilst their deli- 
cate and valuable manufactures are ex- 
ported tx> every part of the world, they re- 
quire no assistance firom other countries. 
In short, it has been truly said of this 
province, that it is the most valuable jewel 
m the British crown. The revenues 
of B. consist chiefly of rents paid to 
the government for land. In the veor 
.1811 — Hi, they amounted, including those 
of Behar and Orissa, to £2,590,0% ster- 
ling, to which may be added neariy 
£200,000 for the monopolies of salt and 
opium. The exports of B. are prin- 
cipally rice, cotton and silk, both raw and 
manufactured; indigo, sugar, saltpetre, 
ivory, tobacco, and drugs of various 
kinds : hemp and fiax are also to be pro- 
cured in great abundance. Its imports 
by sea are gold and silver, copper and 
bar-iron, woollen cloths of every descrip- 
tion, tea, salt, glass and china ware, wines, 
and other commodities, for the use of its 
European inhabitants, and a few Arabian 
and English horses. The native breed 
of these ^mimals being diminutive, B. is 
chiefly suppHed with them from the 
north-west provinces, although the gov- 
ernment have a stud of their' own in 
Behar, and hold out great encouragement 
to the zemindars, or landholders, to breed 
them. ' The south-east districts produce 
fine elephants^ which are not only in con- 
' siderable demand, among the optdent 
natives, for state or ridmg, but also used 
for carrymg the camp equipage of the 
army. They vary in price from £50 to 
£1000: a good one should be fi^m 8 
to 10 feet high, and not less than 30 
years of age.— B. is intersected by the 



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BENGAL. 



55 



Gflfig^ the Brahmapootra, Diunmooda, 
and several other rivers, so connected by 
various streams, and the annual inunda- 
tions, that there is scarcely a town which 
does not enjoy the benems of an inland 
navigation, the boats employed in which 
are of various sizes and shapes, many of 
them very handsome, and fitted both for 
convenience and state. The Delta of the 
Ganges, the water of which is either salt 
or brackish, exhibits a labyrinth of unin- 
habited inland navigation; and in other 
parts of the countiy, during the rainy 
season, some hundred miles of rice fields 
may be sailed over. These inundations 
are, howeVer, firequently the cause of 
much injury, by ovnying away the cattle, 
stores of grain, and habitations of the poor 
peasants. — ^The greater proportion or the 
mhabitants of B. are Hindoos : they are 
olive-colored, with black hair and eyes. 
They are small and delicate in their per- 
sons, and, although very timid, are litigious ; 
humble to their superiois, and insolent to 
their inferiors. In vouth, they ure quick 
and inquisitive, and would probably be 
much improved by their intercourse with 
Europeans, but »>r the supreme con- 
tempt in which they hold other nations, 
from the notion of their being degraded 
Hindoos. The indigent wear scarcely 
any clothing other than a raff round their 
wedst: tlie rich, when out of doors, dress 
much like Mohammedans; within the 
house, they usually resunie their old na- 
tional costume, which consists merely of 
different pieces of cloth twisted round the 
body, and having one end tucked into 
tlie folds. No small part of the population 
are Mohammedans ; they are the descend- 
ants pf the Afghan and Mogul conquer- 
ors, and Arabian merchants, softened, in 
the course of time, by an intermixmre 
with Hindoo women, converts, and chil- 
dren, whom they purchased during a 
scarcity, and educated in their own re- 
ligion. There are also a number of tlie 
descend^ts of the Portugese, and of 
various other nations; and, m spite of the 
checks held out by the English against 
colonization, it Is probable, that, in the 
course of another century, their descend- 
ants will becoijfie so numerous, that it 
will be necessary to pern^t them to be- 
come culfiv^tois of the soil.— The ther- 
mometer, part of the yeak", in B., is as 
hij^h as 100 degrees, and the climate is 
injurious to European constitutions. The 
year is there divided into three seasons, 
viz. the hot, the rainv and the cold : the 
Ibrmer begins in March, and ends in June ; 
the rains then commence, and continue 



tiU October ; after which h becomes cool, 
and the weather continues pleasant for 
four months.— Of the ancient history of 
B. we have no authentic infbnnation. It 
is said to have been sometimes an inde- 
pendent kingdooii, and at other times 
tributary to Magadha (Behar). In the in- 
stitutes of Akbar, a list of 61 Hindoo 
kings is given ; but the number of years 
assigned to many pf the reigns do^ 
away its credibitiQr. B. was fii«t invaded 
and conquered by the Afghan Mohamme- 
dans in Av D. 1203, and continued tribu- 
tary to the emperor of Delhi till the year 
1340, when Fakher Addeen,« confiden- 
tial servant of the governor, murdered his 
master, and, having seized the reins of 
government, threw off his fdlegiance, and 
took the title of sultan Sekunaer. From 
this period till 1538, B. remained an in- 
dependent kingdom, when it was con- 
quered by Shore Shah, who shordy after 
annexed it to Delhi. From the descend- 
ants of Sliere Shah it was conquered by 
th^ emperor Akbar, and continued sul^ 
ject to Delhi, or noxninallv so, till the 
year 1757, when it feU into tne hands of 
the English, wha have gradually changed 
^ts form of government, and introduced a 
code of regulations, founded on the Hin- 
doo; Mohammedan and English laws, by 
which impaitifd justice is administered to 
all the inhabitants, and toleration granted 
to all religions, owing to which the coun- 
try improves, and the population in- 
creases. The cities of Gour, Tonda, Ra- 
jemahil, Dacca and Mooiahedabad have 
each, at various times, been the capital ; 
but, since the conquest of it by the Eng- 
lish, Calcutta is become the seat of gov- 
emment.-^The government of thiid presi- 
dency is vestted m. the supreme council, 
consisting of the governor-general and 
three counsellors. The former is ap- 

Eointed by the kinjf ; the latter are chosen 
y the court of directors firom the civil 
servants of at least 12 years' standing. 
For the administration of'^justice, there is 
1 supreme court at Calcutta, 6 courts 
of appeal and circuit, and 46 inferior ma- 
gistrates, stationed in as many different 
towns or districts. The circuit courts are 
formed by 3 judges, with an, assistant iand 
native officers. Criminal cases are tried 
by the Mohammedan law, in form and 
name, but so modified as to approach 
pearly, in feet, to the English ; ana capi- 
tal sentences are confirm^ by the mzam- 
at addat, or sujireme court at Calcutta. 
The district ma^strates or judgUj as thev 
are often cdled, have each a registrar and 
one or more of the junior civQ servants, 



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56 



BENGAL— BENGUELA. 



, with Dative lawyers. Muanil- 
appeal ties irom 



as 

man and Hindoo. An appeal 
their sentence, in almost all cases, to the 
provincial cogrt The average size of a 
district m this mesidency is about 6000 
square miles. In civil causes, the le- 
spectire codes of the Mohammedans and' 
Hindoos aie generally followed. In 1793, 
regular advocates^ educated at Ae Mo- 
hammedan and Hindoo colleges at Cal- 
cutta and Benares, were' appointed to 
plead in these courts. Thev fees aze 
regulated by law. Written pleadings are 
allowed, and written evidence must some- 
times be admitted, on account of the dis- 
inclination of the Asiatics to have women 
appear in public— Domestic slavery is 
prmhted by law, but the slaves are kmd- 
ly treated. The number of these slaves 
it has been thought unsafe to ascertain. 
Their marriage is never impeded; but 
fevr children are sold, as it is reputed dis- 
creditable to sell them, and their manu- 
mission is considered an act of piety. 
Parents themselves, who are reduced by 
fiunine, &c., are usually the persons who 
supply the slave-market* Inability to 
provide for their children, not the desire 
of gam, seems to be the real motive of 
this horrid custom. Slaves, like freemen, 
are under the protection of law.— The 
Mohammedans may be estimated at one 
seventh of the whole population. Vari- 
ous est,imates of the population have been 
made at different times, but rather from 
conjecture than from well-authenticated 
documents. The sum total for Ben^ 
appears to be 25,306,000, and there are 
strong' reasons for believing this number 
to be short of the real amount The 
number of native troops, called Btapovs 
Uipahia) or aoldiersy waiiii 1811, 207,5^, 
besides 5875 invalids. The non-commis- 
sioned officers are natives, those who 
have commiasions are Europeans, and 
the number of the latter in this presiden- 
cy, at the time above mentioned, was 
2024. About 22,000 of the king's troops 
are also stationed in India, and occasion 
an expense to the company of about 
£160,000 per annum^ — Before concluding 
this article, it may be proper to observe, 
that the Dutch possess the town of Chin- 
sura, the French, Chindunagore, and the 
Danes, Serampore, with a small territoiy 
adjoining eacii. These towns are situ- 
ated on the Hoogly river, firom 15 to 25 
miles above Calcutta. 

Benoel, John AJbanus, a fiunous Ger- 
man theologian, bom in 1667, at Winne- 
den, in WCirtemburff, studied at Stuttgart 
and Tfibingen, an{ in 1713, became a 



preacher and professor at Denkeodorf! 
His chief studies were the fhthen of the 
church and the New Testamait Ha 
died, after having been appointed to sev« 
end offices, in 1^2. B» was the first Lii* 
theran theologiao who applied to the 
criticism of the' New Testament a com* 
ivehensive spirit, which endiraced the 
subject in its whole extent, and manifest- 
ed the power of patient investigation 
which the smdy required. HSa sugges- 
tions for the cofrection of the text are 
particulariy valuable. In some of his 
observations, his judgment has been led 
astray by bis inclination \o mysticism. 
His explanatJon of the Apocal3rpse has 
given him, with some persons, the feme 
of an inspired prophet ; with most people, 
that of an enthusiast. He was esteemed 
for his private virtues. 

Benoer, Miss Elizabeth Ogilvy, vras 
bom in t778, at Portsmouth, in England. 
She was the daughter of a purser m the 
navy, who died in 1796, and left his wife 
and daughter with a slender provision. 
In 1802, she removed with her mother 
to London. She soon attracted attention 
by her verses, and Miss Sarah Wesley 
early becjame her patron. She composecl 
some theatrical pieces, which did not 
meet with success. Mr. Bowyer, the en- 
graver, employed her to Write a poem on 
the Slave-Trade, which, with two others, 
was published in quarto, with engravings, 
in 1812. 'fSbe successively published 
memoirs of Mrs. Elizabeth Hamilton, 
memoirs of John Tobin, the dramatist, and 
notices of Klopstock and his friends, pre- 
fixed to a translation of their letters fiiom 
the German. These- writings were fol- 
lowed by the history of Anne Boleyn, 
which was translated into French, and 
the memoirs of Elizabeth, queen of 
Bohemia. She undertook to compile 
memoirs of Henry IV of France, but the 
progress of this work was prevented by 
her death, January 9, 1827. By all who 
knew her, among whom the editor has 
the pleasure of counting himself^ she was 
esteemed as a kind, faithftU and candid 
friend, a most affectionate daughter, be* 
loved by all ages and both sexes on ac« 
count of her fine talents, benevolent dis* 
position, and pure heart 

Penouela ; a country in Afiica, bound- 
ed N. by An^la, E. by the countiy of 
Jaga Cassangi, S. by Mafaman, and w. bv 
the sea. Cape Negro forms its S. W, 
extremity, whence mountains run noith- 
wai-d, in which are contained the iqprings 
of many rivers. The productions are 
similar to those of Angola and Cong»s 



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BENGUELA— BENJ0W8KY. 



57 



one of the prioeifMi « manioc ; divers 
sorts of palni» are found ; dates grow in 
sreat abundance $ the vines naturally 
fom alleyB and arix>re ; Cassia and tama- 
rinds Ao flovariehf and, from, the hu- 
jnidit|r of the soil, there are two fruit 
aeaaons in the year. The air of the 
coimtrr is exceedingly unwholesome. 
The cliief towns are Old Benguela, St. 
Philip or New Benffueto, Man-kikondo, 
and Kaachil. Lon. 9DP to dS"" E. ; lat. 13? 

wiowaca 

BcviN ; a kingdom in the west of Afn- 
ca, the limits of which are not well ascer- 
twnetl ; but the name may be applied to 
that piot of the coast extending ^m the 
river Liigos^ the eastern limit of the Slave 
coast, to the Formosa, about 180 miles. 
The interior limit is unknown. The 
whole coast presents a sncceaoon of estu- 
aries, some of them very broad, and their 
origin never explored. Between the La- 
gofi and Cross rivers, the number of rivers 
flowing into Hie gulf of Gruinea is said to 
exceed 20, some of them very broad and 
deejx This tract, called the Ddia of Be- 
nin, is -about ^a&a miles in extent. - The 
9spect of the coast, and the great body of 
water flowing into the gul^ have led to 
the supposition that the waters of the Ni- 
ser here find an entrance into the ocean. 
This region haa been but little explored, 
and is litde known. The countiy is low 
and flat, the soil on the banks of the riv- 
en very fertile, but the climate unhealthy. 
The inhalntaots are of a mild disposition ; 
polygamy is practised ; almost all labor is 
performed by females; the govenunent is 
despotic. Chief towns, Benin, Agatton, 
Boaoda, Ozebo and Meibera, which are 
situated on the FV>rmosa, the principal 
river. 

Benin; capital of the above kingdom, 
on the Formosa; km. 5^ 6^ £ ; lat 6° Id' 
N. This town, according to some, is 18 
miles in circuit, the largest street 3 miles 
long, and others nearly equal ; according 
to other statements, it is only 4 miles in 
circuit The streets are filled with vari- 
ous articles of merchandise, and present 
the appearance of a crowded market, 
though always clean. The houses are 
laige, and, thouf^ their walls are of clay, 
the reeds and leaves, with which they are 
covered, give them a pleasing appearance. 
The king's palace conaists or a great 
number of square enclosures. 

BurjowsKT, Maurice Augustus, count 
oft a man oi indefetigable activ^ and 
extraordinary adventures,, bom in 1741, 
at Werbowa, in Hungary, where his fa- 
ther was a geneml in the Austrian anny, 



entered the same senrice himself and 
acted as lieutenant in the seven yean* 
war till 1758. ' He afterwards studied 
navigation in Hambuig, Amsterdam and 
Pl^outh. He then went to Poland, 
joined the confederacy against the Rus- 
sians, and became colonel, command- 
er of cavalry and quarter-master general. 
B. was taken prisoner by the Russians in . 
1769, a^d sent, the next year, to Kamt- 
schatka. On the vova^thi&er, he saved 
the diip that carriecl him, when *in peril 
from a storm. This circumstance pro- 
cured him a favorable reception uom 
governor Nilofl*, whose chilaren he in- 
structed in the German and French lan- 
guages. Aphanasia, NHofTs younger 
daughter, fell in love with him. B. pre- 
vailed on her fether to set him at liberty, 
and to lietroth her to him. He had, how- 
ever, already conceived the project of 
escaping fiom Kamtschatka, together 
with several other conspirators. Apha- 
nasia discovered his design, but did 
not fersake him. <^ the contrary, she 
warned him when it ivas resolved to se- 
cure his person. Accompanied by Apha- 
nasia, who remained invariably faithful 
to him, though she had now learned that 
he was married. B., together with 96 
other persons, left Kamtschatka in May, 
1771, and sailed to Formosa ; firom thence 
to Macao, where many of his compan- 
ions died, and among them the feithflil 
Aphanasia. At length he arrived in 
France, where he was commissioned to 
found a colony in Madagascar; an un- 
dertaking of which he foresaw the difll- 
culties, especially as the sucpess^ depended 
on the assisumce of the officera in the 
Isle of France, to whom he was refeired 
for the greater part of his equipment In 
June, 1774, B. arrived in Madagascar, 
established a settlement at Foul point, 
and gained tlie good will of several tribes, 
who, in 1776, appointed him their am- 
panioeabe, or kmg; on which occasion 
the women also swore allegiance to his 
wife. Afterwards, he went to Europe, 
with the desiffn of obtaining for the na- 
tion a powenul ally and some commer- 
cial advantages. But, on his arrival in 
France, he was compelled, by the perse- 
cutions of the French ministiy, to enter 
into the Austrian service, in which he 
commanded against the PrussianB in the 
battle of Habelschwerdt, 177a In 1783, 
he made an attempt in Eng&nd to fit out 
an expedition to Mada^^ascar. He re- 
ceive assistance fiom private persons in 
London, and particulariy from a commer- 
cial faKOUse at Baltimore, in America. In 



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BENJOWSKY— BENSPIADE. 



October, 1784| he set out, leai 
wife in Ameiicay aad londed in 1 
eaif '1785w Haying, there commenced 
ho^ties againii^ ti^ French, the auth<Nr- 
ities in the Isle of Fiance sent tioope 
^jAninat him. In an action which took 
phico May 23, 1786^ he waa mortal^ 
wounded in the hreieust by a ball. B. 
wrote an account of the events of his life 
in French. William Nicholson has pub- 
lished an English translation of it, made 
fit>m the manuscript His widow died at 
her estate Vieska, near Betzko, Dec. 4, 
1825. benjowsky's only son is said to have 
been devouoBd by rats in Madagascar. 

Ben-La WEiis ; a mountain of Scotland, 
in the county of Perth, 4015 feet above 
the level of the sea ; 11 miles S. Geoige- 
town. 

Ben-Lodi ; a mountain of Scotland, in 
Perthshire, 3009 feet above the sea; 4 
miles S. W. Callander. 

Ben-Lomonb ja mountain of Scotland, 
in Stirlingshire, 3340 feet above the sea ; 
96 miles W.Stirling. 

Bsii-Macsuis ; a mountain of Scot- 
land, on the western confines of Aber- 
deenshire, 4300 feet hifph. It is the sec- 
ond hiahest mountain m Great Britain. 

Bsn^ore; a mountain of Scotland, 
in the icdand of Mull, 3097 feet above the 
level of theses. 

Beh-Morx ; a mountain of Scotland, 
in Perthshire, 3908 feet above the level of 
the sea ; 90 miles W. Crief. 

Bsii-Nfivis^a mountain of, Scotland, 
in the county of Dambaiton, the highest 
in the island of Great Britain. It 'rises 
4370 feet above the level of the sea. A 
great portion of this mountain consists of 
porphyry of difibrent shades, and beauti- 
ful red granite. It also contams a vein 
of lead ore, richly impregnated with sil- 
ver. The summit is generally covered 
with snow. 

Bennikosbn, Levin Augustus, baron 
o( Russian commander-in-chief, born at 
Bantehi, in Hanover, 1745, early entered 
into the Russian service, and distinguish- 
ed himself by great gallantry in the war 
a^jgainst Pokiia, under the emp re ss Cath- 
arine IL He acted a chief part in the 
conspiracy of the palace against the em- 
peror Paul L In 1806^ he was appointed 
to conmand the Russian aimv which 
hastened to the assistance of the Prus- 
sians ; but, before his arrival, die Priiasiana 
were defeated at Jena. He jsfterwards 
feugfat the murderous battle of Eylau 
(next to that of Mojaisk, perhaps, the 
most Uoodv in militaiy history), and the 
battle of FViedhmd. After the peace of 



Tilsit, he retired to his estates. In 1813^ 
he led a Russian army, called the arm^6f 
PoUsndf into Saxony, took part in the 
battle of Leipsic, and blockaded Ham* 
burgl After commanding the army in 
the south of Russia, he finalhr settled 
in his native country, and died Oct. 3^ 
l89a He is the author of Thouriits on 
certain Points requisite for an Officer of 
Light Cavalry to be aeqtiainted with (Ri- 
ga, 1794 ; WUna, 1805). 

Benn iiTOTon ; a post-town in a cocmty 
of the same name, in Vermont, watered 
by a branch of the Hoosack; 37 miles 
N. E. Albany, 68 S. W. Windsor, 115 S. 
by W. Montpelier, 132 W. N. W.Boston. 
Lon,7*W.;tat.49°4yN. Population 
in 1810, 2524; in 1^20, 2485. It borders 
on New York, is situated in a good farm- 
ing country, and is a place of considera- 
ble trade and manufectures. The courts 
for the county are held alternately at Ben- 
nington and Manchester. On moimt An- 
thony, in this town, there is a cave con- 
taining many beautiful petrifection&— 
Two ramous battles were rou^t here, on 
the 16th of Auffust, 1777, in which ^- 
eral Stark, at the head of 1600 American 
militia, gained a distinguished victory 
over the British. 

Benno, St, of the femily of the counts of 
Woldenberg, bom at Hildesheim, in 1010; 
became (l(m) a Benedictine monk^in the 
convent of St Michael there. Henry IV 
(1066) made him bishop of Misnia, and 
fevored him by repeated donations of 
estates for Ws church. Nevertheless, B. 
took a secret part in the conspiracy of the 
Saxon nobles against the emperor, for 
which reason Heniy led him away pris- 
oner, when he passed Misnia, in 1075, 
after the battle on the Unstnit He was 
afterwards set at liberty,but several times 
proved fidthless to the emperor. He died 
1107. His bones began by degrees to 
work miracles ; and pope Adrian Yl, alter 
many entreaties from the Saxons, as well 
as from the emperor Charles V, and hav- . 
ing received large sums of money, placed 
him among the sainis, 1523. It was 
thought that this canonization would tend 
to the promotion of the Catholic faith in 
Saxony. At present, the bones of St 
Benno are in the city of Munich, which 
has chosen him for its patron. 

Bbivssrads, Isaac de, a poet at the 
court of Louis XIV, bom, 1612, at Lyons- 
k-For^t, a small town in Normandy, 
wrote for the stage, and composed a mat 
number of mgenious verses for the long 
and many distinguished persorks at court 
Inthefirsthaif of the reign of Louis XIY. 



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BENSERADE— BENnVOGUO. 



» 



tlie couiti ttod the AHHomen of the coort, 
pttroaised songB of ffeUantiy, rondeaus, 
tiiolels, medrigato and sonnets, containing 
aaUies <^ wit, conceits and effusions of 
gaUantiy, in the affected style then preT- 
alent. No one suoeeeded so weU in this 
art as B^ who was therefoie called, by 
way of eminence, lepoHe de la cow. He 
received many pensions for his perform- 
ances, and lived at great expense. Wea- 
ried, at last, wish the life which he led at 
court, he retired to his country-«eat. Gen- 
tiUy, and died 169h 

Bbnslst, Thomas; a printer in Fleet 
street, London. He and Buhner are 
among the ffnt typographical sitists in 
England. He distinguished himself first 
by the edition wliich be printed of the 
English tcanslation of Lavater's f^hymog- 
nomy, London, 1789, 5 vols., 4to. The 
most beautiful productions of his press 
are MadLlm's splendid edition of the Eng- 
lish translation of the Bible (1800--15, 7 
vols., folio), and that of Hume's History of 
England (1806, 10 vols., folio), both adorn- 
ed With excellent copper-plates. Amonj^ 
his impressions of a smaller size, the edi- 
tions of Shakspeare (1803, 7 vols.}, and 
Hume (1803, 10 vols.), with n^asterly en- 
sravlnfl^ on wood, are distinguished. He 
nas also fiiniished several well-executed 
impreanops on parchment, and first used 
the printing-press mvented by Koenig 
and Bauer, for Elliotson's English trans- 
lation of Blumenbach'a Physidc^ (Lon- 
don, 1818). . 

Bbntham, Jeremy, an English lawyer, 
born in 17^^, never appeared at the bar, 
nor has he published his chief worics him- 
selfl They have been arranjjped and trans- 
lated into French by his mend M. Du- 
mont, and printed partly in Paris and 
partly in London. Amamg them are 
Jh»SU$ de Ligidation, ewue et phude, 
^Lc (Paris. 180g, 3 vols.), and Th^arie des 
Pemes d des Bicompenses (London, 1801, 
2 vote.). B. is a filaad of refetm in par- 
liament, and of a thorau^ correction of 
civil and crimimd legiabion. His Frag- 
ments on Government, in opposition to 
Blackstone, appened anonymously in 
. 1776, and whh bis name, London, 1833. 
In France, his titeraiy IdboA fbund a 
better reception than m England or Ger- 
many. A small pamphlet on the liberty 
of the press (London, 1831) was addressed 
by him to the Spanish coites, during their 
discussion of this subject ; and, m another 

Srfaree TVactsTdative to the Spenidi and 
ortuguese Affiurs, London, 1831), he 
refiited the idea of the necessity of a 
bouae of peers Id Spain, as well as Moo- 



tesquaeu's proposition, that ju^dal ibrme 
are the delence of innocence. His latest 
work is the Alt of Packing (London, 
1831); thatisyofarraiigingjuriessoasto 
obtain any verdict desired. His previous 
work, Essai sur U TaunHque des Assem- 
liies Ugidatme^ edited, from the author's 
papers, by Etienne Dumont (Geneva, 
1815), and translated into German, con- 
tains many usefiil obser?atione. His In- 
troduction to the Principi» of Morals and 
Legislation (London, 1^33, 3 vols.) treats 
of the principal objects of (^vemment in a 
profound and comfH^dienaive manner. Za- 
nobelir has translated Bentham's Theory 
of Le^ Evidence into Italian (Bergamo, 
1834, 3 vols.). Among the earlier woite 
of B. was'his.Defenoe of Usury, showing 
the Impolicy of the present legal Re- 
straints on the Terms of pecunialy Bar- 
gains (1787). 

Bezvtivoolio, Comelio; cardinal and 
poet, bom at Ferrara, 1668, of a family 
that held the highest <^ces in the former 
republic of BoToffna. He early distin- 
ffuished himself by his progress in the 
fine arte, literature, phUoeophy, theoloay 
and jurisprudence. WhHe at Ferrera, he 

Cnised the literaiy institutions there. 
Clement XI made him his domes- 
tie*prelate and secretary to the apostolic 
chamber, and sent hirttj in 1713, as nuncio 
to Paris, where, during the last years of 
the reign of Louis XI V, he acted an im- 
portant part in the afiUr of the bull Uni- 
genitus. '^he duke of Orleans, regent 
after the <feath of Louis, was not &vorar 
bly disposed towards him; the pope^ 
therefore, tranafened him to Ferrara, and, 
in 1719, bestowed on him die hat of a 
cardinal, and employed him at first hi 
Rome, near his own person, ihen as locate 
a laUart in Romagna, &c B. died in 
Rome, 1733. Poetry had occupied the 
leisure hours of the learned cardinal. 
Some sonnets composed by hun are to be 
found in Gobbi's collection, vol 3, and in 
other collections of his time. Under die 
name of Sdvamo Pprpera^ he translated 
the TMntU or Statius into Italian. He 
d^vered several addresses before socie- 
ties for the jHTomotion of the fine sqrts. 
Ifis discourse in defence of the utility 
and moral influence of paiiiting, sculpture 
and ari^itecture, delivered in the academy 
of desigii, at Rome, 1707, was reprinted 
by ,the acadeinv of the Arcadians, in the 
3d voL of the Proee degli ArcadL 

Bemtivoolio, Guv or Guide, celebrated 
as a cardinal and a historian, was boni at 
Ferrara, in 1679. He studied at Padua 
with great reputation, and afterwards, fix- 



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BENTIVOGUO^BENTLET. 



log his residence at Rome, acquired gen- 
eml esteem b^ his prudence and Intenity. 
He was nuncio in Flanders from 1607 to 
1616, and afterwards in France till 1621. 
His character stood so high, that, on the 
death of Uihan VIII, in 1644, he was 
generally thought to be the most likely 
person to succeed him; biit^ on entering 
the conclave, in the hottest and most i|n- 
healthy season of the year, he was seized 
with a fever, of which he died, a^ 65 
years. He had lived in a magnificent 
style, and was .much embarrassed at the 
time of his death — a circumstance attrib- 
uted to his canvass for the papacy. ' Car- 
dinal B. was an eible poliucian, and his 
historical memoirs are such as we should 
exoect from emh a man. The most valu- 
able of these are his History of the Civil 
Wars in Flanders, written in Italian, and 
first published at Cologne, 1630, a trans- 
lation of whidi, by Heniy earl of Mon- 
mouth, appeared in 1654 (London, folio) ; 
an Account of Flanders, during his lega- 
tion, also translated by the earl of Mon^ 
mouth (folio, 1652|; his own Memoirs; 
and a collection of letters, which are reck- 
oned among the beet specimens of epis- 
tolary writing in the Italian kuiguage (an 
edition of which was pubhshed at Cam- 
bridge, in 1727). All these, except the 
Memoirs, have been published together at 
Paris, 1645—1648, tolio, and at Veniee, 
1668,^. 

Beittlet, Richard, a celebrated Eng- 
lish divine and classical scholar, distin- 
guished as a polemical writer, in the lat- 
tor part of the 17th century, was bom in 
16^ His fiuher is said to have been a 
blacksmith. To his mot];ier, who was a 
woman of strong natural abilities, he- was 
indebted for the first rudiments of his 
education. At the age of 14, he entered 
St John's college, Cambridge. In , 1682, 
he left the university, and became usher 
of a school at Spalding ; and this situation 
he relinquished, in the following year, for 
that of tutor to the son of doctor StiUing- 
fleet, dean of St. Paul's. He accompaui^ 
his pupil to Oxford, where he availed 
himself of the literary treasures of the 
Bodleian library, in the prosecution of his 
studies. In 1^4, he took the degree of 
A. M. at Cambridge, and, in 1689, obtained 
the same honor at the sister university. 
His first published Work was a Latin 
epistle to aoctor John lilil], in an edition 
of the Chronicle of John Malela, which 
appeared in IQdt.^ It contained observa- 
tions on the writings of that Greek histo- 
rian, and display^ed so much profound 
learning and critical acumen, as excited 



die /sanguine antidpations of daasicd 
schdars fit>m the future labors of the 
author. Doctor Stillingfleet, having been 
raised to the bishopric of Worcester; made 
B. his chaplain, and, in 169S2, collated him 
to a prebend m his cathedral The i«c- 
ommendation of his patron and of bisliop 
Uoyd procured him the honor of being 
chosen the first preacher of the leeture 
instituted by the celebrated Robert Boyle 
for the defence of Christianity. The dis- 
courses against atheism, which he deliv- 
ered on this occasion, were published in 
1694: they yhave since been often reprint- 
ed, and trandated into several foreign 
languages. In 1693, he was appomted 
keeper of the royal library at St. James's 
— a circumstance which ihcidentally led 
ta Jiis fiunous controversy vrith the hon. 
Charles Boyle, afterwards earl of Orrery, 
relative to the eenuineness of the Gredc 
Epistles of Phakris, an edition of which 
was published by the latter, then a stu- 
dent at Christ-church, Oxifbrd. In this 
dispute, Bentley was completely victo- 
rious, though opposed by the greatest 
wits and critics of the age, including Pope, 
Swift, Garth, Atteibury, Aldrioh, DodweU, 
and Conyers Middleton, who advocated 
the opinion of Boyle with a degree of 
warmth and iUiberality which appears 
very extraordinary. But the motives of 
B.'s assailants were various. Swift, in his 
Batde of the Books, took up Uie cudgels 
against him in defence of liis fiiend sir 
William Temple ; doctor Garth attacked 
him probably fi^om mere wantoimess, in 
the well-known couplet in his Dispen- 
sary — 

So cUamflnds owe a lustre to their toil, 
And to a Bentky 'Us we owe a Boyle. 
Some were actuated by personal consid- 
erations, among whom was Conyers Mid- 
dleton, whose persevering hostility to B., 
during a long series of year^ seems to 
have originated ftom the latter having 
applied to tha fomwi^ when si young stu- 
dent in the univevsirv, the contemptuous 
epithet oi fiddSa^t GoityerB, because he 
played on the vionn. It dees not appear 
who was the author of a {MUining carica- 
ture, wfaieh was produced on this occasion, 
representmg B. about to be thrust into the 
&razm M2 of Phalaris, and exclaiming, 
'*I had father be roa$Ud than BoyUd?^ 
In 1699, B., who had three years before 
been created D. D., published his Disserw 
tation on the Epistles of Phalaris, in 
which he sadsftctorily proved that they 
were not the compoanons of the tyrant of 
Agrigentum, who lived more than ^y^ 
centuries before the Christian era, but 



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b£ntl£y--.m:nzoio acid. 



«l 



ymn written l^ some soj^hist, under the 
borrowed name oiPhaUtng^ in the declln- 
JD^ age of Greek literature. Soon after 
this publication, doctor B. .nvas presented 
by tlie crown to the mastership of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, worth nearly £1000 
a year. He now resigned the prebend of 
Worcester, and, in 1701, was collated to 
die archdeaconry of Ely. His conduct as 
head of the college gave rise to accu- 
sations against him from the vice-master 
and some of the fellows, who, among 
various offences, charged^ him with em- 
bezzling the college money. The con- 
test wos much protracted, and occasioned 
a lawsuit, which was decided in the doc- 
tor's favor, about twenty years afler. In 
1711, he published an edition of {iorace, 
at Cambridge, in 4to., whicb was reprint-^ 
ed at Amsterdam ; and, in 1713, appeared 
his remarks on Collins's Discourse on 
Free-thinking, under the form of a Letter 
to F. H. [Francis Hare] D. D., by Phile- 
kutberus Lipsiensis. He was appointed 
regius professor of divinity in 1716, and, 
in the same year, issued proposals for a 
new edition of the Greek Testament — an 
undertaking for which he was admirably 
qualified, but which be was prevented from 
executing, in consequence of the animad- 
versions of his deteimihed adversary, Mid- 
dletdn. In 1717, George I, visiting the uni- 
versity, nominated by mandate, as is usual 
on such occasions, several persons for the 
doctor's degree in divinity. It was the 
duty of B., as professor, to perform the 
ceremony called cr'taJiion; previous to 
which he made a demand of lour guineas 
fit)m each candidate beyond the usual 
fees, absolutely refusing to create any doc- 
tor withQUt payment Some submitted ; 
but others, among whom was Middleton, 
withstood the demand, and conunenced a 
prosecution against the professor before 
the vice-chancellor, who, deciding in &vor 
of ^e complainants, firet suspended B., 
and subsequently degraded him from his 
honors, rights and offices in the univer- 
sity. These proceedings were, afler con- 
siderable litigation, annulled by the court 
of king's bench ; and the doctor, in 1728, 
was festered to all his former honors and 
emoluments. In 1726, he published an 
edition of Terence and Pnsedrus; and 
his notes on the comedies of the former 
involved him in a dispute with bishop 
Hare, onrthe metres of Terence, which 
provoked the sarcastic observation of sir 
Isaac Newton, that *'two digzufied clergyr 
men, instead of mindins their duty, had 
Men out about a play-book." The last 
work of doctor B. was an edition of Mil- 

VOL. II. 6 



ton's Paradise Lost, yniAx conjecdiml 
emendations, which appeared in 1732* 
This added nothinff to his reputation, and 
may, in one word,be characterized a fail- 
ure. He died at the master's lodge at 
Trinity, July 14, 1742, and was interred 
in the college chapel. As a scholar and 
a critic, B. was veiy distinguished. The 
best informed of his opponents respected 
his talents, while they were loading him 
with classical abuse, which he did not fail 
to return with interest. Now that the prej- 
udices, excited apparently by his personal 
cbnduct, have subsided, his preeminence 
in that species of literature which he cul- 
tivated, is universally acknowledged. The 
celebrated German philologist J. A. Wolf 
wrote an excellent biography of B. in the 
AnaUdOj (vol. 1, Berlin.) 

Benzel-Sternau, Charles Christian, 
count, bom at Mentz, 1750, was, in 1812, 
president of the ministry for the depart 
ment of the interior in the former grand- 
duchy of Frankfort, and now lives in tlie 
neighborhood of Hanau. He is one of 
the most humorous writers of our time, 
and, in the character of his writings, 
resembles J. Paul.Richter. His &me was 
established by the Golden Calf (a biogra- 
phy, 1805^1804, 4 vols, in the fnst edi- 
tion). B, has written much, and all his 
proauctions display wit, richness of im- 
agery, and nice observation of character. 

Beivzenbero, John Frederic, bom. 
May 5, 1777, at Scholler, a village between 
^Iberfeld and DCisseldorf^ studied theolo- 
gy in Marbui^, and, in G6ttingen, mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy. He ren- 
dered much service to the fatter science, 
by his observations on the fell of bodies, 
and the motion of the earth, whieh he 
began by experiments in the steeple of 
the church of St. Michael, in Hambui]^, 
and continued in tlie shaft of a mine, in 
the county of Mark, having a depth of 
266^ feet He was appointed, in 1805, 

C feasor of astronomy and natural phi- 
mhy, by the then elector of Bavania, 
in Diisseldorf At a later period, he has 
written much in fevor of the Pmssian 
government; but the influence of his 
politicd pieces has not been so great as 
that of his scientific o))6ervations above- 
mendoned. B. lives now retired, near 
Crefold, in the neighborhood of the 
Rhine. 

Benj&oic Acid is obtained by the appli- 
cation of a moderate, heat to the balsam 
of Pem^ it rises in vapor, and condenses 
in slender prisms, which are white and 
briJUiant It has a peculiar aromatic odor. 
When heated on burmng fuel, it inflames 



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68 



BENZOIC ACm-BERBERS. 



ft&d bums with a clear yellew K^ht. It 
unites with alkalies and earths, tormiDg 
salts called benzoates, which are usimpor- 
tant, except the benzoate of iron, which, 
from its insolubiiity, affords a conven- 
ient means of sep^oating iron from its solu- 
tions, so as to ascertain its quantity, and 
also of obtaining it free from manganese, 
which forms with tlie acid a soluble salt 
(See Benzoin.) 

Benzoin is a solid, fragile, vegetable 
substance, of a reddish-brown color. In 
commerce, two varieties are distinguish- 
ed, viz. the common and the am^g- 
daioidal ; the latter containing whitish 
tears, of an almond Bha[)e, diffused 
through hs substance.. It is imported 
from Sumatra, Siam and Java, and is 
found, also, in South America. Benzoin 
is obtained from the tree called shfrax 
henztnn, and perhaps from some others. 
On making mcisions into the bark, it 
flows out in the form of a balsamic juice, 
having apungent taste, and an agreeable 
odor. The pure balsam consists of two 
principal iBubstances, viz. a resin, and a 
pecuhar acid termed 6enzoic,(q. v.),.which 
IS procured from the mass by subhmation. 
It IS soluble in water. This acid is found, 
also, as a constituent principle in storax 
and the balsams of Tom and Peru : it exists 
in the urine of coWs, camels, and even of 
young children. It is sometimes found 
' m a crystalline form on the pods of the 
vanilla. Benzoin i^ not soluble in water, 
but is readily dissolved in alcohol, by the 
aid of a gentle heat The tincture thus 
made is used in pharmacy. A small 
quantity of this tincture, dropped into 
water, forms a white, milky fluid, which 
is used in France as a cosmetic, under 
the name of kdt virginaL The gum is a 
principal ingredient of the common court 
plaster. The acid, as well as the gum, is 
employed in medicine: they are stimu- 
lating, and act more particularly upon 
the pulmonary system ; whence they are 
used in asthma and chronic catarrh. 

B^RANOER, Pierre, Jean de ; a lyric 
poet, of that ckas which, in modem hte- 
nture, is almost peculiar to the French, 
called chansonmer; ^hom Aug. 19, 1780; 
educated by his grand&therj a poor tailor; 
was destined for the printing business, 
When his taints for poetiy excited atten- 
tion. Lucien Bonaparte became die pa- 
tron of the amiable poet, who gave zest 
to his social songs by allusions to the 
politics of the day. Tne imperial censors 
spared him ; the royal suppressed his 
songs, which, for this reason, were read 
and sung with the greater eagerness. In 



16SS2, he' was condemned to imprisonment 
for 13 months^ and deprived of a small 
office in the royal university. This pro- 
cess increased his reputation. The last 
edition of the ChanwM de P. J. dt Bi- 
ranger, (1 voL, Paris, 1829, 24mo.^ con- 
tains the happiest specimens of wit, 
humor, gayety, satire, and flashes of 
sublime poetry, which place him by the 
side of tiie most distinguished chanson- 
niers of France— Blot, CoU^ and Panard. 
B*. ascends with singular ease from the 
lower sphere of poetry to a high and 
noble enthusiasm, and the rapidity of the 
transition produces a striking effect We 
would refer the reader to his beautiful 
verses entitled Mon Ame, He was never 
a flatterer of Napoleon when money or 
titles were to be gained by flattery, and 
has never reviled him since reviling has 
been a means of rising. He is a truly 
national poet, and B^jamin Constant 
has said of him, Birangerfaii dea odts 
svblimeSy quand U ne 'cnU /aire que de 
simples chansons (B^ranger makes sub- 
lime odes, when he thinks be is making 
sunple songs). Dec. 11, 1823, B. was 
sentenced, by tlie court of con^ectional 

Solice, to pay 10,000 fi:an*c8 (about 1800 
ollars), and to undergo nine months' im- 
prisonment, for havinff attacked the dig- 
nity erf the chureh. ana of the king in his 
poems the Guardian Anffel, Coronation 
of Charles the Simple, and Gerontocracy. 
His songs are at once a storehouse of 

fayety and satire, and a record of the 
istory of his time ; and happy is that 
nation vvhich can boast of so excellent 
and national a poet He often sings of 
wine, and we recollect no other great 
modem, poet who has written a series of 
songs on this subject, except G6the, in 
his Buck des Scfienken, one of the 12 
books of the WestdsUicher Dtvcofu The 
difference between them is striking. 
Gothe mixes philosophical reflections 
and praises of tne liquor with a boldness 
which borders on temerity, while B. is 
gay almost to extravagance. We doubt 
whether B.1s poems in traiislation would 
ever give a nir idea of the original, be* 
cause their beauty consists, in a great 
measure, in the deUcacy and pungency 
of the expression, which could narmy be 
transferred to another language, 

Berbers ; the name of a people spread- 
over neariy flie whole of Northern Africa. 
From their name the appellation of Bar^ 
hary is derived. (See dBarfMxry ^ates,) 
Thev are conside^d the most ancient 
inhabitants of that country. Their dii^ 
ferent tribes are scattered over the whole 



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BEABERS— BEROHTOLD* 



63 



nace inteireDing between the shores of 
the Atlantic and the confines of Egypt ; 
but the diffezent branches of mount Atlas 
are their principal abode: while to the 
aoath &ey are Dounded by the Negro 
states on the edge of the great Sahara, or 
Desert. For most of what we Jmow of 
them, we are indebted to Leo Afncanus 
and the Aiabian wiitets, who^ state- 
ments are corroborated by Homemann 
(q. Y.) and captain Lyon, who have visited 
them in our own daya. Much informa- 
tion oonceniing them is yet wanted. 
Where they live by themselves, and are 
not spread among the Arabians and other 
|)eopJe of the Barimry slates, they man- 
ifest veiy little cultivation,— -warlike nom- 
ades, without written laws, — and ex- 
hibit the chief traits which characterize 
all the African nations. They are ex- 
tremely abstinent Their language is a 
matter of much curiosity for me philolo- 
gist It has many points of resemblance 
with the Teutonic languages. (See Ade- 
lung*8 MUhridaU^j voL % 5th part, pa^ 
43 et se^., and the article, in volume 3, 
new senes, p. 438 et seq. of the TVettu- 
adions of the Amtrican Philo9ophical So- 
ciehf.) We know, from trustworthy ac- 
counts, that Mr. Hodgson, attached to the 
American consulate-general at Alfiera, 
has sent to an eminent scholar of the tJ. 
States conununications concerning the 
Bert)er languoffe, which will add much 
to the knowledge ahneady possessed of 
that dialect (For further mformation re- 
specting the Berbers, see Lvon's SVovelf 
in Northern MieUj Lance's translation 
of HomemamvM IraveU m ^fricOf and 
almost all the woifcs which treat of the 
north of Africa.) It appears fit>m the 
hetber language, that the fir^ inhabitants 
of the Caiuuy islands were of the Berber 
race, 

BsRBiox ; a disuict of Guiaiui, formerly 
belonging to the Dutch, bat ceded to 
Great Britun in 1814; watered by the 
river Berbice, the Canje, and others. It 
extends fit>m Abarry creek,- on the west, 
to Courtot2ne river on the east, along the 
coast, about 150 miles. The towns are 
New Amsterdam, the capital, and Fort 
Nassau. The produ^ns are sugar, rum, 
cotton, coflfee, cocoa and tobacco. The 
coast ia marshy and the air damp. Popu- 
lation, in 1815, 29,959; of whom 550 
were whites^ 240 people of color, and 
^169 8lavea 

BxacHTEsaABKN ; a maiket-tpwn in 
the Salzburg Alps, in the kingdom of Ba- 
varia, with 3000 inhabitants ; famous for 
A^aah, Bonea in its neigfaborhood| the salt- 



work Fnuienreith, and the aqueducts 
which conduct the salt water to the works 
called ReichenhalL The rock-salt does 
not appear here in large, sphd masses,' 
but in small pieces mixed with clay. 
Fresh water is let into the mines, and, 
having been saturated with salt, is carried 
into luge reservoirs, from which, at the 
works of Fjauenreith, ldO,000 cwt of salt 
are annually obtained. A large part of 
the water is conducted to Reichenhall. 
At this plape a large salt-i^ring was dis- 
covered m 1619, and, on account of a 
deficiency in wood requued in the prepa- 
ration of the salt, the water was conveyed, 
by Qieans of an aqueduct, to Traunstein, 
2& 'miles distant Another aqueduct, 95 
miles long, from Reichenhall to Rosen- 
heim, was complete in 1809, and, in 
1817, these were, asain- brought into 
communication with B. in a most admi- 
rable way. Tlie first machine, which 
raises the brine coming from -B. 50 feet 
high, is near this place. From hence, it 
runs in pipes 9500 feet, with a fall of 17 
feet only, into the second reservoir. A 
hydraulic nuichine, invented by von 
Reichenbach, here lifts the salt water 
311 feet higli, in iron pipes 934 feet long. 
The water then runs in pipes 7480 feet, 
with 37 feet fidl, to a vallev, over which 
it is led in iron pipes, 1225 feet long, and, 
after runninff 12,073 feet farther, it fells 
into the third reservoir. Here is a second 
itydraulic machine, which hfls the water 
to a perpendicular height of 1218 feet, in 
pipes 3506 feet long ; and hence it flows, 
m pipes 73,000 feet long, to Reichenhall* 
The pipes running from B. to Reichen- 
hall amount to 104,140 feet From 
Reichenhall to Siegsdorf there is but one 
aqueduct fer the salt water intended for 
Traunstein and Rosenheim, 94,800 feet 
long. From Siegsdorf to Traunstein ^e 
brine fiovfa without an aqueduct In 
Traunstein, 140,000 cwt are annually 
produced. The other part of the brine 
flows in pipes, 78/X)0 feet long, to Rosen- 
heim, wnich produces annuSly 180,000 
cwt of salt The water required to work 
the numerous machines is brought fit>m 
places many of which are 1&-19,000 
feet distant 

Bsac'taTOLn^ Leopold, count, bom in 
1758, devoted his tife to the relief of die 
wretched- He spent 13 years in travel- 
ling through Europe,' and 4 in travelling 
through Asia and Africa, to assuage hn-* 
man misery. The reaults of his experi- 
ence are contained in his Eseav to direct 
and extend the Inquiries of patriotic 
TraveUeiB (London, I78p, 2 vols.) He 



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64 



BERCHTOLD— BERESFORD. 



wrote several pam^leta on the tneans of 
reforming the police, which he caused to 
be printed in different European coun- 
tries, at his own expense, and to be dis- 
tributed gratis. His prize-questions gave 
rise to many pamphlets and treatises on 
the means of saving the drowned and the 
seemingly dead. He ofiered a prize of 
1000 fforins for the best treatise on be- 
ne^cent institutions, and was himself the 
founder of many. From 1795 to 97, he 
traveUed through Asiatic and European 
Turkey, chiefly for the purpose of coun- 
teracting the ravages or the plague. At 
a later period, he was engaged in making 
vaccination more extensively known. 
During the famine that ra^d in the Rie- 
sengebirge (Giant mountaiiis), from 1605 
to 1806, he procured com and other pro- 
visions Irom distant re^ons. He fitted 
up the palace Buchlowitz on his estate 
Buchlau in Moravia, as an hospital for 
the sick and wounded Austrian soldiers. 
Here this patriot and philanthropist was 
carried off by a contagious nervous fever, 
July 26, 1809. 

Bebct ; a village on the Seine, at its con- 
fluence with the Mame, in the neighbor- 
hood of Paris. The Parisian vnne-mer- 
chants have here th^ir stores of wine, 
vrine-vinegar, distilled liquors, &c. ; so 
that the intercourse between B. and the 
capital is extremely acuve. It is increased 
also by several important tanneries, sugar- 
refineries and paper-mills. A large pal- 
ace, Le graiid Bercy, was built by Levau 
at the close of the i7th century-. The 
park which belongs to it, containing 900 
acres, was planted by Lendtre. M. de 
Calonne was for some time in possession 
of it The present possessor is M. de. 
Nicolai. 

BsREiTOARius, or Bereito^r, of Tours, 
a teacher in the philosophical school in 
that ciQr, and, in 1040, archdeacon of An- 
gers^ is renowned for his philosophical 
acuteness as one of die scholastic writers, 
and also for the boldness with which, in 
1050, he declared himself against the 
doctrine of transubstantiation, and for his 
consequent persecutions. He was several 
times compelled to recant, but always 
returned to the same opinion, that the 
bread in the Lord's supper is merely a 
symbol of the body of Christ, in which 
he agreed with the Scotchman John 
Erigena (called Scotus\ • The Catholics 
ranked him among the most dangerous 
heretics. He was treated with forbear- 
ance by Gregory VII, biit the scholastics 
belongmg to the party.of the great Lan- 
finmc, archbisfkop of Canterbury, were 



Irritated against him to such a degree, 
that he reured to the isle of St Cosmas, 
in the neighborhood of Toui^s, in the year 
1080, where he closed his life at a great 
a^, in pious exercises (1088). On the 
history of this controversy, which has 
lieen very much misrepresented by the 
Benedictines, new hght has been shed by 
Lessin^, in his Berengar (1770), and by 
Staudhn, who has likewise published the 
work of B. against Laufi^c. This B. 
Vkust not be confounded with Peter Be- 
renger of Poitiers, who wrote a defence 
of his instructer Abelard. 

Berenhorst, Francis Leopold von ; 
one of the first of the writers by whom 
the luiiitary art has been founded on clear 
and certain principles. He was a natural 
son of prince Leopold of Dessau, and 
was bom in 1733. In 1760, he became 
the adjutant of Frederic 11. After the 
seven years' war, he lived at Dessau. He 
died in 1814. 

Berenice (Greek, a bring^r of victory). 
1. This was the, name of the wife of 
Mitliridates the Great, king of Pontu& 
Her husband, when vanquished by Lu- 
cullus, caused her to be put to death 
(about the year 71 B. C), lest she sliould 
j&ll into the hands of his enemies. Mo- 
nima, his other wife, and his two sisters, 
Roxana and Statira, experienced the same 
fete. — 2, The wife of Herod, brother to 
the great Agrippa, her &ther, at whose 
request Herod was made king of Chalcia, 
by the emperbr Claudius, but soon died. 
In spite of her dissolute hfe, she insinu- 
ated herself into the favor of the emperor 
Vespasian and his son Titus. The latter 
was, at one time, on the point of marrying- 
her.— 3. The wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, 
who loved her husband with rare tender- 
ness, and, when he went to war in Syria, 
made a vow to devote her beautifiil hair 
to the gods, if he returned safe. Upon 
his return, B. performed her vow in the 
temple of Venus. Soon after, the hair 
was missed, and the astronomer Conon 
of Samoa declared that the gods had 
transferred it to the skies as a constella- 
tion. From this circumstance, the seven 
stars n6ar the tail of the Lion are called 
coma BereiUceB (the hair of Berenice). 

Beresford, WiUiam, baron, duke of 
Elvas and marquis of Campo Mayor, for 
the abihty and coura^ which he dis- 
played in the war of PorttTgal against 
France, is ranked among the distinffuish- 
ed generals of Great Britain. He or- 
ganized tlie Portuguese army, and also 
the militia of the country, in so excellent 
a manner, that they could vie with th6 



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B£R£SF0RI>--B£R6. 



65 



iMt loldien of the combined armies in 
^e wars of the peninsula. In 1810, B. 
sained a victory over Soult, at Albufeia. 
In 1812^ he conounanded under Welling- 
ton, and took an important part in the 
victories at Vittoria, JBayonne and Tou- 
louse. He made his entrance'' into Bor- 
deaux, March 13, 1814, with the duke of 
Angoultoe. May 6, he was raised to 
the rank of baron by the king of En^^ 
land, and, soon afl^, sent to Binzil, 
whence he returned to England in 1815. 
The prince regent of Portugal made him 
ffeneralisaimo of the Portuimese armies. 
He had scarcely arrived atXisbon, when 
he was sent, by the English govenuhent, 
on an important mission to Kio Janeiro. 
The rigor with which he punished a con- 
spiracy of general Freyre against the 
British army and the re^ncy, in Lisbon 
(1817), rendered him odious to the Por- 
tugese military. He was, therefor^, dis* 
xnjssed by the cortes in 1^20. He then 
went again to Brazil, afterwards to Eng- 
land, and, in Dec, 1826, appeared anew 
in Lisbon, at the head or the English 
forces sent to aid in quelling the rebeSion. 
BERJBziiirA ; . a river in the Russian 
province of Minsk, rendered famous by 
the passage of the French army under 
Napoleon, Nov. 26 and 27, 1812. Admi- 
ral TschitschakofiT, with the Moldavian 
army, forced his way from the south, to 
joiu the main army, which, after Borizoff 
had been retaken, was to assist the armv 
led by Witgenstein from the Dwina, and, 
in this manner, cut ofif Napoleon from 
the Vistula. Napoleon was, therefore, 
obliged to make the greatest efforts, not- 
withstanding immense difficulties occa^ 
sioned by the nature of the country, the 
climate, and the critical situation of his 
troops, to reach Minsk, or, at least, the 
B., and to pass it earlier than the Rus- 
sians. To effect this, it was necessary to 
sacrifice a sreat part of the baggage and 
artillery, Nov. 25. After the advanced 
guard of the Moldavian army had been 
repelled to Bprizoff, by Oudinot, and the 
bndge there burnt by them, eariy in the 
morning of Nov. 26, two bridges were 
built near Sembin, about two miles above 
BorizOff, an undertaking the more diffi- 
cult, because both ba^ of the river 
were bordered by extensive morasses, 
covered, like the river itself, with ice not 
sufficiently strong to afEbrd passage to the 
army, while other passes were already 
threatened by the Russians. Scarcely 
had a few corps e^cted their passage, 
when the greater pan of the armyj un- 
armed' and m confusion, n|shed in crowds 
6* 



Upon the bridges. Discipline bad long 
before disappeared. The confusion Jn-> 
creased with every minute. Those who 
could not hope to escape over the bridges 
sought their safety on the floating ice of 
the Berezina, where most of tliem per^ 
ished, while' many others were crowded 
into the river by their comrades. In this 
fatal retreat, the duke of Reegio (Oudi- 
not) led the advanced guar^ with the 
Poles under Dombrowsky in fit>nt; the 
rear guard was formed by the corps of 
theduke of Belluno. Nov. 27, at noon^ 
the dear-bought end wiais gained, and the 
army, leaving the road to Minsk, took 
tbat of Wilna to Warsaw, with the hope 
of providing for their necessities in Wil-r 
na.-— Besides the multitudes who were 
obliged to remain beyond the B., the di- 
vision of Partouneaux, which fi)rmed the 
rear f^ard, was also lost It was intrusts 
ed with the charge of burning the bridges 
iu its rear, but it fell into the hands of the 
enemy. According to the French bulle- 
tins, only a detachment of 2000 men, who 
niissed their way, was> taken; according 
to the Russian accounts, the whole corps, 
7500 men and 5 generals, 

B£ae ; a duchy of Qennanv ; bounded 
on the north by the duchy of Cleves, on 
the east by the county of Mark and West^ 
phalia, on the south by the Westerwald, 
and on the west by the Rhine. It be- 
longed, formerly, to the elector of Bavar 
ria, but has been included, since 181^ in 
the srand-duchy of the Lower Rhine, 
wiiicn belongs to Prussia. .It contains 
1188 square miles, with 98^000 mhabit^ 
apts. There are mines of iron, copper, 
lead and quicksilver; but the priucipal 
objects of attention are the maniuactures, 
which render it one of the mojrt populous 
and flourishing countries in Grermany; 
of these, the principal are hx)n. steel, 
linen, woollen, cotton and silk. TJbe^ ex-r 
tent of the manu&ctures of B. is, in ^ 
great measure, owing to the multitude of 
skilful workmen whom the fury of the 
Spaniards, in the war agauist the Netherr 
lands, forced to leave their country. The 
richest fled to London imd Hamburg, the 
poorer sort, which included a great pnn 
portion of the manufacturers, to the 
neighboring Berg. At a later period, 
when Louis XI V revoked the edict or 
Nantes, many of the most industriouis of 
the French Protestants fled ^Iso to this 
duchy, which thus became the most manir 
ufactiuing part of Germany, Elberfeld 
is the most important of the manu&ctur-r 
ing places of B. Another reason of the 
great pnMperity of this oounfiy is, that it 



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BiBR01£ANN*-aEllKEU:Y. 



tice of du8 great mtn. In 1758, be be- 
came doctor of philoflophy and profesBor 
of physics at UpsaL Upon tbe resigiia- 
tion of the celebrated WaUenus, B. was a 
candidate for the professorship of chemis- 
tiy and miheralo^. His competitors 
charged him with ignorance of the sub- 
ject, oecause be had never writtmi on it. 
To refute them, he shut himself up for 
some time in a laboratoij, and prepared 
a treatise on the manu&cture of alum, 
which is still considered as a standard 
work. In 1767, be became professor of 
chemistry, and devoted himself with ar- 
dor to this science. He invented the 
preparation of artificial mineral-waters, 
and discovered the sulphuretted hydro- 
gen gas of mineral siHings. We are in- 
debted to him for a knowledge of the 
characters which distinguish nickel £t)m 
other metals. On a number of minerals 
be made chemical experiments, with* an 
accuracy before uncommon. He pub- 
lished a classification ' of minerals, in 
which tbe chief divisions are based on 
their chemical character, and the subdi- 
visions on their external forhi. In pre- 
paring this work, he waa much aided by 
his former discovery of the geometrical 
relations, between different crystals of the 
same substance, which may be deduced 
firom one primitive fonn, and are pro^ 
duced by the aggrejgation of similar par- 
ticles, according to fixed and obvious 
laws. His theory of the chemical rela- 
tions is still esteemed, and, if it has re- 
ceived some newdevelopements fiom the 
fiirther researches of BerthoUet, it has not 
been overthrown. The order of Gusta- 
vus Vasa was bestowed on B. He de- 
clined the invitation of Frederic the Great 
to remove to Beritn. He died, exhausted 
by his exertions, in 1784, in thd 49th year 
of his age. Among his works, the first 

E\ is due to Omucula Pkya, d Chem. 
ikholm, 1779,3 vols.), and Physical 
ription of the* Globe. 
Bergsthasse (Germ,y mountain road) ; 
a fertile tract of land on the right of the 
Rliine, lying west of the Odenwald and 
MeliboBus, and formling a beautiful road 
about 30 miles in length, planted with 
walnut and chesmut-trees and vines. It 
extends from Darmstadt to the convent of 
Neuburg, about a mile distant fiiom Hei- 
delberg. All traveUers on the Rhine are 
delighted with this road. 

Bbrixlet, doctor George; bishop of 
Cloyne, in Ireland; celebrated for his 
ideal theory. He maintains that the be- 
lief in tbe existence of an exterior mate- 
rial Worid is fidse and jnaonsistent with 



itself; that thoM dungs wliieh are caBad 
aennUe maUriai dijteU are not external^ 
but exist m the mind, and are merely im- 
pressions made on our minds by the im- 
mediate act of God, accordiiw to certain 
rules termed law$ f^ nahme, nom which 
he never deviates ; and that the steady ad-i 
herence of the Supreme Spirit to these 
rules is what constitutes the reality of 
tiling to his creatures ; and so efifectually 
distinguishes the ideas perceived by sense 
fix>m such as are the work of the mind 
itself or of dreams, that there is no more 
danger of confounding them toffether on 
this nypothens than on that of the ex- 
istence of matter. He was bom at Kil- 
crin, Ireland, in 1684 ; became feUow of 
Trinitv college, Dublin, in 1707 ; travelled 
in Italy as &r as Leghorn, in 1713 and 
1714, and, at a later period, accompanied 
Mr. Ashe, son of the bishop of Clogher, 
on atot^r through Italy, Sicily and France. 
In 1721, he was appointed chaplain to the 
lord lieutenabt or Ireland, the duke of 
Gra^on. He appeared with much ap- 
plause as an author before be was 20 
years old. His works on philosophy and 
mathematics (among which his Theory 
of Vision, published in 1709, is the most 
brilliant proof of the author's acuteneas) 

Erocured him a wide-spread fiime. By a 
)ffacy of Mrs. Vanhomrigli, the celebrat- 
ed Vanessa, who has become so generally 
known tlirough her love to Swift, his 
fortune was considerably increased. In 
1724, he was promoted to the deanery of 
Deny, and resigned his fellowship He 
now published his Proposals for the Con- 
version of the American Savages to Chris- 
tianity by the Establishment or a College 
in the Bermuda Islands. The project 
was ^^rs fiivorably received, and penons 
of the first rank raised considerable sums 
by subscription to aid it; and B., having 
resignedhis preferment, set sail for Rhode 
Island, with several other persons of sim- 
ilar views, to make arrangements for car- 
rying on hiscollege. The assistance of par- 
liament, which liad been promised, not be- 
ing afforded, his undertaking miscarried, 
after he had spent seven years and a con- 
siderable part of his fortune in his efforts 
to accomplish it He afterward ¥m>te 
numerous philosophical, relieious and po- 
litico-economical worics. Towards his 
60th year, he was attacked by a nervous 
colic, which he att^npted to cure by the 
use of tar-water, whereby he was induced 
to publish two treatises on the utility of 
this water. He died suddenly at Oxford, 
in 1753. B. is said to have been acquamt- 
ed with almost all branchea of humaD 



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B£BKELEY>-B£RLIN. 



09 



knowledge. His character commanded 
the respect and love of all who knew him. 
Pope, his constant fiiend, describes him as 
possessed of ^ eveiy virtue under heaven." 
His most celebrated philosophical woika 
are, a Treadee on die rrinciples of Human 
Knowledge (Londcm, 1710) ; Three Dia- 
logues between Hyktsand PMlonous (Lon- 
don, 1713) ; Alciphron, or the Minute Phi- 
losopher ( London, 1732]. , His Works ap- 
peared in London, 1784, 2 vols. 4to.^ pre- 
ceded by abiography written by Arbuthnot 

BsKLicHnfOEN, Gdtz, or Godfiey, von, 
with the iron hand; bom at Jazthausen, 
in Suabia ; a bold, restless, warlike and 
honorable German knight, of the middle 
ages. He placed himself at the head of 
the rebellious peasants, in the war which 
they waged against their oppressors (see 
Ptaaamt fFar, in Germany), but wa& soon 
made prisoner. Before that time, he had 
lost his right hand, and thereforjB wore 
one made of iron. He died July 23j 
1562. His biography, written by himself, 
was printed at Nuremberg, in 1731 and 
1775, and, for the third time, at Breslau, 
in 1813. This book contains an, excellent 
picture of the social life and customs of 
the middle ages, and fans furnished 
G6the with' the subject for his beautiful 
diama, G. von BerliMngen. 

Berliit; the capital of the Prussian 
dominions; principal residence of the 
kins, and seat of the highest councils of 
the kingdom ; situa^d in the province of 
Brandenburg, on the Spree, lfc7 feet above 
the level of the sea; Ion. 13° 22" £.; lat 
52° Sy N. ; one of the largest and hand- 
somest cities of Europe. It is about 12 
miles in circumference, and consists of 5 
towns — Berlin Proper, Koln, or Cologne, 
on the Spree, Friedrichswerder, Neu- or 
Dorotheenstadt and Friedrichsstadt ; and 
5 suburbs— Louisenstadt, tbe King's sub- 
urb, those of Spandau and Stralau, and, 
outside of the walls, Oranienburg suburb. 
B. has 22 squares and market-places, 15 
gates, 27 parish churches, 3/ bridges, 
&c. In the year 1817, there were 7133 
houses, including the churches, the 
other public buildings (174^, the manu- 
factories (61), the stables and bams (483). 
At the close of the year 1825, B. contain- 
ed (the military included) 220,000 mhab- 
itants, among whom wei^ about 3700 
Jews, 4000 Catholics, and . more than 
10,000 Calvini8ts.—1. Beriin Proper, oon- 
mdng of 39 streets, was built^ in 1163, by 
margrave Albert the Bear. It received 
its name from the wildness of the country, 
and was settled by emigrants from Hol- 
luuL It contains tbe royal. poet-office, 



the town-house, the general military acad- 
emy, the academy for cadets, the royal 
school of the sray convent, that of Joa- 
chimsthal, the Lutheran parish church of 
St Nicholas (tbe oldest church in B.), the 
Frederic orphan asylum (established in 
1818, fi>r 100>9 orphans), with a church, and 
a royal institution for vaccination (where, 
smce 1802, 25,332 children, beside adults, 
have been vaccinated gratuitously), tbe 
synagogue of the Jews, the new market, 
and many other public buildings. The 
suburbs of B., taking the name in its most 
limited sense, are, the, King's suburb (K5- 
nigsvorstadt), containing the new theatre, 
where the famous Mile. Sontag perform- 
ed before she went to Paris ; the suburb of 
Spandau, where are the roval palace Mon- 
bijou, the veterinary college, the great 
hospital La Chariti, with which a clinical 
institution is connected (numbering, in. 
1816, 5144 padents, among whom were 
419 with mental disorders), the new ro^al 
inint, &c. and, finally, Stralau. Outside 
of the walls, the Kosenthal-suburb, or 
Neuvolgtland, is situated. Before the 
Oranienbui^ gate are the iron foundery, 
where cast-Son ware, of everv description, 
is made; the royal hospital of invalids, 
which receives upwards of 1000 imnates, 
officers, soldiers, women and children. — 

2. KUln, or Ckdogne, on the Spree, which 
received this name when it was built 
from the KbUnm (piles), on which the 
Vandals (Wenden), driven out by Albeit 
the Bear, had built their huts in the midst 
of bogs and morasses,' contains 25 streets, 
enclosed by two branches of the Spree ; 
a bridge 100 feet long, of stone, resting 
upon 5 arches, and adorned with a colos- 
sal equestrian statue of the great elector 
Frederic William, in bronze, planned by 
Schlliter, and cast by Jacobi; the royal 
palace, 460 feet in length, 276 in breadth, 
and 101^ in height, containmg the gallery 
of paintings, the cabinet of artificial and 
natural curiosities, the collection of med- 
als, &c. ; the museum of art, a most mag- 
nificent building, newly erected by Schin- 
kel; the. royal, riding academy. Apart 
of Koln is called Mu-KUn, and con- 
sists of 4 streets, built alon^ the Spree. — 

3. Driedrichswerder, includm^ 19 streets, 
was founded by the elector Frederic 
William the Great' Here are situated 
the pdace, inhabited by the present 
king, oriffmally intended for the crown- 
prince ; Uie splendid arsenal, in the yard 
of which the 365 famous heads of dying 
warriors, in reUef, bv Schl^iter, serve as 
key-stones in the arches of the windows ; 
the royal foundery ; the netw guard-houae» 



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70 



BERLIN. 



bulk by Schinke), near which aie the 
8tatue» of SchanihorBt and BfUow, by 
Rauch, end three pieces of ordnance of 
the largest caliber, two of which were 
, taken from the French; opposite to it 
stands the colossal statue or Blficher, in 
bronze, a work of Rauch.— ^. ^eu- or 
Dorotheenstadty likewise built by the elect- 
or Frederic WiDiam the Great, and named 
after his second wife, has but 5 rpgular 
streets, among which is the stately street 
<" beneath the limes.'' 2068 ieet m length, 
and 170 in breadtn, aflK>rdinff the .most 
beautiful walk in the city, ahd a part of 
Frederic-street, which is 4S250 paces in 
length. The princi|^ building in this 
quarter are, tlie umverritv edifice; the 
Catholic church, built on the plan of the 
Pantheon in Rome ; the fine opera-house ; 
the royal library, the style of wnicli is bad ; 
the academy building, destined for a mu- 
seum, with an observatory whose platfonn 
rises 84 feet fit)m the pavement of the 
street ; the great singing-academy, erected 
by Schinkel, and devoted only to church 
music ; die Paris-place, &c The Bran- 
denburg gate, which is 195 feet in width, 
was built, in 1789, by Iianghana, in imi- 
tation of the Propylffium at Athens, but 
on a much larger scale. Above it is the 
fttiious Victoria in a mMM^r^ga, which was 
carried away bv the French, in 1807, and, 
in 1814, brought back fiom Paris by the 
Prussians: before it lies the paric, 880 
acres in eictent, containinff, besides vari- 
ous walks, the royal pcJaoe Bellevue, 
and several country-seats, belonging to 
wealthy individuals. — 5. FnedriaisSadt^ 
founded, in 1688, by the elector Frederic 
ni (king Frederic I), surpasses the four 
other divisLoaos of the city in extent, and 
consistB of 33 wide streets, among which 
the above-mentioned Frederic-street is 
distinguished. Worthy of notice are, the 
Gendarmes maricet ; also William-place, 
a quadrangle 190 paces in length and 90 in 
breadth, containing the marble statues of 
the senerals Schwerin, Winterfeld, Seyd- 
litz, Keith and Ziethen, who, in the gro- 
tesque taste of the last centuiy, are repre- 
sented in Roman costume and periwiss ; 
the LeipsicHplace ; the place of Belle- Al- 
liance ; the Bohemian chureh ; the Trinity 
churoh; the French and the new church, 
with two fiunous steeples ; the royalporce- 
lain manufiictory ; the academy of Freder- 
ic WilUam, with the Realschvk (which be- 
longs to the class of hirii schools, and con- 
tained, in the year 1816, 650 scholais) ; the 
CoUegien or council-house, where the le^- 
Istive committee,' the chief court of jus- 
tk^ako the JSamiB^mc&t,andcouncu for 



minorSybdld their seanoDS, and the arehive* 
of the Brandenburg fieft are kept; th» 
bank; the house of the society for foreign 
conunerce ; the theatre, which, in 1817, 
was consumed by fire, and was afterwards 
rebuilt under the direction of Schinkel ; 
several handsome buildings belonging 
to (private persons, &c«^HLiOuiBensSult| 
for the greater pait. eonsists of fields and 
gardens. Before tne Cottbus gate, upon 
a risinff ^und covered with wood, called 
Hattnhmdty was the first i^>ot devoted to 
the new eyomasdc exercises in Germany, 
invented oy doctor Jahn. On the top of 
the mountain of the cross, formeriy Ttmr- 
ptUiof mountain, before thie Halle gate, is 
a monument of iron, erected, in 1820, in 
commemoiiation of the wars against 
France. — ^B. contains upwards of 100 
public and 50 private elementary schools: 
of burgher or intermediate schools, 10 
public, 60. private, and 13 specif schools 
(schools in wliich youth are educated 
for particular employments) : 5 gymnasia 
or classical schools, 7 higher special 
schools or oolleffes, and the universitj^: 
also several academies and literary soci- 
eties, as the royal academy of science (see 
Academe) ; the academy of fine arts, me- 
chanical sciences and architecture, with 
the schools of art appertaininir to this 
academy ; the society vos naturm histoi^ 
and natural philosophy ; the medico-chi- 

ic, the pl^dco-'medical societies ; the seel- 
ed for cultivatixiff the German language ; 
the association of artists. There are also, in 
this city, a museum of antiquities, estab- 
lished in 1820 ; the royal medico-chiiur- 
gical academy, for the militaiy ; two roval 
medico-chirurgical seminaries, intended 
to educate surgeons for the anny ; the 
royal veterinaiy school; two seminaries 
for the education of town and countiy 
school-masters ; the seminary for misaon- 
aries, destined to convert the heathens in 
the western parts of Africa ; several insd- 
tutions for the deaf and dumb and the 
blind ; a firee' school for Jewish children ; 
an academy for foresters (an institution in 
which the knowledge relating to the cul- 
tivation of woods and forests is acquired) ; 
a singing academy ; a military swimming- 
school ; a Bible society ; a society for the 
advancement of Chrisdanity among the 
Jews ; an association for the cultivation of 
ffardens ; an institution for preparing arti- 
ficial mineral waters, &0k There are 
many charitable institutions in B, the 
poor, who cannot subsist ^thout help^ 
beinr about 12,000. Among them, the 
fomcQe charital^ association, under SHI 



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BESLIN'--BERHUDA8' ISLANDS. 



71 



direc tieBBO i^ provided, Deoembor, 1816^ 
ftr 1900 poor penona, dispened in 180 
fianilies. Thd most bepeyoleiit institation 
» that established, in 1794, by Knmz, 
counsellor of war, for relieving impover- 
lahed citizens, and which has since num- 
bered some of its former beneficiaries 
among its members. B. has a consider* 
able commerce and some important man'- 
ii&ctories ; a royal bank ; a royal society 
for foreign commerce; a wool-market; 
upwards of 900 machines for spinning 
wool and ^cotUm, with 29,000- q>indle8, 
4^4 looms for weaving, cloths, silk, wool- 
len, cotton and hnen, carpets^ ^&c; nu- 
merous manu&ctories of silk, woollen or 
cotton ribands, dS6 lace-makers, 44 man- 
ufikctories for coloring and printinff stu^ 
06 dye-houses, 5 sugar refineries,. 4 manu- 
Ifiictories of ornamental tin-ware, porcelain 
and stone- ware factories, the royal bronze 
manufoctories, important manufoctories 
of gold and solver ware, of fine cabinet 
work, of petinet, straw hats, artificial flow-^ 
era and feathers ; about 35 printing houses, 
8 powder mill^ &c; also Mr. Jacobi'e 
valuable collection of works of art ' The 
pavement of B. is extremely bad ; the illu- 
mination of the streets imperfect Though 
some paiis of this city are beautiful, yet, 
on the other hand, its flat and sandy envi- 
rons are extremely unpleasant The uni- 
versity of B. was founded in 1809, wh^ 
Prussia was groaning beneath the heavy 
yoke of the French. It proceeded fix>m 
the noble efibrts of those men who, at 
that time, conducted tlie public concerns 
of the kingdom (Stein was one of the 
most distinguished among them), and 
were convinced that the only enectual 
preparation for a fiiture deUv^rance fit>m 
ihe French was a mond regeneration of 
the people ; at the same time thinking all 
that dinuses knowledge and intellectual 
light an exceUmt means of ]iroducing this 
moral change— an idea which was real- 
ized bv the result Although the univer- 
sty of B. is so young an estahlighment, 
yet it ranks among the first in the world, 
and is, in one branch of science— in |)hHol- 
ogy— the veryfirst By means of this and 
many other scientific in8titutions,a literary 
spirit has been airakened among the citi- 
zens, by wiiich they are very advanta- 
geously distinguii^ed from the inhabitants 
of other dties; but, on the other hand, 
the socie^ of B. has neither the refined 
m^nneiB of a royal residence, nor the easy 
manners of many other cities. To the 
university beloDg the botanical garden 
widbout the city, near Schdnberg, the 
watonucal thenbe, the apatomicM and 



zoological museum, the dieologieal and 
philological seminary, the cid>inet of min- 
erals, the clinical institution, the lying-in 
hospital, &c. In the year 1896, there 
were 1640 students in the university of 
B., among whom were 400 foreigners. 
More than 90 professors are employed in 
the university. In the year 18Sd, the an- 
nual meeting of German naturalistB, for 
the promotion of natural science, veas held 
at B.,> under the direction of Alexander 
von Humboldt It fymiahed a splendid 
array 6f talent, and many discourses of 
great interest were delivered. 

BziunjnAS^ Islands, or Somers' 
Isi^Aims ; a cluster of small islands in 
the Atlantic ocean. They are in number 
about 400, but for the most part so small 
and so barren, that they have neither in- 
habitants nor name. They were first dis- 
covered by Juan Bemiudas, a Spaniard, 
in 1522; m 1609, sir George Somers, an 
Englishman, was wrecked here, and, 
after hie shipwreck, formed the first set- 
tlement The most considerable of these 
islands are St George, St David, Cooper, 
Ireland, Somerset, Long island. Bird 
island, and Nonesuch. The first contains 
a town (St Geoige's Town); the two 
following, some viUaxes ; the others, only 
forms dispersed^— The air is so healthy^ 
ihat sick people, firom the continent of 
America, nequently go ttuther for the re- 
covery of their health. The winter is 
liardly perceptible ; it may be said to be 
perpetually sparing: the trees never lose 
their verdure^ and the leaves only foil 
when new ones begin to appear. Birds 
sing and breed vrimiout intermismon.— 
But these advantages are counterbalanced 
by fiightfiil storms, accompanied by for- 
midable thunder, which are announced 
by a circle round the moon. Some fertile 
plains are seen, but, in general, the coun- 
try is mountainous. The soil is of divers 
colors, brown, white and red,' of which 
the first is the best ; although light and 
stony, it is, in general, rich and fertile. 
The water is, in general, salt ; there is biit 
litde fif^BSh, except ridn water, preserved 
in cisterns. The mhabitanta gather two 
harvests^ of Indian com in a y eor, one in 
July, and the other in December: tbm 
forms their princ^ food. They like- 
wise cultivate tobacco, legumes, and firuit 
siiffieieiit for ibmr wants. Their trees are 
[>rincipally the cedar and palmetto. Bed- 
sides these, they have orange-trees^ olive, 
laurel, pear-trees, &c» The red-wood, 
is peculiar to these iitf lands: its colored 
finit feeds worms, which become flies, a 
little larger than the cochineal bug, instead 



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99 



BERBIUDAS' ISLANDS— BERN. 



of which they are uiwd. There are no 
▼enomoua reptiles. Building of resBels is 
the principal trade of the inbabitanta 
These islands extend fiom N. £. to S. W^ 
about 45 oiiles. The whole shore is sur- 
rounded With rocks, most of which are 
diy at low water, but coyened at flood. 
They are 230 leagues 'S. £. cape Fear, in 
North Carolina. The north point of these 
islands lies in Ion, 64°38' W. ; laL SSP^ 
N. Pop. a few years since, 10,381 ; whites^ 
5,462; slaves, 4,919. 

B£&5; the largest canton of Switzer* 
land (3667 square miles, 338,000 inhabit- 
ants, among whom are 40,000 Catholics, 
and 250,300 CalVinists), with a capital of 
the same name. Cuno von Bubenberf, 
in the 12th century, enclosed the smdl 
place Bern, in the vicinity of the fortress 
of Nydeck, with a moat and walls, and 
the duke of Zahringen,to whom Nydeck 
belonged, gave the new city laws. Its 
population was much increased in the 
13th century. The lower nobility of the 
adjacent country fled to it for protection 
against the oppressions of the higher, 
and wer^ joined by the country people, 
and particularly by the citizens of Fri- 
burg and Zurich. The emperor Fred- 
eric II declared it a flree city of the em- 
pire, in 1218, and oonflnned its privileges 
by a charter, which is still preserved in 
the archives. In 1288, B. was besieged 
by Rodolph of Hapsburg, but not taken ; 
and, in 1291, the citizens of B., under 
Ulrich von Bubenberg, made war against 
their own nobility, commanded by Ulridi 
von Erlach. B. now became an asylum 
for all those who sufl'6red under the op- 
pression of the nobles of Austria, and 
rose to a height of power that excited 
the envy of other cities,. as weD as of its 
own nobility. The latter, therefore, en- 
tered into an alliance with the hostile 
cities, for the purpose of destroying iL 
Their army, consisting of 18,000 men, 
beaded by 700 of the higher nobility, with 
1200 knights, was totally vaiiquished at 
Laupen, June 21, 1339, by the citizens 
of B., led by Rodolph von £rlach, though 
these were only one third of their number. 
After this victory, the city continued to 
increase, and, in 1353, entered into the 
perpetual league of the Helvetic confed- 
eracy, in which it held a rank inferior 
only to Zurich. Until the close of that 
century, B. enlarged its dominions, partly 
by purchase, and partly by conquest. In 
1405, the greater part of the city was de- 
stroyed by fire, but W9S afterwards regu- 
larly rebuilt The long wars with Austria, 
MilaDf Burgundy and- Savoy soon aftm* 



broke out, from all iriiicfa the conMeraoy 
came off victorious, and in which B. con- 

Suered Aairgau. In 1528^ the (citizens of 
L embrac^ the cause of the Reforma- 
tion. In the subsequent war with the duke 
of Savoy, they conquered the Pays de 
Vaud, The countries gained by conquest 
wete governed by bailiffs, who raided in 
mountain castles. From that time to 
March 5, 1796, the proq[)erity and wealth 
of B. was constantly increasing, as may 
be clearly perceived from the large sums 
spent for the public administration. At 
that time, the canton contained over 5000 
square miles, and about 380^000 inhabit- 
ants. Upon the day above-mentioned, 
30,000 French troops marched against B. 
It was again an Erlach who led 18,000 
citizens of B^ together with 8000 auxilia- 
ry troops of the confederate cantons, into 
the field ; but the memory of Morgarten, 
of Ldupen and Murten, no longer inspired 
them to victory : the troops of the con- 
federates, on theur retreat, slew their own 
commander. B., for the first time, opened 
its gates to eh enemy, and lost about half 
of its possessions. The northern part was 
united with the present canton of Aar- 

r, and out of the south- western (Pays 
i^aud) the present canton of Vmud was 
formed. By the decrees of the congress 
at Vienna, however, the greater part of 
the bishopric of BAle was joined to the 
canton of B. According to the new ari»- 
tocratic constitution of the canton, the 
sovereign power is exercised by a bailifi^ 
and the great and lesser councils of the 
city and republic of B., consisting of 200 
members chosen fi^m the city of B., and 
99 fivm the towns and the country. 
The former are chosen from the citizens, 
over 29 years old, by an elective assembly 
composed of the members of the lesser 
council, and a committee of the great 
The 99 members firom .the towns and 
country are chosen partly fix)m the towns, 
by the municipal authorities ; partly finom 
each of the 22 districts, into which the 
country is divided, by elective assemblies ; 
and partly by the great council. Two 
bailiffis preside in turn, each for the spaoe 
of a year, in the great and lesser councils. 
The former has tlie legislative, the latter 
the executive power. The latter consists 
of the two bfidliffii, 23 members, and 2 
secretaries^ and is chosen by the former 
fit>m among its own members. — ^The 
northern part t>f the canton is hilly, with 
beautifiil plains and valleys, and had a 
fertile and highly cultivated soil, produc- 
ing com, wine and fruits. - Here is situated 
Emmenthal, one of the richest and most 



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BEKN— BERNARD. 



78 



IMla ▼allejni in Switee r liu d, where the 
fintBt cattie are nuaed, and the weU-4motm 
EmineDthal cheeaamade. Neathouaea, 
eQiiifi>rtabie dr^Koa, and cheerftihieBS, in- 
ifieate the proepeiity of the inhabitanta of 
this vattev. The southern part of the 
canton, the Oberiaod (Upperiand), (to 
which the valleys of Hasli^ Grindervald, 
LanterbniB, Caiider, Frutuiaeu, Adelho* 
den, Shnmen and Saanen, with numerous 
sniaUer vaUeys, belong), begins at the 
foot of the bidi mountain chain towards 
theValaiSyandeaEtendstoitssammlt The 
lower vafieya produce good frmts, and 
are fertile and agreeable : higher up are 
ezoettent Alpine pastures; then succeed 
bars, rocks, eztenatve glaciers (the source 
of magnificent water-fiulsj, and the bigbeat 
mountaina of Switzerland, aa the Finster- 
aarhomi the 6cbreck-hom and Wetter- 
horn^ the Eiger, the Junafiau. The in* 
haMtants of the Oberland live, principal- 
ly, by rabing cattle^— The chiet trade is 
in linen and wootten manu&etnres, ea* 
pecially in EmmentbaL The revenuee 
of the state amount to about 600,000 d<4- 
ian. The canton flimishea 5824 men to 
the army of the confederacy, and con* 
tributea 104,080 Swiss fiancs to its eup- 
port--B. (1062 houses, with 17,620 in- 
iMbitants), one of the best bulk cities in 
Bwitaerland, is situated upen the declivity 
of a hill, on a peninsula, waabed on three 
aides by the Aar. The streets are, for 
die greater part, straight, wide and well 
paved, and the houses ^rdy provided with 
piaazaa. Among the pubhc buildinM 
are the mat Gothic cathedral, the church 
of the Holy Spirit, the univerra^ build- 
ings, the handsomely built hospital, &c 
B. has aa academy, and severu literary 
aodeties. Hut economioal society, in 
particular, has done much for the im- 
preivement of aprieukure, aa well as for 
the better knowndge of the natural hia- 
tory of Switzerland. The historical so- 
eie^ of Switzeriand, of which the mayor 
of B^ von Mfilinen, is nreaident, baa pub> 
iiihed several chroniclea relating to the 
former times of &, as that of ^stinger 
(till 1421), 1819^ that of Schachthm, im, 
and that of Anahehn (till 1526), 1825. 
The gallery for nadve roeeimeaa of natn* 
lal iustety, founded in 1£02; containa vi- 
vqianNu animala, birds, butterflieB, insects 
and pUmts. The public library possesses 
great treasnMa,both of primed hooka and 
Bwnuacriptt. Sevaral private persons 
have muaeuma, wbkh are generally open 
ID sonnmrn Trade>a>id eommeroe are 
Kfely : the mamtftctories'lhmiflb waeHen 
cfed^pfkllad*lineD,iilkJtafl^ McklngB, 

VOL. IL 7 



&C. There are ibw chies vrith finer 
pomenades, or where thev are kept in 
better repair. One of the mvorite walks, 
for instance, is near tiie cathedral, raised 
at great expense, and planted with four 
revra of trees. The side towards the Aar 
is 106 ibet above the river, which here 
forms a beautifbl cascade, equalling that 
of the Rhine at Lauffon, if not in Iwigfat, 
at least in breadth. 
BfeRNADOTTK. (Sco C^utrUs XJV.) 
B^aiVARD, Pierre Joseph ; son of a stat- 
nary, hem at Grenoble, 1710; died at 
Choisy, near Paris, 1775; studied with 
the Jesuits in Lyons, and entered as a 
cleric into the service of a notary in Paris. 
He was afterwards admitted into the ser- 
vice of the marshal de Coi^y as secreta- 
ry, and, by Louis XV, appomted treasurer 
m the dragoons, and, afterwards, librarian 
of Choisy. In 1771, he lost his memoi^ 
by the apoplexy, and remained in this 
condition till hts death. Amons the poeta 
who have sung in praise of pleasure, of 
irtiom the French nationpossesses so^ 
many, B. is esteemed.. In 1737, he brought 
the opera Castor and Pollux on the stii^e, 
which is a mastequece of lyric-di'amatic 
poetry.' Rameau's music contributed to 
neighten the general applause with which 
it was received. UAri^Mner was not 
published until after his dea&, but bad 
been before communicated to ms friends: 
it is, in part, an imitation of Ovid. Voltaire 
called B. le gtrUU, The whole of Mb 
works appeared at Paris, 1796. 

Bernard, duke of Weimar, general in 
the thirty years' war, bom Aug. 6, 1604, 
the fourth son of duke John of Saxe* 
Weimar, entered into the sertice of Hol- 
land, at that time the best school for a 
soldier, where prince Maurice of Nassau 

Ithe creator of a better system of tactics), 
lis brother Frederic Heniy, the marquis 
Spinola, and other great generals, were ' 
exposed to one another. B. afterwards 
entered the Danish army employed in 
Holskein against the troops of the empe- 
ror, and conunanded by the margrave of 
Baden-Durla^, and waspresent at the 
conference of Lubeek, ISX^, for negotia- 
ting peace. When Gustavus AdoTphus 
entered Germany, B. joined him, and waa 
present at the atuick upon Wallensteih^ 
camp, in the neighborhood of Nuremberg; 
Aug. 24, 1632. In the batde of Lutzen, 
Oct 6y 1682, he commanded die left vring 
of the Swedirii army, avenged the deam 
of Gustavus Adolphus, and, aldiouffh him- 
self severely wounded, put the right vring 
ef the imperial ttoops to flight Chan- 
edhnr Qxoistieni, the Swe&k " 



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74 



BERNARD. 



of the war in Gennany, after the death of 
the king, committed the commaad of 
half the army to him. B^ in 1633» took 
Bamberg, Cronach, Hochstadt and Aich- 
stadt; but his attempt upon Ingolstadt 
miscarried. He also brought the cities of 
Ratisbon and Straubing mto his power, 
and frustrated Wallenstein's intentions. 
The kin^ of Sweden made hun duke of 
Franconia. His impetuoaitv caused the 
defeat at NordUngen (q. v.), Aug. 24, 1634.' 
He himself narrowly escaped being made 
prisoner. The prudence of Oxeostiem 
and the valor of B. soon made amends 
for this fault France, now entering into 
a closer alliance with Sweden, concluded 
a separate treaty with B., who went to 
Paris, Oct. 16, 1634. B. promised, for 
4,000,000 livres, to raise an army of 18,000 
men on the Rhine, to act a^^ainst Austria. 
He now carried on the war m tlie country 
adjoining to the Rhine, took the fortress 
of Zabem, in Alsace, spread his army over 
Lorraine and Burgundy, and vanquished 
the forces of the emperor in several bat- 
tles. At the commencement of the year 
16^ he laid siege to Riieinfelden, not far 
from BMe* Here he was unexpectedly 
attacked in his camp, Feb. 18, by an Aus- 
trian army that haa advanced to raise the 
aieffe. B. was obliged to retreat before su- 
perior numbers ; but, having soon collected 
nis forces, he attacked the Austrians by 
surprise, Feb. 21, and obtained a complete 
victoiy. Several Austrian generals were 
made prisoners, and the fortress of Rhein- 
felden was obUged to surrender, May 13. 
He then undertook the siege of Brisach, 
the possession of which was necessary 
for maintaining himself in Alsace. An 
imperial army, under the command of 
{(eneral Ooetze, that approached with the 
utention of raising the siege, was defeated 
With a great loss by B., July 30. B. captur- 
ed several places of inferior importance, 
during the siege of Brisach, which, how- 
ever, aid not surrender until he had repeat- 
ed^ defeated the Austrians, and then upon 
Teiy moderate conditions, which B. sign- 
ed in his own name, without mention- 
ing France. The possession of Alsace, 
which he had before ceded to France 
under certain conditions, was now secur- 
ed ; but he also demanded Brisach as an 
appurtenance to Alsace. He garrisoned 
all the conquered places with German 
troops, and ordered money to be coined 
with the Saxon coat of arms and that of 
Brisach. In vain were the efforts of 
France to deprive the duke of the posses- 
sion of Brisach, by proposing to phice a 
French garrison in Uie fortreM: the duke 



declined not only this propoBal, bat abo 
an invitation to Paris, and the offer of a 
marriage with the duchess d'Aiguillon, 
niece of cardinal Richelieu. Instead of 
that match, he proposed one with the 
princess of Rohan, to which, however, 
the French court would not accede, lest 
the party of the Huguenots should be 
strengthened. It is probable that Riche- 
heu had recourse to secret means, in onler 
to rid France of the duke, who was be- 
come formidable by his growing power. 
He was suddenly seized with a disordeiv 
which terminated his life, July 8, 163^ 
Most of the contemporary writers conjec- 
tured that Richelieu caused him to be 
poisoned : the duke himself had no doubt 
that he had swallowed poison. Immedi- 
ately after his death, several French com- 
missionere appeared, who enlisted his 
troops into the French army: the com- 
mand of them was committed to marshal 
GuebrianL With B. fell one of the chief 
supports of the Protestants. His succes- 
sora, Baner and Torstensohn (q. v.), pur- 
sued his victorious course, and France 
seriously exerted herself in the war which 
continued, for the benefit of the Protest- 
ants. In B. a graceful person, intelligence 
and valor were united with a magnanim- 
ity which could not be shaken by adverse 
events : his only &ult was too great im- 
petuosity. 

Bernaiu) of Clalrvaux ; one of the most 
influential ecclesiastics of the middle ages, 
bom atFoiitaines, in Burgundy, 1091, of 
a noble family. In 1113, he became a 
monk at Citeaux ; in 1115^ first abbot of 
Clalrvaux, near Langres. An austere 
manner of Uving, solitary studies, an in- 
hiring eloquence, boldness of language, 
and the reputation of a prophet, rendered 
him an oracle to all Christian Europe. 
He was named the honeyed teacher, and 
his writings were staled a stream from 
paratUae. The doctnne of the immacu- 
late conception of Mary was rejected by 
him. He principally promoted the cru- 
sade in 1146, and quieted the fermenta- 
tion, caused at that time by a party of 
monks, against the Jews in Gennany. 
He deolined all promotion, and, in the 
rank of abbot of his hdaved Jerusalem (as 
he used to call Claurvaux), he continued 
with all humility, but with great boldness, 
his censures of the clergy and his coun- 
sels to the popes. Innocent II owed to 
hun the possession of the right of investi- 
ture in Germany, and Eugenius III his 
education. He was, at the same time, the 
umpire of princes and bidiops, and his 
voice in me qrnoda was re§^unded as 



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75 



Avine. By his rigid orthodoxy and his 
mystical doctrines, which, though at times 
enthusiastic, were always du^cted to 
the promotion of practical Christianity, 
he refuted the subtleties and dialectics of 
the scholastic philosophers, although his 
seyerhy against Abelard and Gilbert of 
Poree eanoy no means be justified. Lu- 
ther says of him, ^ If there has ever been 
a pious monk who feared God, it was St 
Bernard; whom alone I hold in much 
liij^er esteem than aU otlier monks and 
priests Uiroughout the globe." B. died in 
1153, and was canonized by Alexander 
III, in 1174. (See Aug. Neander's St. 
Bernard and Ms TimeSyBeTYm,1813.) His 
works have been translated from the 
Latin, and published by professor Silbert 
(Vienna, 1820). 

B£&NARD, Great St.; a mountain be* 
tween the Valais and the valley of Aosta, 
11,006 feet high. On its top is the boun- 
dary between the Valais and Piedmont 
The road from the lake of Geneva through 
the Valais, into the valley of Aosta, passes 
over it The Little St B., 71d4 feet high, 
separates Piedmont fh>m Savoy. Over 
this Hannibal directed his march. Ber- 
nard de Menthon, a Savoyard nobleman, 
who lived from 933 to 1006, built herej 
in 963, two hospitiaj for the benefit of 
those on a pilgrimage to Rome, one upon 
mont Joux, where a temple of Jupiter 
stood, the other on the road that leads 
over the Giison Alps, at a place called 
CoUmnu Jouy from a pillar which was an 
object of idolatrous worship. Animated 
by a pious zeal, Bernard destroyed the 
pillar and temple, and, with their ruhis^ 
fmilt the two ho^pfiUa on the Great and 
Little St Bemara, so called after him. 
He committed the care of both these 
establishments to monks of the order of 
St Aunistine, who, with an almost unex- 
ampled selMevotion, exercised the most 
generous hospitalitv towards travellers, 
down to the time of^Charies Emmanuel III 
of Saidinia. This king, fallmg into a 
dispute with the cantons of Switzerland 
about the nomination of a provost, seques- 
trated the possessions of the monk^ and 
gave the aaministration of the hoepUia to 
regular canons of the Augustine order, 
who, with equal humanity and devotion, 
dischaige the duties of their pious calling. 
Upon the barren height (7668 feet), where 
the hospUimn of the Great St Bernard 
stands, which is considered to" be tlie 
highest inhabited place in Europe, on 
almost sveriasting winter reigns ; m vain 
do we look for a tree or bush ; the glitter- 
ing snow dazzles the eye of the wanderer. 



Assisted by the servants of the convent,, 
the heroic ecclesiastics, provided with 
wine and bread, devote themselves to the 
ffuidance of tmvdlers ; and) in order to 
defend the poor against the cold, they lend 
or give them clouies, which are kept for 
that purpose. Upwards of 9000 persons 
annually pass over the mountain, who are 
refiieshed in the Jwspitium. In the midst 
of tempests and snow-storms, the monks, 
accompanied by dogs (called marovu), set 
out for the purpose of tracking those who 
have lost tiheir way. If they find the 
body of a traveller who has perished, they 
carry it into the vault of the dead, where 
it is wrapped in linen, and remains lying 
on a table till another victim occupies the 
place. It is then set up against the wall, 
among the other dead bocues, which, on 
account of the cold, decay so slowly, that 
they are eflen recognised by then- friends 
after the lapse of years. Adjoining this 
vault is a kind of burying-ground, where 
the bones are deposited, when they accu- 
mulate too much in the vault It is im- 
possible to bury them, because there is 
nothing around the hoipiiium but naked 
rocks. In the church is the monument 
of general Dessaix, who fell in the battle 
of Marengo. The first consul ordered 
him to be embalmed, and assigned^him a 
resting place on the summit of the Alps. 
The monument of marble represents Des- 
saix in relief^ wotmded, and sinking from 
his horse into the arms of his aid Le 
Brun. On the stairs of the convent stands 
his statue of marble. Opposite to it there 
is a slab of marble, on which the republio 
of Valais commemorated Napoleon's 
passage over the St B., May 15, 1800, 
with an inscription in letteis of fold. Bv 
means of a contribution raisedf through 
Europe, a short time ago, the habitations 
of the 9 or 10 ecclesiastics have been 
made more comfortable. 

BERifARoi, Augustus Fredcric, a Ger- 
man scholar, bom iir Berlin, in 1768, died 
there in 1830. In bis youth, his attention 
was directed to universal language (that 
is, to language as fhr as it is common 
to all rational beings), to the mystery 
of its construction, the mathematics, as it 
were, of language. B., considering all 
difiSsrent languages as a whole, endeavored 
to discover a universal grammar common 
to them all. The result of his researches 
appears in his woiks, i2etne SpraehUhrt 
(Abstract Grammar), 1801, 3 vols.; 
AngtwandU Spraeklekre (Grammar in 
its Application), 1803; and Ai^angs- 
gr&nde der SprachunMenschafl (Elements 
of the Science of Language), in which 



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BERNARDI-BERNINL 



maay phflflaophicalpiinclplefl of langoa^ 
are laid down. B. was a man of culti- 
-vated mind and ^xtenaive knowled^ 
He was dso aprofessor and director ot a 
classical school in Berlin* 

Beakamdis db St. Pieebs. (See 
Pierre^ St.) 

B£&NAJELDiifE MoffKs. (See CUkr- 

BsHNBDRo, Anhalt ; one of the three 
dukedoms of Anhalt (253 sauare miles, 
7 towns, 51 villages, with 38,400 inhabit- 
ants. The income is valued at 450,000 
Siilders. Its contingent to the army of 
e German confederation is 370 mem 
In 1820, the Lutheran and Calvinistic 
paxta of the population were united. The 
capital of this dukedom is Bemburg, on 
the Saale, with 4900 inhabitants. The 
public debt amounts to 1,034,500 guilders. 
Napoleon made the princes of Bembuig 
dukes. 

Beeners, or Babzibs, Juliana; an 
English lady of the 15th centuiy, of 
whom little more is known than that she 
was prioress of the nunneiy of SopeweU, 
near St. Alban's, and has her name pre- 
fixed, as the writer or compiler, to one of 
the earliest and most curious productions 
of the ^^lish press. The title of the 
second ediuon, printed in the abbey of St 
Alban's, in 148^ is, 7%e Bol:e o/* Hoti^^T^ 
and Bwatytigy vnih other PUaawea d^ 
venty and (Sio Cootarmiuries, The first 
edition (1481) does not treat of coat-armor 
or heraldry. This w<Nk, under the title of 
the Book of St Alfaan's, became a popu- 
lar manual of sportinff science, and was 
several times reprinted m the 16th centu- 
ry. As a typo^phical curiosity, a small 
impression of it was published, in 1811, 
by Mr. Haslewood. 

Bebni, Francesco (also BemOf and 
Benda) ; a poet of the 16th oentmy, bom 
at Lamporecchio, in the teiritory of Tua- 
cany, towards the close of the 15th cen- 
tuiy, of a noble but poor Florentine &mi- 
Sr$ went to Florence, and, at the age of 
9, to Rome, where he lived under the 
care of his relation, cardinal Bibiena, 
who, as he hunself says, did him neither 
good nor barm, and he was at length 
obliged to enter the service of the bishop 
of Yenma, Ghiberti, datary of the papal 
chancery, as secretary. In the hope of 
promotion, he took orders ; but, disgusted 
with the duties of his office, he sought 
recreation in amusen^entE^ which me- 
pleased the prelate. A society had been 
established at Rome, con«sting of yoimg 
ecclesiastics of a jovial temper, like B., 
and a poetical fwn^ who, in order to de- 



note then: kvt for wine, and their ean- 
less gayety, called tbemselv^tvwviqfMoJi 
(vine-dressers). Mauro, Gasa, Furenzuo* 
la, Capilupi, &c. were of the number. 
They laughed at every thing, and made 
sport, in verse, of the most serious, nay^ 
the most tragic matters. B.'s verses were 
the most successful, and were written 
in so pecuhar a stvle, that his name has 
been given to i^ [maniara Bemefca, or 
Bermaca), When Rome was sacked by 
the troops of the constable BouriM>n, 1527, 
B. lost all that he possessed. He after- 
wards made several journeys, with his 
patron Ghiberti, to Verona, Venice and 
Padua. At length, wearied with serving, 
and satisfied with a canonship in tl^ 
cathedral at Florence, in the possession 
of which he had been for some years, he 
retired to that place. The iavor of the 
great, however, which he was weak 
enough to court, brought him into difil* 
cukies. He was reauired to commit a 
crime, and his refiisat cost him his life. 
Alessandro de* Medici, at that .time duke 
of Florence, lived in open enmity with 
the young cardinal Ippolito de' MedicL 
B. was so intimate wiu both, that it is 
doubtful which first made him the pro- 
posal to poison the other. Certain it is, 
that the cardinal died by poison, in 1535. 
B. died July 26, 1586; and if, as is assert- 
ed, his life was terminated by poison, then 
the crime must be imputed to duke Ales- 
sandro. — ^In the burlesque style of poetry, 
B. is still considered the best model. 
His satire is often very bitter, and fre- 
quently unites the good humor of Horace 
with the causticity of Juvenal. The ex-* 
treme licentiousness of his writings is his 
greatest fiiult It should, however, be con- 
sidered that he wrote for his firiends only, 
and that his worics were not printed until 
after his death. The admirable ease, for 
which his writings are distinguiahed, was 
the result of great efforts, since he repeat- 
edly amended and corrected his verses. 
The same is asserted of Ariosto ; and yet 
they are the most distinguished, among 
the Italian poets, for the esse and fluency 
of their style. R also wrote Latin 
verses very correctlv, and was well ao- 
quainted with Greek. His jRtme But' 
k»die (Burlesque Verses) have great merit 
So has also his OrUmdo hw a m a rat Oy eoMH 
potto gikdal Sjg. Bi^ardo €tmU di Sean- 
diano, ed ara ryatto tuUo di naovo da M. 
/v. Bemtd — ^Another Bemi (count Fran- 
cesco B., who was bom in 1610^ and died 
in 1673) has written 11 dramas, and also 
several lyric poems. 
BsiUfun, Giovanni Lorenao, called H 



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andtere Bermfd, tK>m in Nnplas, 1598, 
is praised by his oontemppranes as the 
Michad Angelo of modern timee, on ac- 
count of his success 9s a pointer, a statua- 
1^, and an arohitect ; but he deserves his 
mae principally in the latter cjiaracter. 
Richly endowed by nature, and &vored 
by circumstances,, he rOPe superior to the 
rules of art, creating for himself an easy 
mann^^ the &ults of which he knew how 
to disguise by its briHiancy. From bis 
early youthj he manifested lir great power 
to excel in the arts of design, and, at; the 
lage of eij[ht yeaie^ execut^the l^ead of a 
child in marble, which was considered a 
remarkable production. That such rare 
endowments might be suitably cultivated, 
his &ther carried him to Rome. One or 
fi.'s first works was the marble bust of the 
prelate Montajo ; after which he made ^he 
Dust of the pope, and of several cardinals ; 
also sundry figures of the natural size. 
He was not yet 18, when he produced 
the .^ipollo and Ddpkne, in marble^ a nias- 
terpiece of gn(f e and execution. Loofijng 
at this group near, the close of his life, he 
deelaied that he had m^e very little prog- 
reiis since the time when that v^as pro- 
duced.. His manner was indeed more 
chaste and less afifected, in the early part 
of his career, than at a later period. After 
the death of Gregory XV, cardinal Maf- 
feo Barberini, his successor, employed B. 
to prepare plans for the embellishment 
of the Basihca of St Peter, assigning to 
him a monthly pension of 300 crowns, 
which was afterwards augmepted. With-, 
out forsaking sculpture, B.'s genius em- 
braced architecture, abd he furnished die 
design for the canojw and the pulpit of 
8t Peter, as well as for the drciilar place 
before the church. Amons his numerous 
works, were the palace Ban>erini, the bel« 
fry ef St. Peter, the model of the monu" 
ment of the countess Matilda^ and the 
monument of Urban VIII, his benefac- 
tor.^ — In the year 1j644, cardinal Mazaiin, 
in the name of the king of France, 
offered him a salary of 1^000 crowns ; 
but he declined the invitation. Urbfeoi 
had scarcely closed his eves, and Inno^ 
cent X ascended the papal throne, when 
the envy engendered by the merits- of 
the artist and the fiivor bestowed on him 
broke forth. His enemies triumphed; 
but he regained the fiivor of the pope by 
a model for a fountain. About the same 
time, he erected the palace of Monte Ci- 
torio. Alexander VII, the successor of 
Innocent X, displayed much taste for the 
arts, and fiivor to this artist, and required 
of him a pkix for the embeUiibiQem of 
7* 



the piazza di San Fietro. The admirable 
colonnade, which is so beautifully pro-* 
portioned to the Basilica, was built under 
the direction of B. We may also men- 
tion' the palace Odescalchi, the rotunda 
ddla Riocia, the house for novices, belongs 
ing to the Jesuits, on Monte Cavallo, &c, 
IiOu|s XIV having invited him, in the 
most flattering terms, to Paris, he )set out 
from Rome, in 1665, at the age of 68, ac- 
companied b^ one of his sons, and a 
numerous retmue. Never did an artist 
travel witli so great pomp, and under such 
flattering circumstances. The reception 
which he met with in Paris was highly 
honorable. He was first occupied in pre- 
paring plans for the restoration of the 
Louvre, which, however, were never exe- 
cuted. But, notwithstanding the esteem 
which he enjoyed in Paris, some disa- 
greeable oircumistanceB induced hiip to 
return to Romet he left Paris loaded with 
presetits.' Cardinal Rospigliosi haying be- 
come pope, B. was admitted to an inti- 
mate intercourse with him, and charged 
with several works; among others, with 
the decoration of the bridge of St Angelo« 
In his 70th year, this indeftktigable artis^ 
executed one of his most befiutiful worics, 
the tombof Alexander VII. He still con- 
tinned to devote himself to seyeral yrorka 
of architecture, as well as of statuary, 
with such ardor, that, exhausted by his 
labors, he died, Nov. 28, 1680, at the age 
of ^ He was buried, vdth great mag-r 
nificenoe, in. the ehuveh of St, Maria Mag- 
giorcr 1^0 ' his children he left a fortune 
amounting to about 9,300^000 francs. B.'s 
favorite maxim wasj Chx nen esce talvolta 
ddla re^oloy non fossa max. Thus he was 
of opimon, that, in order to excel in the 
arts, one must rise abote all rules, and 
create a manner peculiar to .one*& selfl 
This B. has accomplished with a rare 
good fortune, but the influence of his style 
has been tninsient. His most eminent 
disciples are Bistro' Berbini, his brother, 
a statuaiy, architect and mathematician ; 
Matthia Rossi, Francis Duquesnoi, sur- 
nanpied ih$ Flemin^t and Borromlnir 

Behivis (Franpois Joiichim de Pierres, 
comte de Lyon) cardiijal de, bom at 
St. Marcel de TArdeche, in 1715, was de- 
jacended of an ancient family, but little fo- 
ybred by fortune, for whidi reason, his 
parents destined him for the clerical pro^ 
fossion. Me. de pompadoiir, whom he 
had known as Me. d'£tioles, presented 
him to Louis XV, who, being pleased with 
himr, assigned to him an apartment in the 
Tuileries, with* a pennon of 1500 livres, 
){is wishe$ were directed towards rusin^ 



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BESNIS— BERNOUILLI. 



his income to 6000 livres. Not Bucceeding 
however, iii attaining this rooderate for- 
tune, he resolved to aim at a lar^r one. 
He went as ambassador to Vemce^ and 
obtained great respect in this difficult 
post After his return, he enjoyed the 
tii|^est &vor at court, and soon became 
nunister of foreign affairs. The, political 
system of Eurojje was changed at that 
tune, France and Austria, hitherto ene- 
niies, united in an offensive and defensive 
alliance, which was succeeded by th^ sev- 
en vears' war, so unfortunate for France. 
B. has been designated, by several writets, 
as the chief author of th]» alliance. Du- 
clos, however, asserts, tliat it vf^B the in- 
tention of B. to maintain the old system, 
which) since the time of Henry IV, and 
especialiv since the time of Kichelieu, 
had made France the protectress of the 
less powerful states of Geroiany, and the 
rival of Austria. Oppressed hy the mis- 
fortunes of his country, which, in part, at 
least, were ascribed to him, B. surren- 
dered his post, and was soon after bafi- 
ished fioin court. His disravce lasted till 
the year 1764, when the king' appointed 
him archbishop of Alby, au<^ ftve years 
later, ambassador to Rome. Here he re- 
mained tiU his death. In the nan^e of 
his court, and against his own opinion, 
he labored to enect the abolition of the 
order of the Jesuits. When the aunts of 
Louis XVI left France, in 1791, they fled 
to him for refhge, and lived in bis house. 
The revolution deprived him of bis for- 
tune, and the means of indulging his 
generous disposition. He was reduced 
to a state of poverty, from which he was 
relieved by a pension from the Spanish 
court. , B. died in Rome, Nov. 2, 1794, 
nearly $0 ytears old. The easy poetry of 
his, youth had procured him a place in 
the French academy, fie himself is its 
severest critic. His verses have been re- 
proached with afie<^tation, negligence, and 
an excess of ornament and m^ological 
unagea. Voltaire, called turn Babet-la- 
Bouquet'Uref from a fat flower-woman, who 
sold her nosegm bel5re the opera houses 
Nevertheless, Voltaire had a |reat esteem 
for his talents, his jud^ent, his criticisms, 
and his charapter, as is evident fix>m their 
correspondence (pubhshed, in 1799, by 
Bourgoing), which, in every respect, is 
very honorable to B. Another corre- 
spondence, between B. and Paris du Ver- 
ney, appeared in print in 1790. After 
his death, Azam published his poem 
La RdMm vengSe (Religion avenged), 
which^ though it contains many beiiutiiui 
verBeil and sublime ideas, is deficient in 



fire and animation. A collection of 
B.'8 works was published in 1797, bj 
Didote 

Bernouixli ; a family which has pro- 
duced eig^t distinguished men, who have 
all cultivated the mathematical scfences 
vrith success. The family, emigrating from 
Antwerp on account of religious persecu- 
tions, tmder the administration of the duke 
of Alva, fled first to Frankfort, and after- 
wards removed to B41c, where it was 
elevated to the highest dignitiee of the 
repubiicr— 1. James B., bom at B&le, 1654, 
became professor of mathematics* there 
1687, and died 1705. The difterential 
calculus, discovered by Leibnitz and New- 
ton, was applied by him to tlie most dif- 
ficult que^ions of geometry and mechan- 
ics: he calculated the loxodromic and 
catenary curve, the. logarithmic spirals, 
the evofutes of seteral curved lines, and 
discovered the numbers of BtmomUi, as 
they are called^— 2. John B., bom at 
Baie, 1667, was one of the greatest mathe^ 
maticians of his titne, and the worthy 
rival of Newton and Leibnitz. He was 
destined for commerce, but his inclina- 
tion led him to the sciences, and, fit)m the 
yelil- 1683, he principally devoted himself 
to medTcine and mathematics. To him, 
and bis brother James, we are indebted 
for an excellent treatise on the difl^rential 
calculus. He also developed the method 
of proceeding from infinitely small num-i 
bers to the finite, of which the former 
are the elements or difierencies, and called 
this method the int^rai eakvbjLS. In 
1690H92, he made a joumey fo France,' 
where he uistmcted the manjuis de 
THdpital in mathematics. At this time, 
he discovered the exponential calculus, 
before Leibnitz had made any communi- 
cations respecting it, and made it known 
in 1697. In 1694, he became doctor of 
medicine at B&le, and, in 1695, went, as 
professor of mathematics, to Groningen, 
where he discovered the mercurial phos- 
phoros or luminous barometer, for which 
h6 received^ from king Frederic I of 
Prussia, a gold medal, and was made a 
member of the academy in Berlin, after- 
wards of that m Paris, &c. After the death 
of his brother, in 1705, he received the 
professorship of mathemtlitics at B«tle, 
which he held until his death, Januaiy 
1, 1748.--3. Nicholas B.^ nephew of the 
former, bom at B^le, in 1687, studied law, 
but more particularly devoted himself to 
matliematics ; in 1705, went to Gronin- 
gen, to John B. ; returned, however, with 
hiifn to Bale towards the close of the 
year, and became there professor, of 



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BERNOUILU-BERRL 



79 



He Mvelled tfarouch 8 wie- 
seriand, France, HoUand and England^ 
and, in 1713, became a member of the 
academies of ecienoe in London and Ber- 
lin. On the recommendation of Leibnitz, 
lie went, aa prdfeasckr of mathematics, to 
Padua, in 1716, but retumed to his native 
cit^, in 1729, as professor of logic. In 
X731, he became professor of the Roman 
and feudal law in that place, and died in 
17$9. The three following were sons of 
the above-mentioned John B.—;4. Nicho-^ 
las B., bom at Bile, 1695, became profes- 
8or of law there in 1723, .and . died in 
Peterabuig, in 1736.r^. Daniel B., bom 
at Groningen, Feb. 9, 1700. He studied 
medicine, in which he tpok the doctor's 
degree, and, at the same time, was en- 
gaged in mathematical studies, in which 
Eis fether had- been hid instructer. He 
▼iaited BMe, Heidelberg, Strasburg, Ven- 
ice and Padua. At the age of 24, he was 
offered the ^presidencyof an ^icademy 
about to be.e8tablishe4 at Genoa, but, in 
the following year, accepted an invita- 
tion to PeterBbmg. Accompanied by hicT 
younger brother, John, he returned to 
Bile m 4733 ; became there professor of 
anatomy and botany $ in 1750, professor 
of natural pliiloeophy ; resigned this place, 
because (h his advanced age, to fiis broth- 
er'sson, theyounger Daniel B., in 1777^ and 
died in 17& He wa8t>ne of the greatest 
natural philosophers, as well as mathema- 
ticians, of liis time. At 10 different times, 
he received a prize from the academy of 
Pans. In, 1734, he shared with his fether 
a double prize, given by this academy, 
for their joint essay on the causes of the 
difi^nt inctinations of the planetary or- 
bits. Most of his writings are contained 
in the transactions of me Petersburg, 
Paris, Berlin, &c. academies, of which he 
was a member.—^. John B., bom a( 
Bile, in 1710,' went to Petersburg in 17^ 
became professor of rhet<»ic at B&le in 
1743, and, UL 1746, professor of mathc-. 
matics. He died in 1790. The two fcl- 
lowing were his sons. — 7. John B., licen- 
tiate of law and royal astronomer in 
Berlin, was bom at Bale, in 1744, and 
died, 1807, in Beriin, whither he ,had 
been invited ip the 19th year of his age. 
He had travelled through all the oounr 
tries of Europe, and hved, after 1779, in 
Beriin, whei^ he had become director 
of the mathematicid department of the 
ficademy. He is the autnor of numerous 
works. — 8. James B. was bom at )i4le, in 
1759 ; went to Petersburg, where he be- 
came professor of mathematics, married 
a giand'^aughter of Euler, buz died in 



1789, in the 30th year of his atfe, of an 
apoplexy, while bathmg in the Neva. 
• Bernstorff ; the name of a Gennan 
noble femily, many member* of which 
have been distinguished. The most so 
viras John Hartwig Ernst, count of B.,. 
Danish secretary of foreign afiairs. He 
was bom in Hanover, May 13^ 1713. His 
fether was also secretary of state in Den* 
mark. In 1750^ he was made member 
of the council or state, afler liaving served 
for a long time as foreign minister. He 
soon became the most influential member 
of the government, which distinguished 
itself! under his direction, by a wise neu- 
trality during the seven years' war, and 
othei: politicd disturbances in Eun^ ; by 
liberal measures for improving the condi- 
tion of the Danish peasantry, who were 
even then in a state of bondage ; by pio-^ 
moting science, and sending an expedi- 
tionrto Asio^ which the famous traveller 
Niebuhr accompanied. He himself set 
the.exampl<$ of manumitting the peasants, 
and gave .the fourth part of his income to 
the poor. By his effort^ Denmark ac- 
quired Hol^in. B..is described, by all 
historians, |yE( a model of wisdom, benevo- 
lence and intelligence. Frederic V (q^ viL 
whose gorerament he directed so well, 
died in 1766, and he continued in his 
office, under Christian VII, until 1770, 
when- Stfuensee (q. v.) contrived to dis- 

Elace him. . After the; fell of Struensee, 
e was recalled, but died when preparing 
fer his fetum to Denmark from Hambui^, 
in 1779, Feb. 19. Christian VII had made 
him count — ^Andrew Peter, count of B., 
his cousiq, was also a very distinguished 
statesman, successor of the preceding, 
and deserves great praise, among other 
things, for his endeavors to emancipate 
the peasantry. He' was bom Aug. 28, 
1735, and died June dl, 1797. His son 
is now Pmssian minister of foreign af^irs. 
Berri, or B£rrt, Charies Ferdinand, 
duke of; sedond son of the count d'Ar- 
tois (now Charles X) and Maria Theresa 
of Savoy, bom at Versailles, Jan. 24, 
1778. Together with the duke of An- 
goul^mc, be received an inailequate edu- 
cation under the duke of Sereut : never- 
theless,, in his eariy youth, he dispknred 
some talents and' a good hearL In 17£K^ 
he fled with his father to Turin, served 
under him and Cond6 on the Rhine, and 
earlv learned the art of winning the love 
of the soldiers. With his fiunily, he re- 
paired to Russia, and, in 1801, to Eng- 
kmd, where he lived alternately at Lon- 
don and Hartwell, continually occupied 
with plans for the restoratioB of the Bour- 



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8a 



BERRI—BERTHIER. 



boDfli Aiiril ld> 1814, B. landed at Cher- 
bourg, and passed through tl^e cities of 
Bageux. Cafin, Rouen, &c., gaining over 
the soldiers and national guards to the 
cause of the Bourbons, distiibutingalms, 
and delivering prisoners. He m»le his 
entrance iato Paris April 5^1, where he 
gained popularity by visiting the mer- 
chants, manuftcturers and artist^ May 
15, he was appointed colonel-general, 
receiving a civil list of 1,500,000 francs. 
Aug. 1, ne set out on a visit to the de- 
partment of the North^ and the fortified 
places in Lorraine, FVanche-Cpmt^ and 
Alsace. When Napoleon landed from 
Elba, the king committed to B. the chief 
command of all the troops in and round 
Paris. All his efforts to secure their 
fidelity proving ineffectual, h^ was obliged 
t6 retreat} on uie night of March 19, with 
the troops of ^e household, to Ghent, and 
Alost, where the Ipng then was. The 
batde of Waterloo enabled him to return 
to Paris, where he arrived July 8, and 
surrendered his command over the troops 
of the household into the hands of the 
king. In August, he was made priesident 
of the electoral college of the 4^partment 
of the North. At the oipeniikg' of the 
chambers in Paris, he took the o^th to 
maintain the constitution, and was ap- 

Eointed president of the fourth bXiyeau ; 
ut he soon retired from public life. 
Louvel (q. v.) had been, for several veara, 
meditating tue extirpation of] the house 
of Bourtwn, hy the assassination of the 
duke. Feb. 13, 1820, he attacked him 
just as he had left the opera-house, and 
was on the point of stepping into his caj> 
riage, and gave hun a mortal blow. The 
duke showed the greatest firmness and 
Christian resignation even to the moment . 
of his death (Feb. 14, at 6 o'clock in the 
morning). He had been carried iiitb the 
saloon.of the opera-house. Here^he con- 
soled his wife, and said, Minagez-vous 
jMmr Penfant que voua porkz duns voire 
sein! (Take care of yourself, for the sake 
of the child in- your bosom !) H'e then 
caused the children^ whom he had m 
London before his marriage, to be called, 
and, after recommending them to his 
wife, prepared himself for death, foi^ve 
bSs murderer, confessed him^lf, and re- 
ceived the sacrament Benevolence, grat- 
itude and generosity were the best fea^ 
tures in the character of this prince^ by 
whose death edl France was plunged into 
consternation, (See Chateau briand's Me* 
moires touduxnt laVUet la Mori du Due 
de Btrrij Paris, 1820^ The duke lefl by 
his wife, Carolma FerdinandA Louissi 



eldest daughter of prinee^ afterwaids kin^ 
Francis I, ruler of me Two Sicilies, whom 
he married June 17, 1816, only a daughter, 
Louisa Maria Theresa- of Artois, made- 
moiselle do FMnoe, bom Feb. 21, 1819. 
Great was the ioy of the foyal &milyy 
when the duke% wklow was' delivered^ 
Sept 39, of a prince, who bears the name 
of Henry, duke of Bordeaux (Henri 
Charles Ferdinand Dieudonn^ d'Artois, 
petit-fils de France). (See €handmd.y^ 
Although Louvel's deed had no connez-^ 
ion wim a conspiracy, not the sfightest 
trace, of an accomplice bemg disco vered, 
yet the mutual denunciations to which it 
gave rise produced niuch party excite- 
ment, and occasioned some laws of ex- 
ception. (See JVofice, and EzcepHohj 
lokos of^ The opera-house, near wluch 
the crim^ was committed, and in which 
the duke died, was pulled down, and a 
column erected on the spot A' neiw 
opera-hpuse was built in another place. 

Berri, or B£RRY ; before the revblu- 
tion of France, a province and dukedom 
of that country, of which Bourges was 
the capital, almost i^ the centre of France, 
(See JJtfcaimpnt.) 

Berserxer, a descendant of the eight- 
handed Starkader and the beautiful Alf- 
Iiilde, was, according to the Scandinavian 
ii^ythology, a famous warriorr , He dis- 
dained- die protection of armor, whence 
he recerved his name, which signifies, 
according to Ihre, aniMTUss, He raged 
like a madman is battle.' He kiUed king 
Swafurlam, and married his daughter, by 
whom he had 11^ sons, as untameable as 
himself. They were also called B^ and, 
ennce their time, the name has been com- 
monly given to men of headstrong violence. 

Berthier, Alexander; prince of Neuf* 
chatel and Wagram, maiihal, vice-consta- 
ble of France, &c. ; bom in Paris, Dec. 
90, 1753; son of a distinguished officer ; 
was, while yet young, employed in the 
goneijal stanT, served in America, and 
fought with Lafayette for the liberty of 
the U. States. In the fu^ years of the 
revolution, he was appointed maj<Mr-gen-> 
eml in the national guard of Versailles^ 
and conducted htrusea in tills post with 
uniform moderation. Dec. 26, 1791, he 
was appointed chief of the general sta^ 
in tho army of marshal Luckner, marched 
against La Vendee in 179^ and joined 
the ar^y of Italy in 1796, witii the rank 
of general of division, where, as chief of 
the general staff, he contributed much to 
the success of the campaign. In Octo- 
ber, 1797, general Bonaparte sent him to 
Baris to d^ter to the directQiy the treioy 



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BERTHIEIt-BERTHOLLfiT. 



81 



ofCicunDo-Foimiou la JmuaiY, 1796, he 
receivea the chier command qf the aimy 
of Italy, and was ordered by the directory 
to march a^ainat the dommions of the 
pope. In the beginning of February, he 
made lus entrance into Rome, abolished 
the papal goyeminent, and established a 
consular one. Being o^uch attached to 
general Bonaparte, he followed him to 
Egypt as chief of the general staff After 
the l8th of Bnmiaire, Bonaparte appoint- 
ed him minister of war. Ue afterwards 
became general-in-chief of the army of 
reserve, accompanied Bonaparte to Italy, 
in 1800, and contributed to tlie passage 
of Sl Bernard and the victory at Maren- 
go. He signed the armistice of Alessan- 
oria, formed the provisional government 
of Piedmont, and went on an extraordi- 
nary mission to Spain. He then received 
again the department of war, i^hich, in the 
mean time, had been in the hands of 
Camot He accompanied Napoleon to 
Milan, June, 1805, to be present at his 
coronation, and, in October, was a[^int- 
ed chief of the general staff of the ^rand 
army in Germany. Oct 19, he signed 
the capitulation of Ulm, with Mack, and, 
Dec. Of the armistice of Austerlitz. Hav- 
ing, in 1806, accompanied the emperor in 
his campaign asainst Prussia, he signed 
the armistice of Tilsi^ Jun^ 1807. He 
afterwards resigned bis poet as minister 
of war,, and, having been a]>pointed vice- 
constable of France, married, in 1808, 
Maria Elizabeth Amalia, daughter of duke 
William of Bavaria-Biricenreld, and con- 
tinued to be the companion of Napoleon 
in all his expeditions. In the campaign 
a^nst Austria, in 1809, he distinguished 
himself at W^ram, and received the title 
o€ prince of fragraoL In 1810, as proxy 
of Napoleon, he received the hand of 
Maria Louisa, daughter of the emperor 
Francis I, and accompanied her to France. 
Somewhat later. Napoleon made him 
colonel-general of the Swiss troops. In 
1812, he was with the army in Russia, as 
chief of the general stafi^ which post he 
also held in 1818. After Napoleon's ab- 
dication, he lost his principality of Neuf- 
chatel, but retained his other honors, and 
possessed the favor and confidence of 
Ix>uis XVIII, whom, after Nwoleon's 
return, he accompanied to the Nether- 
lands, whence he repaired to his fiunilv 
at Bamberg, where he arrived May 30. 
After his arrival at this place, he was 
observed to be sunk in a profound mel- 
ancholy ; and when, on the afternoon of 
June 1, the music of tlie Ruanan troops, 
on their march to th» French borders, 



was beard at the gates of the eity, he pat 
an end to his lire by throwing himself 
fiom a window of the third story of hia 
palace. (See M6moin» d^MixanAtt Bet* 
(hiery Pr. de NtufihOd d de Wagram^ 
Paris, 18a6.j He left a son, Alexander 
(bom in 1810), and two dauffhtera. 

Berthollet, Claude Louis, count; 
member of the scientific academies at 
Paris, London, Turin, Haeriem, &c. ; one 
of the most eminent theoretical chemists 
of our times; bom at Talloire, in Sayoy^ 
Dec. 9, 1748 ; studied mei^ine at Turin ; 
went, in 1772, to Paris, where he became 
connected with Lavoisier ; was admitted* 
in 1780, a membra of the academy of 
sciences in that city ; was made, in 1794, 
professor in the normal school there, and 
was sent to Italy, in 1796, in order to se- 
lect the monuments that were to be car- 
ried to Paris. He followed Bonaparte to 
Efgrpt, and returned with him m 1799. 
After the 18th of Bmmaire, he was made 
a member of the 9mattem»tTv<devr; after- 
wards, count and grand officer of the le- 
gion of honor. In 1804, Napoleon ap- 
pointed him senator for the district of 
Montpeljier. In 1813, he received the 
grand cross of .the ecder of the Reunion^ 
April 1, 1814, however, he voted ft>r the 
establishment of a provisional govem- 
inent and the dethmnemeot of Napoleon. 
Louis XVni made him a peer ; but Na- 
poleon passed him l^ in 1815. After 
the restoration of Louis, he took hia seat 
again in the chamber of peers. Among 
the inventions and new processes with 
which the sciences and the arts were en- 
riched by him, the most important are 
those for the charring of vessels to pre- 
serve water in ships, ibr the stiffening and 
glazing of linen, &c., but principally that 
lot the bleaching of vegetable substances 
by means of ozymuriatic acid, which^ 
since l786, has been in geneni use In 
France. Besides difterent essays in tlie 
collections of the academy and the insti- 
tute, he has written several larger works, 
among which his JScAn dt Satique C%»- 
mique (1803, 2 vols. ; translated into Eng^ 
lish, German and Italian) must be consid- . 
ered as the most important, and as one of 
the finest^productions of our times. The 
complicated phenomena of chemistry are 
reduced, in this work, to the strict and 
simple laws of mechanics. He had alsa 
a lar^ share in tbe reftirmation of the 
chemical nomenclature, as weB as in the 
publication of the work that appeared on 
this subject in Paris, 1787— JMi£lftoile db 
JSTtmenclature Ckmique. He died in 
Paris, Nov. 7, 185te. 



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83 



BERTHOUD— BERVIC. 



Berthoud, FenllDand, celebrated for 
his mariDe chronometerB, bom at Plance- 
mont, in the county of Neufbhatel, in 
1727, was destined for the church, but, 
at the age of 16, conceived an irresistible 
inchnation for mechanics. His fiither 
caused him to be instructed in the art of 
watchmaking, and, to afford him an op- 
portunity of perfectiM his knoviiedge, 
sent him to Paris. He resided in that 
city from 1745, and there made his first 
marine chronometers, which have been 
nsed, by French navigatore, oi^ so many 
occasions, for extending and correctinff 
geographical knowledge. He left severed 
woncs relating to his art He died in 
1807. His nephew, Louis B., his pupil, 
and the heir of his talents, has extended 
his improvements still further. His chro- 
nometers are in the hands of almost all 
navigatdrs, and are even more convenient 
than those of his uncle. They are fa- 
mous for accuracy. 

Bertqli, Giovanni Domenico, count 
of; bom, in 1676, at Moreto, in Friuli ; the 
patriarch of Aquileia, a place where 
many antiquities existed, of which nobody 
had taken notice. The inhabitants had 
•ven been in the habit^ for a long time, 
of buildinff their houses with ruins and 
remains of art. To prevent further de- 
stmction, B., in conjunction with other 
men of learning and taste, bought all the 
ancient marbles which were excavated. 
Muratori and Apostolo Zeno encouraged 
him in his antiquarian researches and 
publications. B. died in 1758. His most 
important work is Lt AnHchith di Aquil^a 
profane e sacrty Venice, 1739, fbl. Some 
of his treatises are to be found in the col- 
lection of P. Calogera^ others in the me- 
moirs of the Societh Columbaria at Flor- 
ence. 

Berton, Henry Montan ; son of Peter 
Berton, who, when (firector of the opera 
at Paris, induced Gluck and Piccini to 
come to Paris. B. vms bom Dec. 17, 
1767, in Paris, and formed hitnself under 
the great masters Gluck, Piccini, Paesi- 
ello and SacchinL When 19 years old, 
he first appeared before the public, as a 
comjKwer, m the Coficert apirUud, When 
the conservatory was established, he was 
appointed professor of harmony. In 1807, 
he was made director of the Italian opera, 
and afterwards leader of the choir (chef 
du chant) at the great imperial opera. He 
was afterwards employed in Russia by the 
ecnperor, but soon returned to France. 
His most fiunous opera is Alifie Reine dt 
Ch>lconde. His Montmto and Stephanie^ 
aiaOf are distinguished. 



BERTRAjfD, Henri GnitieD, count ; gen-^ 
eral of division, aid-de-camp of Napoleon^ 
grand marshal of the palace, &c.; &mou0 
ror his attachment to Napoleon, whom he 
and his &mily voluntanly accompanied 
to St Helena. He was bom of parents 
in the middle ranks of life, entered the 
military service, distinguidied himself in 
the corps of engineers, and rose to the 
post of general of brigade. In the eaihp 
at Boulogne, in 1804, Napoleon had oc- 
casion to become acquainted with his 
worth. From that time B. was with him 
in all his campaigns, signalizing himself 
every where, especially at Austerlitz, 
where he was one of the emperor's aides- 
de-camp. In 1806, he took Spandau, a 
fortress about 6 or 7 miles from Berlin, 
after an attack of a few days; and, in 
1807, contributed to the victory over the 
Russians at Friedland, and excited the 
admiration of the enemy by his masterly 
conduct in buil^liiig two bridges over the 
Danube, after the battle at Aspem, in the 
war of 1809 against Austria. He distin- • 
guished himself equally in the campaigns 
of 1812 and 1813, Particularly at Lutzea 
and Bautzen. In October, 1813, he de- 
fended several important posts against 
superior numbers, and, after the battle of 
Leipaic, in which he defended Lindenau 
agamst Giulay, conducted the retreat in 
eood order. After the battle of Hanau, 
he covered Mentz till the army had passed 
the Rhine. He took part in the campaign' 
of 1814, by the side of Napoleon, whom 
he accompanied to Elba, returned with 
him, and finally shared his residence in 
St. Helena. After Napoleon's death (1821), 
he retumed from this island to France. 

Bertuch, Frederic Justin, born at 
Weimar, in 1747, since 1785 counsellor 
of legation in the service of the ^\ike 
of Weimar, has done much in several 
branches of literature and the arts, in the 
study of which he has been engaged from 
his early youth. He is principally known, 
in foreign countries, by the Geographical 
Institute ( GeographiscMS InstUut) which 
he established at Weimar. This society 
has published numerous maps, and, in 
connexion with the periodical paper Ge^ 
ograpUsckt Ephemmden, conducted by 
D, and others, nas been of much service 
to geography. B., together with Wieland 
and Schiitz, also projected the AUgemeine 
LUeraturzeUimg, which now appears at 
Halle on the Saale. In 1817, he began 
the OppoiiHonaUattj wliich was suppressed 
by government in 1820. 

Bervic, Charles Clement, one of the 
most distinguished engravers of the 



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BERVIC^BERYL. 



French sefaool, bom at P^iris in 1756, 
studied hie art under Greorge WUle, and 
may be considered his most eminent 
popiL The works of B» are among the 
best of the French school, but are not 
numerous. The most celebrated of them 
b the full lengdi figure of Louis XVI, 
after a picture of Caflot The copies are 
veiy rare and dear, because the plate was 
broken to pieces in the revolutionary tu- 
mults of 1793. The exactness of his 
drawing, the firmness and brilliancy of 
his touch, the purity and correctness of 
his design, and the happiness with which 
he transferred to his plate the beauties of 
the original, give a hich character to his 
productions. Hp died in 1822. 

Berwick, James Fitz-James, duke ofj 
commanded the armies of England, 
France and Spain^ was a peer of Ekig- 
land and France, as well as a grandee of 
Spain, and was knighted by the sovereign 
or each of these countries. He was 
the natural son of the duke of York, af- 
terwards king James II, and Arabella 
Churchill, sister of the duke of Marlbor- 
ough ; was bom in 1670, and first went 
by the name of Fitz- Jamea He received 
his education in Fitmce, and served his 
first campaigns in Hungary, under Charies 
duke of Lorraine, general of Leopold L 
A short time after, me English revolution 
broke out B. followed his fiither in the 
expedition against Ireland, and was 
wounded in a battle in 1689. He after- 
wards served under Luxemburg, in Flan- 
ders; in 1702 and 1703, under the duke 
of Burgundy ; then under marshal VlUeroi ; 
and was naturalized in France. In 1706, 
he was made marshal of France, and was 
sent to Spain, where he gained die battle 
of Almanza, which rendered king Philip 
V again master of Valencia, in 1718 
and 1719, however, he was obliged to 
serve against Pliitip V, who, firom grati- 
tude to the macsha], had taken a son 
of bis into his service. On his entrance 
into the Spanish dominions, he wrote to 
his son, the duke of Liria, admonishing 
him to do his duty to his sovereign. At 
the siege of Philipisburg, in 1734, his life 
was terminated by a cannon ball. 

BxRwicK-upoN-TwEED (ancicntly 3V- 
etif); a town of Enffland, on the north 
or Scotch side of the Tweedy within half 
a mile of its confluence with the German 
ocean. It is a county of itself recukriy 
fortified with walls, bastions and ditches ; 
54 mUes S. £. Edinburv^ 335 N. W. 
London; lon.3°W.; ]at.SS°47'N.; pop. 
7746w It exports com, pork, eggs aiul 
nlmon. The town has been, of kte, 



much improved, and the streets are well 
paved. The bridge over the Tweed is 
1164 feet long, and contauis 6 arches. 
The barracks can accommodate 600 men. 
B. sends two members to parUament,and 
has markets on Wednesday and Saturday. 
It was formerly the chief town in the 
county of Berwick, and the tlieatre of 
many sanguinary conflicts between the 
EngUsh and Scottish armies. Both na- 
tions considering it a fortress of great im- 
portance, the town aiid its neighborhood 
were a constant scene of bloodshed. Af- 
ter repeated sieges, it was finally ceded to 
England m the year 1502 ; and, by a treaty 
between Edward VI and Mary queen of 
Scotland, it was declared to be a fxee 
tbwn, independent of both states. Upon 
the death of Elizabetli, in 1603, James VI 
of Scotland was proclaimed at B. king 
of England, Firance and Ireland ; and 
when Uiat monarch entered into his new 
dominions, the constituted authorities of 
the town received him with every dem- 
onstration of joy and respect In return, 
the king confirmed all their ancient char- 
ters, ai£ling many privileges, which still 
remain peculiar to the town and its lib- 
erties. The peculiar privileges of B^ and 
the circumstance that it was once inde- 
pendent of England and Scotland, are the 
occasion why it wasformeriv the custom to 
extend the provisions of English statutes 
to B. by name. The statute 20 Geo. II, 
c. 42, provides, that, where England only 
is mentioned in an act of parliament, tlie 
same shall be deemed to comprehend the 
dominion of Wales and the town of B. 

Bertl, or Emerald; a well-known 
species in mineralogy, sometimes massive 
in its structure, though commonly found 
crystallized in regular, six-sided prisms, 
often deeply striated longitudinally, and 
terminated at one or both extremities by 
a rough, imperfect plane, or, more rarely, 
by a very flat^ sut-sidcd pyramid, of which 
,the summit is replaced. Its crystals are 
of various dimensions, being from half an 
inch to upwards of a feot in length, and 
from a quarter of an inch to 10 inches 
in diameter. The larger crystals, how- 
ever, are inferior to the smaller, in regard 
to those qualities fer which this species i^ 
esteemed. The lustre of the beryl is 
vitreous; ita color, green, passing into 
blue, yellow and white. The brightest of 
these colors is emerald green, which, as it 
is rarely known to pass insensibly into 
the paler hues^ has been made the basis 
of a distinct species in those qwcimens in 
which it occurs under the name of emer- 
aUL Thia distinction of species is not 



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84 



BSRYL--«ESSEL. 



coflfiidered, at present, as well founded; 
and the beiyl and emerald are looked 
upon as idemksai by moat mineralogists. 
It is translucent or tnoMparent, and its 
iiardneas enables it to scntch quaita. Its 
specific gnwky is ii^m 3.6 to 2.7. It is 
composed of alez, 68.95; ahunine, 17.60; 
glucine, 13.13; oxyde of iron, .72, with a 
trace of lime and oxyde of chrome. — ^The 
beryl is widely difiused. It belong to the 
primitive rocks, and is embedded in veins 
of quartz and feldspar, which trsvecse 
gramte and mica slate. It is dso found in 
great abundance in a coinpect ferruginoas 
clav in Dmuria, and in nactured crystals 
and rolled masses in secondary deposits^ 
where it is not supposed to have had its 
origin. Some or the most remarkable 
fecalities of beryl are found in Siberia, 
Limoges 19 Prance, and in Massachusetts, 
Maine and New Hampshire in the U. 
Stales. The defep-green variety, emerald, 
so much valued as & gem, cornea jfrom 
Peru and Uj^r Egypt: a few fine crys- 
tals have also been obtained fixMn granite 
veins at Topsham in Maine. 

Bbeselius, James ; bom at Lmkiomng, 
in East Gothland, in 1779. As early as 
J 796, he began the study of medicine and 
the natural sciences, particulariy chemis- 
try, for the prosecution of which he has 
since made some scientific journeys. He 
is, at present, professor of chemistry and 
pharmacy, secretary of the royal academy 
of sciences at Stockholm, &c Charles 
XIV (Bemadotte) has made him a noble- 
man. He has done much towards estab- 
lishing the electro-chemical system, which 
at present prevails, and according to 
which no chemical process can take 
place without t|ie intervention of electri* 
city. He has enriched chemiistry, which, 
in. our times, has become a perfectly new 
science, by the most important discoveries 
and profound works. In particular, he 
has distinguished hinlself by researches 
into the bws of definite proportions, dis- 
covered bv Richter, and has proved hhn- 
self one of the best chemical analysts. His 
system of minendogy is founded on his 
chemical principles. Most of his works 
have been traniBlated into English and 
French. 

Besancon (in old German, BtBom); 
Ion. 6^3^ E. ; lat 47« 14^ N.; 48 miles fit>m 
Piaris; a laree, old, well-built city, much 
fortified by Louis XIV; was transfened, 
l^ the peace of Nimwegen, with Franche- 
Cfompte to France} at jnesent, is the chief 
place of the shcth mihtaiy division ; has 
29,000 mhabitantB, and is rituated ki the 
depaitment Donbs. There 10 an aich-> 



bishop in B., tmder wham are the biahopB 
of Autun, Metz, Nancy, Strasburg and 
Dijon. The academy df sciences at B. 
was established in 1752 : there is also hers 
an academy of fine aits, a school for artil- 
lery, one for watch-makers, containing 200 
pupils and a fine Ubrary, besides several 
museums, a botanical garden, an agricul- 
tural society, &c B. is a great manufito- 
taring place. It was calkwl, in ancient 
times, ruontium, and was a fortified place 
as early as the time of Caesar, who drove 
firom hence the Sequani. Here also he 
conquered Ariovistus. Several streets 
have still the old Roman names. The 
ruins of a triumphal arch are yet to be; 
seen. The river Doubs divides the ciW 
into two parts, the upper and lower. B, 
contains 3300 houses, 8 churches, 8 hos^ 
pitals, a citadel, &c« The former univer- 
sity was changed, in 1801, into a lyceum. 
It is the chief place of an amnuHssement^ 
which contains 98,211 inhabitants. 

Bessarabia ; since the peace of Bucha- 
rest, in 1812, between Turkey and Russia, 
a Russian province, between 45^ and 48^ 
N. lat., and 28^ and SV E. Ion. ; contaiiung 
about 8800 square miles (according to some 
accounts, more than double this^amount), 
with 315,000 inhabitants; situated on the 
Black sea, between (he northern arm of 
the Danube, the Pruth and the Dniester. 
B. is a plain countiv, fertile in grain, but 
is mostly used for tlie pasmrage of sheep 
and horses. Most of the in)ud)itBntB are 
Walachians, Gipsies and Tartars. The 
capital is Chotzymf, a fortress. Bender, 
Ismail, Ackerman and Kilia Nova are also 
fortresses. Kiachenau, the seat of a Greek 
Ushop, has a large nursery of trees. The 
population has heen much increased by 
colonists fipom Poland, Germany, France, 
&c These amount already to 8300, 
mostly Lutherans. A considerable num- 
ber of troops are kept in B. to protect the 
fiontiers. Many mechanics are thus 
drawn there to supply the wants of the 
army. 

Bessel, Frederic William ; considered 
by many the best astronomical observer 
of the present a^ ; has been professor of 
astronomy in Kdnissberg since 1810; was 
bom in Minden, July 22, 1784; entered, at 
the a^ of 15 years, one of the fint com- 
mercial houses in Bremen. The mari- 
time intercourse of that place with foreign 
countries excited in him an inclination for 
geography; and afterwards for the science 
of navigation, and induced him to attempt 
the acquimtioD of mathematical knowl- 
edge mm book& He mma passed to 
astronomy, and, as his days were other- 



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BESSEL— B£THLEH£M. 



occupied, be devoted his nights to 
these labors. An astronomical woric 
which he wrote procured him the ac-: 

r'lntance of Olbers (q. v.), who, from 
time, became his adviser. In 1806, 
he joined Scroter at Lilienthal, with rec- 
ommendations fiiom Olbers, and was em- 
ployed for four years as inspector of the 
instruments belonging to the university of 
Gottin^^ From thence he was invited 
to Konursberg, where he built, in 181^^ 
13; the observatory, which is a monument 
of the scientific enterprise of the north of 
Germany, since it was erected when Prus- 
sia was almost exhausted- by war, and 
Konigsbeig was situated on the great 
theatre of Napoleon's operations against 
Russia. The observations, uninterrupted- 
ly continued at this observatory, are con- 
tained in 5 vols., folio. The observatory 
of Konigsbeig was, till 1819, provided 
with English instruments, when the min- 
istry supplied it with, the means of pro- 
cunng new instruments, mfide by Reich- 
eaba^ (q. v.), of the best woricmanship. 
Bemdes these observadons and separate 
treatises, B. published, in his work on 
the comet' of 1807, a' theory of the dis- 
turbances of these celestial bodies, and 
Fundamenia AstrotufmiiB pro cau 1755 — a 
work in which he has reduced Bradley's 
observations, and given their results. He 
treats also of ^ .various subjects con- 
nected with these observations, namely, 
the instruments used and the corrections 
to be, mada in them. For the present 
period, B. has endeavored, by his own 
observations and a strict criticism of meth- 
ods and instruments, toattain the necessary 
certainty. Of his Astronomical Observa- 
tions at (he Observatory of Konigsberg, 
the 10th No., from Jan. I to Dec. 31, 
1824, appeared at Kdnigsber^, 1826. 

Betsl is the leaf of a climbing East 
Indian plant (piper-betel), which Mongs 
to the same tnbe as pepper, and, in shape 
and appearance, is not much unlike ivy, 
but is more tender, and full of juice. 
There is «n almost incredible consump- 
tion of betel throughout India, and other 
parts of the East. The mhabitants chew 
It almost incessantly, and in^such quantity 
that their lips become quiteVed, and their 
teeth black-^ color greatly preferred by 
them to the whiteness which the Europe- 
ans so much affect They carry it, in lit- 
tle white boxes, dbout their persons, and 
present it to each other, by way of oom- 
phment and civility, in the same manner 
as Europeans do snuS This is done b^ 
the women as well as by the men ; and it 
would be coDsiderad an offence, if those 

VOL. lu 8 



to whom it is ofieoed should refuse to ac- 
cept of and chew it The leaves are 
sometimes used alone, but much more 
commonly when covered with a kind of 
hme made of sea^^ell,and wrapped round 
slices of the areca nut, the fruit of the 
areca palm, of the size of a small e^^^ and 
resembling a.nutmeg deprived of its hUsk. 

BethaniAjOt BfiTnAinr \ a village at the 
foot of mount Olivet, on the west side^ 
about two miles east of Jerusalem, where 
Lazarus dwelt, and was raised from the 
dead, and where the ascension of Christ 
is related to have taken plaee. The 
house and grave of Lazarus' and the 
house of Mavy Magdalene are still ^own 
to curious travellers. The name of B. 
was sometimes extended to the whole 
tract fix>m the village itself to Bethphage. 

Bethesda ; a pool in /udea, the name 
of which signifies house of mercy. In the 
five halls or porticos near it many patients 
lay waitmg, acccmling to the account of 
John (ch. v), for the moving of the waters, 
to bathe in it According to the opinion 
of the Jews, an angel descended, at a cer> 
tain time; into the pool, and troubled the 
water, and whoever* firat entered the wa- 
ter, a^r this agitation, was cured. This 
pool sterns to have been composed of a 
red-colored mineral water, which received 
its healing power fiom Uie red earth at 
the bottom. If the healing fountain, after 
havinff been obstructed for a time, began 
to bubble up anew, and the patient made 
use of it before the motion ceased, it 
healed his disease.— lb Ueattke pool of 
Bethesda, is used proverbially, in Gennany, 
in speaking of the theological candidates 
who are waiting for a benefice. 

Bethlehem ; tlie birth-place of David 
and Christ ; a village, fonnerly a town, in 
Palestine, a part of Syria, in the pachaUc 
of Damascus, five miles from Jerusalem, 
at the foot of a hill covered with vines 
and olive-trees, which, however, is not the 
mount of Olives mentioned in the Bible. 
An aqueduct conveys water fipom the hill 
to the village. It has 300 houses, and 
2400 preek and Arm^ian inhabitaats, 
who make wooden rosaries and cruci- 
fixes, mlaid with mother of pearl, for pil- 
grims ; also excellent white vrine. In a 
rich ffrotto, furnished with silver and 
crystfu lamps, under the chou: of the 
church of a convent in this village, a 
trou^ of marble is shown, which is said 
to be the manger in which Jesus was 
laid afler his birth. There are three con- 
vents there, for Catholics, Greeks and Af- 
menistns. The greatest ornament of the 
place is the stately church wected by the 



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86 



BETHLEHEM— BETTERTON. 



empreM Helena over the place where 
Christ is said to have been born, and 
bearing her name. It is built in the form 
of a cross, and the top commands a fine 
view over the surroundmg country. Sev- 
eral spots mentioned in the Bible are 
shown there. 

Bbthlehem, There are many places 
in the U. States with this name. One of 
the most important is the borough and 
post-town in Northampton county, Pexm- 
sylvania, on the Lehigh, 12 miles S. W. 
Easton, 54 N. N. W. Philadelphia. Pop- 
ulation m 1810, 1436 ; in 1820, 1860. It 
IS pleasandy situated, regularly laid out, 
budt chiefly of stone, and inhabited whol- 
ly by Moravians, who have a bishop there. 
B. contains two academies, one for young 
ladies, and another for boys. 

Betrothment, in law ; a mutual prom- 
ise or compact between two parties, by 
which they bind themselves to marry. 
The word imports giving one's troth, 
i e., true &ith or promise. Betrotbment 
amounts to the same with what is call- 
ed, by dvilians and canonists, sponsalia 
or tspousalsy sometimes duponsation^ 
and, by the French, fianfcdUes. Betrotb- 
ment is either solemn (made in the face 
of the church), or private (made before 
wimesses out of the church). According 
to the Roman law, betrotbment ought to 
be made by a stipulation, L e., a contract, 
m which one binds himself, by an answer 
to a quesdon put to him, to tlie fulfiknent 
of a contract As betrothments are con- 
tracts, they are subject to die same rules 
as other contracts; for instance, that they 
•re valid only between persons whose ca- 
pacity to contract is recognised by law ; 
and the use of fraud, violence or intimida- 
tion vitiates the contract The consent 
of both parties, of course, is required. 
This may be ejmressed either verbally, or. 
by writing, or by action. In GermiMiy, 
the consent of the parents is always ne- 
cessary, if the parties are under age, npt 
yet sui jwiii But if the parents withhold 
their consent unreasonably, the permis' 
flion of the judge is allowed to sanction 
the contract If the opinions of the pa- 
rents are diverse, the law gives effect to 
that of the fiither. Some provincial laws 
require the consent «f the relations, and 
the presence of witnesses. Betrothments 
contracted thus, aocordinf to law, are 
called spon»€i%a pMha ; o£ers are called 
^potuaha ehmUsthvu The latter are, in 
some places, utterly invalid ; in others, on- 
ly punishable. By the common Gemian 
law, however, they are valid in every case 
in yrbkh consummation or coisecratioii 



by the priest has taken place. The pS' 
rents, in these cases, are not allowed to 
«pply for a dissolution of the contract, nor 
can they refuse their consent, except for 
highly important reasons. Public be- 
trothment mduces the oblisation to marry. 
In case of refusal to complete the contract 
by marriage, the injured par^ is allow- 
ed an action at law to compel its perform- 
ance ; but, since unhappy marriages are 
among the greatest misfortunes, the means 
of compulsion applied by the law are 
never great, amoundng only to a small 
fine, or a short imprisonu/ent If circum- 
stances take place which, if happening 
before the betrotbment, would have neces- 
sarily prevented it, the party affected by 
them IS allowed to recede fitim the en- 
gagement, and the modem laws allow 
only an acdon for damages. In Germany, 
betrotbment generallv takes place in a 
small company of relations and finends. 
In Russia, it was once binding and indis- 
soluble, like marriage, but is now a mere 
form accompanying the marriage cer&» 
mony» 

Betterment is a term used, in some 
of the y. States, to signify the improve- 
ments niade on lands b^ the occupant, in 
building, fencing, dralmng, &c. ; and the 
statutes of some of the U. States provide, 
that where a purchaser comes into posses- 
sion under what he supposes to be a good 
tide, and the land is afterwards recovered 
against him by virtue of a better dtlej, in 
case he or those under whom he claims 
haye been hi possession of it a certain 
number of yean, he shall be entided to 
claim a^nst the ewner who so recovers 
possession of the land, the value of the 
improvements or hetUrmenU. This is a 
very equitable provision of the laws in 
states where, as in many parts of the U. 
States, titles are not fulfy establi^ed and 
confirmed by a long period of possession, 
and where, in newly-setded territories, the 
improvements may, in a few years, 
amount to more than the original value 
of the land. 

Betterton, Thomas,. a celebrated act- 
or in the reign of Charles II, was bom in 
Westminster, in 1635, and excelled in 
Shakspeare's characters of Hamli^t, Othel- 
lo, Brutus and Hotspur. In 1635, he 
opened a new play-house hi Lincoln's- 
inn-fields, but did not succeed. He died 
in 1710, and was buried in Westminster 
abbey. He wrote the Woman made a 
Justice, a comedy; the Amorous Wid- 
ow, or the Wanton Wi^; Diocletian, a 
dramatic opera, &c. The Unjust Judge» 
or Appius and Vuipnia, a tragedy, was 



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BETTERTON— BEZA. 



m 



written origioany by Mr. John Webster, 
end altered by B. 

B£TTiifKLi.iy Saverio^an Italian author, 
bom at Mantua, in 1718, studied there and 
at Bolosna, under the Jesuits ; entered, in 
l!736, the novitiate of this order, and 
taught, fiom 1739 to 44, belles-lettree at 
Br^nia^ where he made himself known 
by some poems composed for the use of 
schools. In Bolo^pa, where he studied 
theoloffv, he oontmued to cultivate his 
poetical talents, uid. wrote for the theatre 
of the coUege his tragedy of Jonathan. 
In 1751, he wos intrusted with the direc- 
tion of the college of nobles at Parma. 
After having remained there eight years, 
he travelled in France and Germany, and 
returned to Veroni^ where he remained 
till 1767, engaged in preaching and in- 
struction. .^Jler the suppression of the 
Jesuits, in 1773, he returned to his native 
city, where he resumed his liteiary la- 
bofB vn^ renewed zeaL He published 
several woiks, among which some were 
intended for ladies; as^ his Correspond- 
ence between two Ladies, his Letteis to 
Lesbia on Epigrams^ and likewise his 
Twen^-fbur Imlogues on Love. He be- 
gan, in 1799, a complete edition of his 
works (Venice, 1801, 13 vols. 12mo.) He 
present the cheeiflilnefis and serenity 
^ his spirit to the age of 90 years, and 
died in 1808, with the composure of a 
{ibiloeoDher, and the devotion of a Chns- 
tian. Beeddes his worics already men- 
:tioned, we cite his JDelT EiOmkumo ddU 
htUe Arfij Ruorgmento negU ^ndj^ nette 
ArH € n^ Coshmd dapo U MQU (3 vols.), 
a superficial woric, which is, however, not 
destithite of new and just views. The 
LdUre dUd di Ftr^io a^ Jircadi at- 
tracted ^reat attention, fnie ideas ex- 
pressed m this work of the two great 
namSes of Italian poetry, particularly of 
Dante, involved him in many contests. 
His Foene (3 vols.) contain 7 poemdtij 16 
letters in blank verse, sonnets, eanzonif 
Sic Although this collection does not 
show any great poedcal power, yet it is 
ahrays elegant and mgenlous. It is 
preceded by a treatise on Italian po- 
fltrv.. 

Bet, among the Tuiks, rignifies a gcv- 
emor of a town, sei^rt or small district. 
The Tdiks write die word heg. (q. v.) 
(SeeaboB^fiei^.) 

Be Bit (properiy,4e Beze), Theodore; next 
to Calvin, the iwipt distinguished for genius 
end Influence among the preachers of the 
Calvinistio church in the 16th century. 
Bom of a aobiaftmily at Vezelay, in Bur- 



under MelchiorVolmar, a Geiman philob- 
ger devoted to the refonnation ; and eaxly 
lamiliar with the ancient classical literature, 
he became knovra, at the age of 20 years, 
as a Latin poet, by his petmant and witty 
JuioenUia (a collection of poems of which 
he was afterwards ashamed). In 1539, he 
was made a licentiate of law, and, in the 
same year, invited by his fiunily to Paris. 
He received from his uncle the reversion 
of his valuable abbey Froidmond, and 
lived on the income of two benejSces and 
the property which he had inherited from 
a brother. His habits, at this time, were 
dissipated. His handsome figure, his tal- 
ents, and his connexion with the most 
distinguished ftmilies, opened to him the 
most splendid prospecta But a clandes- 
tine marriage, m 1543, recalled him from 
his excesses, and a dan^rous illness con- 
firmed the intentiim, which he had fbrmed 
at Orieans, of devoting himself to the ser- 
vice of the refbrmed church ; so that, afrer 
his recovery, he forsook all the advan- 
tages of his situation in Paris, and repair- 
ed, with his wife, to Geneva, in 1547. 
8oon after, he accepted a professorship of 
the Greek language at Lausanne. Dur- 
in{^ the 10 years of his continuance in 
this office, he wrote a tragi-comip drama, 
in French,*-the Sacrifice of Abraham«-«< 
which was received vrith much approoa* 
tion ; delivered lectures (which were nu- 
merously attended^ on the Epistle to the 
Romans and the Epistles of Peter (T^ich 
served as the basis of his Latin transla- 
tion of the New Testtunent, of which he 
afterwards published several editions, al- 
ways with improvements) ; finished Ma« 
rot's traoslatiou of the Psalms in Frcoach 
verse ; and obtained to such a degree the 
confidence of the Swiss Calvinists, that 
he was sent, in .1558, on an embassy to 
the Protestant princes of Germany, to ob- 
tain their intercession at the French court 
fi>r the release of the.Huffuenots impris- 
oned in Paris. In the fofiowing year, he 
went to Geneva as a preacher, and, soon 
afler, became a professor of theology, ana 
the most active assistant of Calvin, to 
whom he had already recommended him? 
self by several worics (on the punishment 
of heretics by the nuu^strate, the vindica^ 
tion of the burning of Servetus, and some 
violent controversial writings on the doo« 
trine of predestination and the commun- 
ion, against Castalio, Westphal and Hess- 
huss). His talents fbr negotiation were 
now often put in requisition by the Cal- 
vinists. He was sent to the court of 
AnUiony, king of Navarre, at Na^ac. to 
obttin the tpler^tion of the French Hu** 



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ffuenotfl, and, at his desire, he appeared, 
1561, at the religious conference at Pois- 
sy, where he spoke in behalf of his party 
with a boldness, presenee of mind and 
eneray, which gained him the esteem of 
the French court He often nreached in 
Paris before the queen of Navarre and 
the prince of Cond6 ; also in the suburbs. 
At tne conference of St. Germain, in 1562, 
he spoke stronsly against the worship of 
images, and, alter the conomencement of 
the civil war, accompanied the prince of 
Cond6 as chaplain, and, on the capture 
of the prince, joined the admiral Co- 
ligny. After the restoration of peace, he 
returned to Geneva, in 1563, where, be- 
»des discharging the duties of his offices, 
he continued to engage in theological 
controversies in sunportof the Calvinists ; 
and, after Calvin's death, in 1564, became 
his successor, and was considered the first 
theologian of thiis church. He presided in 
the synods of the Frenbh Calvmists at La 
Rochelle (1571) and at Nismes (1572), 
where he opposed Morel's proposal for 
the alteration of clerical discipline ; vras 
sent by Cond^ (1574) to the court of the 
elector palatine ; ana, at the religious con- 
ference at Montpellier (1586), opposed the 
theologians of Wiirtemberg, pajticularly 
James Andreas. At the a^e of 69 yeara, 
he married his second wife (1588), and 
still continued to repel, with the power 
of truth and wit, the attacks and calum- 
nies, which his enemies, apostatized Cal- 
vinists (such as Volsec), Lutherans, and 
particularly the Jesuits, heaped upon him. 
They reported, in 1597, that he bad died, 
and returned before bis death to the 
Catholic ftdth. B., now 78 years old, met 
his assailants in a poem full of youthful 
enthusiasm, and resisted, in the same year, 
the attempts of St Francis de Sales to 
convert him, and the allurins offers of the 
pope. In 1600, he visited Henry IV, in 
the territory of Geneva, who presented 
him vrith 500 ducats. After having en- 
joyed excellent health during almost his 
whole life, he died, Oct; 13, 1605, of old 
age. By a rigorous adherence to the 
principles of Calvin, in whose spirit he 
presided over th^ church of Geneva, he 
had become the chief ef his party, and 
enjoyed for 40 years the reputation of a 
patriarch, without whose approbation no 
important step was taken. In order to 
preserve the unity and pennanency of 
his church, he sacrificed his own opinions 
to the established dogmas of Calvin, and 
rendered tiie most important services by 
his various erudition, his constant zeal, 
liis active spirit, his brilliant eloquence, 



and even by the imnressionof hispenmi- 
al appearance, which age made stm more 
striking. He defended his doctrines viith 
abihty and enthusiasm, and often with 
merciless severity and obstinacy. Among 
liis many woiks, his exe^etic writings, 
and an able and correct Histoiy of Cal- 
vinism in France, fit>m 1581 to 6^ which is 
ascribed to him, are. still much esteemed. 
His correspondence with Calvin is to be 
found in the ducal Ubraiy at Gotha. A 
catalogue of his woriss is given by Antho- 
ny la Faye, who has written an account 
of his Ufe. 

Bezant ; round, flat pieces of pure 
gold, without any impression, supposed 
to have been the current coin of 6yzan.- 
tium. This coin was probably introduced 
into coat-armor by the crusaders. Doc- 
tor Henry, in his 'Histoiy of England, es- 
timates its value at 9t. 4ifL sterlmff. The 
gold ofiEered by the king of En^and on 
the altar, at the feast of tiie Epiphany and 
the Purification, is called bexanL 

Bezoar (Persian, pazary a goat, or pa^ 
Tochar, against poison); a concretion or 
calculus, of an orbicular or oval form, met 
with in the bodies of various animals. 
These substances are found in the stom- 
ach, gall-bladder, saUvaiy duct% and 
pineal j^land, but especially in the intes- 
tines of certain animals of the order rumt- 
nanticu They were formerly celebrated 
for their supposed medicinal virtues,, and 
distiuffuished by the name of the coun- 
tries from which they came, or the ani- 
mals in which they were found. They 
were considei^ as highly alezipharmic ; 
so much so, that other medicines, suppos- 
ed to possess the same virtues, obtamed 
the name of hezoardics^ So efficacious 
were these once thouffht, that they were 
eagerly bought for 10 times their w^iffht 
in gold. Besides beinff taken .intenaiUy, 
they vvere worn around the neck, aa pre- 
servatives fix)m contagion. For Uiis pur- 
pose, it is said, that in Portugal it was 
customary to hire them at the price of 
about 10 shillings per day. On analysis, 
these substances are found to contam, for 
tiie most part, bile and resin. It is almost 
needless to add, that the accounts of their 
extraordinary virtues must now be con- 
sidered as totally febulous. — A strange ori- 
gin was assigned to the bezoar by some 
of the old naturalists. The Oriental stag^ 
when oppressed vrith age and infinnity, 
were said to feed upon serpents, which 
restored their youthlul vigor. To coun- 
teract the poison which by this means 
wai( absorbed into their system, they 
plunged into some running stream, leav* 



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m 



Inr diebr heads aoly above iratflr. In 
tbv atuatioii, a yiacoufl jfluid distilled 
teom their eyes, which was indurated by 
the heat of the sun, and formed the be- 
zoar. — The great value of the bezoar at 
one time gave birth to many imitatioils 
dT it, and various tests have been proposed 
to detect the artifidal stones. The fcl- 
lowing cruel and absurd one is given by 
Ciusius:— Thread a needle, and draw the 
thread through a leaf plucked from a yew- 
tree ; then pass the needle through a aog*8 
foot, and leave the thread in the wound ; 
when the dog becomes convulsed, and 
appean dying, mix some scrapings of be- 
zoar with water, and moipten uie animaFs 
mouth with it ; if he recover, the tone is 
^nuine. Simpler methods, perhaps, are, 
inmierBion in warm water, wnich neither 
loses its own color, nor diminishes the 
weight of the bezoar : or rubbing it over 
|>aper smeared with chalk or auick-lime ; 
the genuine stone leaves a yeuow hue on 
|he first, a green one on the last 

Bia; a name given by the Siamese to 
those small shells which are called 0019- 
riet throughout almost all the other parts 
of the East Indies. (See Comies.) 

BijlOioli, Josaphat; a learned Italian 
linffuistat Paris. Before the invasion of 
Ita^jT, by the Joint forces of Austria 
and Russia, in 1796, he was professor of 
Greek and Latin literature at the unirer- 
skv of Uibino. As B. had shown him* 
self a friend to the cause of libertjr, he 
lock refuge in Paris, and was appomted 
professor of Ital^n literature at a prytc^ 
neufHf and delivered lectures before a 
splendid audience. He is the editor of 
the Latere del Card, Bentiooglio (Paris, 
1808—12], and author of a Grammaire 
raimmnit dela Langtte Baiienne h VVsage 
dt9 Dranfds, suime iPtm TraiU dt la Po^ 
ine Malienne (Paris, 18091 which obtained 
the approbation of the French institute, 
and has passed through four editions. He 
has also prepareda Grammaliea ragjanata 
deUa iMurua Fhmeese aW Uso de^ Bali' 
aiU (1812). His edition of the Dmna 
Commedia ddDanUMghieri (Paris, 1818, 
3 vols.), for the correcmess of the text 
and the ezceUence of the commentary, is 
held in great esteem ; but it has also cqn^ 
tributed ^ the propagation of many new 
errors relatmg to Dante, partly from the 
editor's violent spirit or opposition to 
Lombardi. It obtained the honor of be« 
ing reprinted in Itafy (Milan, 1820, lOmo.) 
B. has published, at Paris, Petnrea, ana 
the poems of Michael Anf^elo BuonarottL 
jvidk a commentary similar to that or 
Bttiteu and is now occupied with the 
8* 



eompoflition of an Italian-French and 
French-Italian dietiooary, 

BiAiicBiin, Francesco, bora at Verona, 
1662, studied mathematies, physics, anatn 
omy and botany, at first nnder the JesiiitSi 
afterwards (1680| at Padua. He was in-t 
tended for the clerical profession, renair-r 
ed to 'Rome, and there applied himself to 
jurisprudence, but continued at the same 
time the study of experimental physics, 
astronomy, &c., as well as of Greek, He^ 
brew, &c. Antiquities also became one 
of his fevorite studies. He passed whole 
days amidst ancient monuments, was 
present at all the ezcavatiohs in seareh of 
them, visited all the museums, and made 
drawings of the remains of antiquity widi 
as much taste as skill. At the death of 
Innocent XI. cardinal Ottoboni ascend-* 
ed the papal throne under the name 
of .aUxandar VIU, and bestowed on B. a 
rich benefice, whh the appointment of tu<> 
tor and libranan to his nephew, the cardi-r 
nal Pietro Ottoboni. Pope Clement XI 
also patronised him, and appointed him 
secretaiy to the commisQon employed in 
the coirecti6n of the calendar, ft. was 
commissioned to draw a meridian in the 
chureh of ^t Maria d^ wftupeK, and to 
erect a sun-diaL He successmlly accom^ 
plisbed this difiicult undertaking, with the 
assistance of. Maraldi. Being on a tour 
through France, Holland and England, 
he formed the idea of drawing a meridian 
in Italy from one sea to the <Mher, in im]<» 
tation of that which Cassinl had drawn 
through France. He was occupied eight 
Tears tt his ovm expense in that wora $ 
but other employments withdrew his at* 
tention from it, and it remained unfinished. 
He concluded his career vrith two import 
tant woriEs (17127), on t|ie planet Venus and 
on the sepulchre of Augustus. He died in 
1729, A monument was erected to his 
merooiy in the cathedral at Veiona* He 
united the most extensive learning wili| 
modesty and the most amiable manners. 

Bias ; son of Teutamus ; bom at Priene, 
one of the principal cities of Ionia, about 
570 B, C. He was a practical philoso* 
pher, studied the laws ef his ebuntry, and 
employed his knowledge in the service 
of his fiiiends ; defenmng them in the 
courts of justice, or setthn^ their disputes, 
He made a noble use of his wealth* His 
advice, that the lonians should fly before 
the victorious Cyrus to Sardinia, was not 
followed, and the victoiy of the armv of 
Cyrus confirmed the correcmess of his 
opinion. TheinhabitantBofPriene,whei| 
bede^ by Maza^es, resolved to abandon 
the City with their property. On this oc« 



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fiIAS--BIBLE. 



casion, B. repKed to one of hiB ^low- 
citizend, who expressed his afltoniahment 
that be made no preparations for his de- 

rture, — ^**'I carry every thing with me." 
remained in his native country, where 
he died at a very advanced age. His coun- 
trymen buried him with splendor, and hon- 
ored his memory. Some of his sayings and 
precepts are yet preserved. He was num- 
Dered among tlie seven sages of Greece; 

BiBBiENA, Fernando; a painter and 
architect. His father, Giovanni Maria 
Galli (a less distinguished pabiter and 
architect), named his son B. from his na- 
tive town in Tuscany. The son was bom 
at Bologna, 1657. Carlo Cignani (q. v.) 
directed his studies, B. was afterwards 
invited to Barcelona. The duke of Par- 
ma subsequently made him director of his 
theatres. Charles VI afterwards invited 
him to Vienna. Several beautiful build- 
ings were erected in Austria from his 
plans. In his theatrical paintmgs, he has 
continued the vicious style of Sorromini 
and others. His writings display extent 
and accuracy of kno wlec^ W h^i con- 
siderably advanced in life, his weak sight 
prevented him from painting:, and he 
occupied himself with the revision of his 
works, wliich he pubUahed anew at Bo- 
logna, 1725 and 17B1, in 2 vols.; the first, 
umler the title Direxwfd a' giovani Stu- 
denU nd Disegno dtU Arck&tttara cwiU : 
in the seconi^ he treats of perspective. 
He finally became blind, and died 1743. 
His three sons extended their father's art 
throu§^ all Italy and Germany. Antonio 
succeeded to his fiither's place at the court 
of the emperor Charles VI. Giuseppe 
died at Berlin, and Alessandro in the ser- 
vice of the elector palatine. A collection 
of B.'s decorations has been published at 
Aufsburg. 

Bible ; a hooky firom the Greek fitpXos^ 
which signifies the soft baik of ^ tree, on 
which the ancients wrote. The collection 
of the Sacred Writings, or Holv Scriptures 
of the Christians,* is called the Bible, br 
the Book, by way of excellence. Some 
of these writings, which are also received 
by the Jews as the records of their faith, 
are called the Old TegUanent, or tmrUii^a 
of iht M cooenant, because the Jewish 
reli^on was represented as a compact or 
covenant between God and the Jews, and 
the'Greek word for covenant (iiaB^Kri) ^gBH- 
fies also ku< trtZi^ or teMoment. The same 
fiffure was applied to the Christian religion, 
iniich was considered as an extension of 
the old covenant, or a covenant between 
.God and the whole human race. The 
sacred writings peculiar to the Christians 



are, therefore, called the Setiptwrti t^fke 
J^ew Ttgtament, (See TtsUment.) The 
order of the books of the Old Testament, 
as they are arranged in the editions of the 
Latin version, called the Vvlgatt (q. v.), 
according to the decree of the council of 
Trent (sess. 41 is as follows :— Genesis, 
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuterono- 
my, Joshua, Judges and Ruth ; I Samuel, 
or I Kings; II Samuel, or II Kings; I 
Kings, otnerwise called III Kings; II 
Kings, odierwise called IV Kinjrs; I £s- 
dras (as it is called in the Septuagmt (q. v.) 
and Vul^e), or Eifcra ; II Esdras, or (as 
we can It) Nehemiah; *Tobit, *Judith, 
Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesi- 
astes, Song of Solomon, *The Book of 
Wisdom, ^Ecclesiasticus, Isaiah, Jeremi- 
ah and *Baruch ; Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, 
Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Nahum (which, in 
our editions, is placed after Micah and 
before Habakkuk], Jonah (which we place 
after Obadiah), Micah, Habakkuk, Zeph- 
aniah; Haggcu, Zechariah, Malachi, *I 
Maccabees and *II Maccabees. (Those 
to which an asterisk is prefixed are, by 
Protestants, considered apocryphal, q.v.) 
The books received by the Jews were 
divided by Ezra into three classes: — 1. 
The Law, contained in the Pentateuch, 
(q.v.| or five books of Moses. 2. The 
tropnets, comprinng Joshua, Judges and 
Ruth, I and II Samuel, I and II Kings, I 
and II Chronicles, Isaiah, Jeremiah and 
Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, the 12 mi- 
norprophets, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther. 
3. The Cetubim, or Hagiographa, that is, 
holy writings, containing the Psalms, the 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Song of 
Solomon. These books were written in 
the Hebrew language (q. v.), while those 
which are rejected from the canon as 
apocr^hal bv the Protestants, are fotind 
only m Greek or Latin. The books of 
Moses were deposited, according to the 
Bible, after his death, in the tai^macle, 
near the ark: the other sacred writings, it 
is further said, were successively deposit- 
ed in the same place, as they were written. 
After the building of the temple, they 
were removed by Solomon to that edifice ; 
on the capture of Jenisalem by Nebu- 
chadnezzar, the autographs probably per- 
ished, but numerous copies were preserv- 
ed, as is inferred from allusions in writers 
subsequent to the Babylonish captivity. 
It is generally admitted, that the canon of 
the Old Testament was settled soon after 
the return firom Babylon, and the reCstab- 
lishment of the Jewish religion. This 
work was accomplished, according to the 
traditions of the Jews, by Ezra, with the 



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asBistance of the great synagogue, who 
collected and compared as many copies 
aa could be found. From this collation a 
correct edition of the whole was prepared, 
with the exception of the writingB or Ezra, 
Malachi and Nehemiah, which were add- 
ed by Simon the Just When Judas 
IMacGahceus repaired die temple, which 
had been destroyed by Antiochus Epiphar 
nes, he placed in it a correct copy or the 
Hebrew Scriptures, whether die autograph 
of Ezra or not is not known. This copy 
was carried to Rome by Titus. Tne 
divinon into chapters and verses is of 
modem origin. Cardiaal Hugo de Sanoto 
Caro, who flourished in the 13th century, 
hayinj^ divided the Vulgate into chap- 
ters, ror convenience of reference, simi- 
lar divisions were made in the Hebrew 
text by rabbi Mordecai Nathan, in the 
15th century. The present division into 
verses was made by Athiaes a Jew of 
Amsterdam, in his edition of 1661. The 
punctuation is also the woik of modem 
scholais. Biblical critics divide the Scrip- 
tures of the Old Testament into the l^en- 
tateuch, or ^ve books of Moses ; the his- 
torical books, from Joshua to Esther 
inclusive ; the doctrinal or poetical books 
of Job, Psalms, Proveriis, Ecdesiastes and 
the Song of Solomon; the prophetical 
books^— The most esteemed manuscripts 
of the Hebrew Bible are those of die 
Spanish Jews. The most ancient are not 
more than seven or eight centuries old : 
the fiimous manuscript of the Samaritan 
Pentateuch, in the possession of the &&- 
marjtans of Sichem, is onlrSOO years old : 
a manuscript in the jBoaleian library is 
thought to be 700 years old: one in the 
Vatican is supposed to have been written 
in 973. In some manuscripts, the Masora 
(q. V.) is addedd — ^The piloted editions of 
the Hebrew Bible are very numerous. 
The earliest were printed, in Italy. The 
first edition of the entire Hebrew Bible 
was printed at Sonoino, in 1488. The 
Brescian edition of 1494 was used by 
liUther, in making his German transla- 
tion. The editions of Athias, a Jew of 
Amsterdam, 1661 .and 1667, are much 
esteemed for their beauty and correctness. 
Van der Hooght followed the latter. Doc- 
tor Kennicott did more than any one of 
his predeceason to secde the Hefc^w text 
His Hebrew Bible appeared at Oxford, m 
1776—1780, 2 vols!, folio. The text is 
from that of Van der Hooght, with which 
630 MSS. were collated. De Rosea, who 
published a supplement to Kennicott's 
edition (Parma, 1784—90, 5 vok, 4to.), 
MJJated 958 MSS. The German Orien- 



talists, Geeenius, De Wette, &c., in recent 
times, have done veiy much towards ccr- 
recting the Hebrew text The earUest 
and most &mous versioh of the Old Tes- 
tament is the Septuagint, or Greek trans- 
lation. The Syriac version, called the 
PtachitOf was made early in the second 
century. It is celebrated for its fideUty. 
The Coptic version was made firom the 
Septuagmt, some time before the seventh 
century. The Gothic version, by Ulphi- 
las, was also made from the Septuagint, 
in the fourth century.^ The most impor- 
tant Latin version is the Vulgate. (For an 
account of the principal polyglots, see 
P(%iot>— The books of the New Tes- 
tament were all written in Greek, unless 
it be true, as some critics suppose, that 
th« Gospel of St Matthew was originally 
written m Hebrew. Most of these wn- 
tings have always been received as banon- 
ical ; but the Episde to the Hebrews, by 
an uncertain aumor, that of St Jude, the 
second of Peter, the second and third of 
John, and the Apocal^rpse (q. v.) have 
been doubted. Eusebius distin^fuishes 
three sorts of books connected with the 
New Testament: — 1. those which have 
always been unanimously received, nam»- 
Iv, the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apos- 
tles> 13 Epistles of Paul, the first Epistle 
of Peter, and the first of John : 2. those 
which were not received, at fisst, by all 
the churches; of these, some which nave 
been already mentioned, though at first 
rejected by some churches, Iwve been 
since Universally received ; odiers, such as 
the Books of the Shepherd, the Letter of 
St Bamabos, the two Episdes of St 
Clement, have not been generally acknowl- 
edged as canonical : 3. books forged by 
heretics, to maintain their doctrines ; such 
are the Gospels of St Thomas, St Peter, 
&c. The division of the text of the New 
Testament into chanters and verses was 
introduced earlier than that of the Old 
Testament ; but it is not precisely known 
when, or by whom. (For tlie numerous 
translations of the Bible, in modem times, 
see the article Bible Societies^ and the annual 
reports of these societies, puticularly of the 
British and foreign Bible society.) In Bib- 
lical criticism, the Germans have, without 
doubt, done more than any other nation; 
and we should far exceed our limits, if 
we were to attempt an enumeration of 
their works in this department (See 
Wette, Griesbach, Gesenius^SchUiennaekerf 
Mchadisj &c>--The whole Bible was 
translated into Saxon by Bede, in the 
beginning of the eif[hth century. The 
mt Engiiah translation, by an unknown 



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BmLE— BIBLE SOCIETIEa 



hand, 10 mpoeed to Imve been made 
near the end of the ISlfa eentunr. Wick- 
lifielB translation of the entue Bible from 
the Vulgate^ 1380, was first printed 1731. 
The first printed eiditiaa of any part of the 
Scriptures in English was a translation of 
the New Testament fix>m the orijrinal 
Greek, published by Tmdal, 1536. The 
whole impression was bought up and 
burnt by the bishop of London. The 
authorized ▼ernoanow in use, in En^and 
and America, was made by the command 
of James I, and is commonly called ting 
Jame»^9 bAu. Forty-seyen distinguished 
scholars were apjMinted fat this purpose, 
and djyided into six classes. Ten at West- 
minster were to trandate to the end of 
II Kings; eight at Cambridffe were to 
finish the remaining historical books and 
the Uaffiograpfaa : at Oxford, seven were 
engaged on the Prophets: the four Gos- 
peb, Acts of the Apostles and Apocalypse 
were aasiffned' to another company of 
eiffht at Oxford ; and the Episues were 
alkmed to a company of seven at West- 
minster: the apociyplud books were to be 
translated bv a company at Cambridge. 
Each individual translated all the bodes 
allotted to his class. The whole class 
then compared all the translations, and 
adopted the readinss agreed on by the 
majority. The book, thus finished, was 
sent to each of the oth^r classes. This 
translation occupied three yeara. Copies 
were then sent to London, one from eaeh 
of the above-named places. Here a com- 
mittee of six, one fit>m each class, review** 
ed the whole, which was last of all reyised 
by doctor Smith and doctor Bilson, bishop 
of Winchester. It was printed in 1611. 
The latest and most complete revision 
was made by doctor Blayney, Oxford, 
1769. (For an account of the German 
translation, see Luther, and RtfomuUion, 
As a general book of reference, relating to 
the literature of the Bible, Home's Intro- 
duction to the Study of the Scriptures 
may be consulted. See also Harris's 
J^ahtral Hutory of the BiUe.) 

BibU^ Geography of, describes Palestine, 
and gives an account of the Asiatic coun- 
tries bordering on Palestine, and of ^e 
provinces of the Roman empire into which 
Christianity was introduced, during the 
age of the apostles. The sources of this 
science are tiie Scriptures, the writings of 
Josephua, tlie geocnmhical authors of 
antiquity, — Strabo, Ptolemy and Pompo- 
nius Mela, — and the Onomastiam Urbvum 
et Loeorum Sertphtra Socfte, written bv 
Eusebius, bishop of Cnsarea, in the^ourth 
centuiy, in Greek, and translated by Je- 



itMM into LatfaL Among the leuned 
moderns who have cultivated this science, 
so important for the interpreter of the 
Holy S6riptures, are Bachiene, Well% and 
the Dutchman Ysbrand of HamekiekL 
(See Geogre^.) 

Bible Socibtixs. A ekmrman of 
Wales, whom the want of a Webh Bible 
led to London, occasioned the establish^* 
ment of the British and foreign BiUe 
society, which was founded in London, 
Mareh 7, 1804. It was caUed die BtUe 
society f because its obiect was the distri-> 
butioB of the Bible ; Britiahj because its 
operations were first directed towards the 
poor of Great Britain ; and foreign, be^ 
cause it proposed, as far as its means would 
permit, to send Blble^ in all languages^ to 
all paits of the worid. The KMes dis^ 
tributed by the society were to be without 
additions and explanations, in order to 
sive them a more universal cireulation. 
in the same year, the first general meet- 
ing was held in London, which unani- 
mously adopted the proposed plan. Lord 
Teignmouth was chosen president, atad 
many bishops, lords and memben of par- 
liament accepted the office of vice-preai« 
dent In lolS, 484 similar institutions 
had been fonned in all parts of Great 
Britain, and connected witn the former as 
a parent society, to support it with pe- 
cuniary contributions, and to receive, in 
return, a supply of Bibles. There are, 
besides, several Bible societies among the 
lower class of people, the piembera of 
which pay, weekly, a penny or -a, half* 
])enny to provide themselves, their chil- 
dren or other poor persons with Bibles. 
In Germany, Switzerland, Holland, Rus- 
sia, Sweden, Denmaric, America, similar 
Bible societies have been formed, and are 
connected with the British. The 94th 
annual report of the British and forei^ 
Bible society in London, 1828, gives a list 
of edition^ of the whole or parts of the 
Scriptures, printed for the society, in the 
following languages: — ^English, Welsh, 
Gaelic, Irish, Manks, French, Basque, 
Breton, Flemish, Spanish, Portuguese, 
Italian, Dutch, Danitti, Hebrew, Swedish, 
Crerman, Polish, Greek (ancient and mod- 
ern), Armenian (ancient and modem), 
Arabic, Coptic, Indo-Portuguese, Spiac, 
Carshun, Esquimaux, Mohawk, Ethio[HC, 
Malav, Turkwh, Hindostanee, Greenland- 
ish, Amharic, Persian, Bohemian, Latin, • 
Albanian. The same report gives the 
following summary of languages and di- 
alects, in which the distribution, printing 
or translation of the Scriptures, in whole 
or in part, has been promoted by the so- 



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cisQr, direcdy or indinetly :— Reprints, 
42 \ retrandations, 5; lanjguages and di- 
alects in whibh die Scriptures had never 
been printed beforiB the institution of the 
society, 58 ; new translations .commenced 
or completed, 38 ; total, 143. The soci- 
ety provides many transliitionB of single 
books of the Bible, or of the New Testa- 
ment, in numerous languages and dialects 
o€ the nations of Middle and Eastern Asia, 
at Calcutta and Madras ; as well as in the 
languages of the Levant, North Africa, 
&c. (e. g^ the Arabic, Tartar, Syriac, and 
two dialects of the Ethiopic), at Smyrna, 
Malta, and other depots of the Mediterra- 
nean ; and aids all the Bible societies of 
the continent of Europe. It has agents 
in almost all ports of the inhabited globe, 
who travel at its expense, to discover the 
best means of dif^sing the Bible, and to 
procure able translators and manuscripts 
of ancient translations for the use of the 
society. Pinkerton foimd, in Paris, trans- 
lations of the Bible in the dialects of 
Northern Ana and Thibet, with the char- 
acters belonging to them, which had been 
brought to France, under Napoleon, from 
the archives of the propaganda at Rome. 
The most difficult transuttion was that 
into the Esquimaux language. Accord- 
ing to the 24th report above-mentioned, 
published in 1828, there were issued in 
England, during the 24th year from the es- 
tablishment of the society, Bibles, 137,162 ; 
Testaments, 199406 j purchased and is- 
sued for the society, m foreign parts, du- 
ring the same period. Bibles, 212,024; 
Testaments, 818,834 : total issued on ac- 
count of the Bocietj, from its establish- 
ment. Bibles, 2,24iB,182; Testaments, 
.3,42^1; grand total, 5,670,523. In 
addition to wis, the society has granted 
about £53,800 for distributing, in various 
parts of the European continent, French, 
German, Swedish and Danish Bibles and 
Testaments. The number of Bible so- 
cieties throughout the world, ^ven in the 
same report, is as follows : — In Qreat 
Britain and Ireland, connected with the 
British and foreign Bible society, 262 
auxiliaries 350 branches, and 14Q3 asso- 
ciations ; in Ireland, connected with the 
Hibernian Bible society, 70 auxiliaries, 38 
branches, and 18 associations; on the 
European continent and in the Ionian 
islands, 854 societies; in Ama, 13; in 
Africa, 4 ; in America, 549 (there are, in 
fact, 631 societies in America, in the 
present year, 1829) ; total, 4291.— In Ger- 
many, the following were the chief Bible 
societies in 1817 : — 1 at Hanover, where 
an edition of the Bible, ,of 10,000 copies, 



has been comideted ; 1 at Berlin ; 1 at 
Dresden, which, besides a stereotype edi- 
tion of the German Bible, has also publish- 
ed an edition, in the Wendish ton^e, for 
Lusatia ; 1 at Frankfort on the Maine. In 
Bavaria, the distribution of the Bible ha» 
been confined to the efforts of individuals. 
(180,000 copies of the Catholic transla- 
tions of the New Testament, by Gossner 
and van Ess, had been distributed' in 
Germany and Switzerland, up to 1821. 
Many of these reached the Austrian prov- 
inces, which at present are closed against 
German Bibles.] The society at Stutt- 
gait has printed an edition of 10,000 Bi- 
bles and 2000 Testaments, which have 
already been taken up. Societies exist at 
Hambui^, Baden, Weimar, Bremen, L&- 
beck; at Schleswig-Holstein, Schwerin, 
Ratzeburg, Eutin, Brunswick, &c (each 
of them havinff auxiliary societies). Prot- 
estant Switzenand has a Bible society of 
its o^ni ; so has the kingdom of the 
Netherlands, which provides its colonies 
wlt)i Bibles. In Paris, such a society was 
instituted, Dec. 6, 1818, for the Protestants 
in France. The means of this society 
were small (in 1820, not more than 58,212 
francs had been received), and it had 
principally in view the supplying of 
schools, hospitals and prisons; but, as 
Catholics also have received the Bible, it 
has met with a strong opposition from 
the papal-jesuitical party in France. In 
Strasbun^, an edition of 20,000 Bibles was 
printed for Alsace. In Sweden, the chief 
society in Stockholm have distributed a 
larffo number of Bibles and Testaments^ 
In P^orway and Denmark, editions have 
be6n published with the same view, and 
the Danish society has branches in Ice- 
land and the West Indies. The Russian 
society in Petersburg has vied with the 
English, and some years since had print- 
ed the Bible in 31 languages and dialects 
spoken in tiie Russian dominions, among 
which is one in the modem Ruasiany 
since Uie translation of the church is in 
the Sclavonic, and unintelligible to lay- 
men. This new translation has been 
joyflilly received by tiie country people^ 
and shows them the errors and many su- 
perstitions which disfigure the ritual of 
the Greek church. On this account, it 
will probably give rise to contests, which 
can hardly be terminated without a grad- 
ual reformation of the Greek ehurch. 
Part of the clergy are opposed to the 
distribution of the Bible, and persecutions 
against zealous readers of the saered book 
have already taken place in the moro 
distant governments. The Goepels in thd 



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Cdmuc language and the Persian New 
Testaments are much aouffht for. A 
tituislaiion of the Bible for the Booriaits, 
Mongol worahippeis of the Lama, near 
lake Baikal, is preparing, with the assist- 
ance of two young Booriaits of hi^ birth, 
who embraced Christianity at Peteraburg. 
Auxiliary societies have been formed at 
Irkutsk, Tobolsk, among the Kirghises, 
Georgians, and Cossaclra of the Don. 
The word of God is carried from Odessa 
to the Levant The bull of Pius VII, 
June 28, 1816, obtained by the archbishop 
of Gnesen, did not prevent the Poles from 
forming a sociely m Warsaw, under Uie 
protection of Alexander. In 1817, the 
distribution of the Bible by such societies 
was forbidden in Austria, and those al- 
ready existing in Hungary were sup- 
pressed. Italy, Spain and Portugal have 
had, as yet, no Bible societies; France 
only one; but the English have provided 
them with Bibles in their own tongues. In 
the U. States of America, the great Amer- 
ican Bible society, formed in 1816^ acts in 
concert with the auxiliary societies, of 
which, in 1839, there were 690. The 
management of the society is intrusted 
to a bKoard of managers ; stereotype plates 
have heen procured, and Bibles are issued 
at a low pnee for the auxiliaries, and for 
mtuitous distribution among the poor. 
During the first year, 6,410 copies of Bi- 
Ues and Testaments were distributed. 
In 1827, the number amounted to 134,000, 
and, durinff the first 8 months of 18S&, to 
146,000. The whole number issued since 
the organization of the society is about 
700,000. These have been moedy in Eng- 
lish, Spanish and French, fix)m the societv's 
plates. The manajgers have occasionally 
purchased Bibles in Europe, and issued 
them to appUcants, in GellnaI^ Dutch, 
Welsh, Gaelic, Portuguese, modem Greek, 
and some o^er European languages. 
They have also furnished money to print 
translations into pajgan languages, by 
American missionaries. They have in 
operation 8 power-presses and 20 hand- 
presses, and copies are prepared at the rate 
of 300,000 a year. Many of the auxiliary 
societies have undertaken to discover the 
number of (amities in theur vicinity desti- 
tute of the Bible, and to supply them. It 
is the object of the society to supply eveiy 
frunily in the U. States, before devoting 
much attention to distribution abroad. 
Yet Spanish America and Ceylon, Ghreece 
and the Sandwich islands, have been fur- 
nished wkh Bibles by the society. The 
eolonies also exert themselves in this 
cause, Hayti has o&red her assistance, 



and even the Esauimanz aheadv read 
the Acts of the Apostles in theur own 
lan^fuage. A similar zeal for the distri- 
bution of the Bible has been awakened in 
Southern Afiica and in India, where Bi- 
bles are published in the languages of the 
cotmtry : even the islands on the eastern 
coast of Asia are not neglected. In the 
Netherlands, there is a firatemal union of 
diflerent sects for this purpose, as is also 
the case in other countries containing 
various sects. Such associations excite 
among difl^rent sects a feeling of mutual 
symptttliy, by a consideration of their 
mutual puticipation in the most impor- 
tant truths of Christianity. — Such a gen- 
eral diffusion of the. Bible is an event of 
(peat historical importance. Its transla- 
tion into languages which have been 
hitherto destitute of all Uterature, and 
even of writing, must contribute (preatly 
to the progress of intellectual cultivation 
throuf^hout the earth, and must have an 
especial influence on the advancement 
of general philology. The Bible societies 
may be consider^ as asnsting to pave 
the way for the introduction of European 
civilization into all the less enlightened 
regions of the earth. The societies ad- 
here to the principle of publishing the 
Bible without notes, starting from the 
Protestant principle, that the Bible, and 
the Bible alone, is the foundation of 
Christian faith. Undoubtedly, the various 
sects of Christians, differing so greatly as 
they do, and always must, respecting cer- 
tain points of faith and the interpretatioa 
of particular passages of the Scriptures 
could not be made to co-operate with zeal 
in the distributicm of the Bible, if the text 
were accompanied with commentaries. 
But now missionaries and ministen must 
supply, by verbal explanation, the place 
ofnot^ because it is clear to every Dody 
diat the Bible cannot be understood 
without the explanation afforded by 
study. Thus the opinions of individuals^ 
orally detivered, are substituted for the 
more precise and profound criticism of 
united commentators. It seems to vol 
that the fiiends of Bible societies and 
their opponents (a part of the Catholic 
clergy) have both run into extremes ; the 
former by injudiciously distributing the 
Scriptures, in some cases^ before people 
were fit to understand them ; and tne fat^ 
ter by an unqualified prohibition of the 
leadmg of the Bible by the laity. The 
order of the pope, that only certain edi^ 
tions and versions should be read by the 
Cathotics, originated fit)m views founded 
on the ejqpenence of all ages of Chtia-> 



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M 



tianiQr, that ineQ of pure intentiona often 
611 into dreadful eirois and abeurdities 
fiom want of just direction in the study 
of the Bible. And it remains a fiict no| 
to be disputed by the most ardent defend- 
er of immediate and supernatural assist- 
ance to the reader df the Bible, that, 
beiu^ composed of parts extremely vari- 
ous m their character, written in times 
and countries veiy remote from us, often 
in meti^horical language, and intimately 
connected with the customs, views, his- 
tory and language of particular nations, 
and even incBviduals, its real meaning is 
not to be found without an extensive study 
of many different branches of science, 
the results of which may be used to assist 
the less informed reader. Histoiy shows 
us, that the blackest crimes and the most 
egregious follies have been defended by 
the mis^plication of the text of the Sa- 
cred Scnpturea, It must be left to time 
to show what will be the ultimata effect 
of Bible societies. Undoubtedly it will be 
found, that some portion of their efiorts 
have been made in yain, as was, indeed, 
to be expected ; and, in many instances, 
they appear to us to have been made 
injudiciously. The extension of the 
habit of reading through so many parts 
of the world, we imagine, will be 
one of the greatest and most lasting 
consequences of the exertions of these 
societies. 

Biblical Aecilsoloot is the science 
which describes the jpplitical state, man- 
ners and customs of^the Jewish nation, 
as well as the usages of the early Chris- 
tian church ; coiise(|uent]y, the antiquities 
of the Bible. Civil relations, religious 
ceremonies, holy places, domestic cus- 
toms and utensils, modes of dress, and 
other external circumstances, form the 
subject of tins science. The antiouities of 
the Bible are partly Jewish, partly Chris- 
tian. The sources of the former are the 
Old Testament, the works of Josephus 
and Philo, the Talmud, and the writings 
of the rabbins. The sources of Chris- 
tian antiquities are the New Testament 
and the writings of the Others, who 
lived and wrote soon after the age of the 
apostles. Without the knowledge of the 
manners and customs of a nation, many 
passages of their authors, which contain 
allusbns to them, remain unintelligible, 
and, on this account, the knowled^ of 
the antiquities of the BiMe is necessary to 
the intmreter of the Holy Scriptures. 
Among the modem authors, who have 
written on Jewidh antiquities, Voland, 
John Simoniflb £n»t Aug. SchulSy George 



Lawrence Bauer, Wamekros de Wette 
and John Jahn particularly deserve to 
be mentioned. We may find information 
concerning Christian antiquities in the 
commentaries on the New Testament, 
and in the historians of the church. Tlie 
Germans have particulariy distinguished 
themselves in this department. 

BiBLioGRAPHT (from fiifiXtnt a book, 
and ypa^f I describe) was originally a 
branch of archautfraphfy or the art of de- 
scribing or explaming antiquities, and de* 
noted skill in the |>eru8ing and judging 
of ancient manuscripts ; but in its modem 
and more extended sense, it. signifies the 
knowledge of books, in reference to the 
subjects discussed in them, their different 
degrees of rarity, curiosity, reputed and 
real value, the materials of which they 
are composed, and the rank which they 
ought to hold in the classification of a 
library. It is, therefore, divided into two 
branches, the first of which has reference 
to the contents of books, and may be 
called, for want of a better phrase, xidd' 
Udtwd bibliography ; the second treats of 
theur extemal' character, the history of 
particular copies, ^c, and may be termed 
makrid bifohography. The object of the 
first kind is to acquaint Uterary men with 
the roost valuable books in every depart- 
ment of study, either by means of cator 
logues rawniUes simply, or b}r similar 
catalogues accompanied with critical re- 
marks. Bibliography belongs to those 
sciences, the progress of which is de- 
pendent, in a great desree, on external 
circumstances. It has oeen and still is 
cultivated most successfully in France. 
This is owinff not only to the riches of 
the great and daily increasing public li- 
braries, liberally thrown open to the use 
of the public, the larse number of fine 
private collections, and the femiliarity of 
its numerous literary men with books 
of all ages and countries, but, in a great 
de£pree,to the practical spirit of the nation 
wjSch induces their bibliographers to 
keep constantly in view the supply of 
existing wants. Brunet's Manud du lA" 
hrttire was the first important work which 
contained, in an alphabetical form, a Ust 
of the most valuable and costly books of 
all literatures ; Barbier's DicUonntdre des 
Oiwrages Anonymeiy the first systematic 
and satjsfiustory treatise on this subject ; 
Renouard's Catahgtte tP vn Amateur^ the 
first, and, for a long time, the best |piide 
of the French coUectors ; the Btbhogra- 
fMe de la JVance, the first woriL which 
showed how the yearly accumulation of 
literary works can be recorded in the 



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moet authentic manner. No leas valuable 
are the woika of Peignot, Petit Radei, 
Renouard on the Aldines (see MHne 
EdiHon8)f and many otheia. English 
bibliography can boast of but one of 
die advantages of the French; that is, of 
rich public and private collections ; but the 
use of them is allowed only to a limited 
degree, and die English bibliographers 
are far behind the French. The works of 
doctor Adam Clarice (Bibliographical Dic- 
tionary, 1820) and of Robert Watt (BiUi- 
otheca Britanmca, 1811)) are compilations 
of httle value ; the undiffc»sted collections 
of Beloe (Anecdotes of Literature, 1807), 
of Brydges (British Bibllompher, 1818 ; 
Cemura LiierariOf 1805), of Savage (the 
Librarian, 1808^, and otners, are destitute 
of judicious selection, and often of cor- 
recmess. Ottley's Inquiry into the Origin 
and Early History of Engraving (1816), 
and Singer's Researches into the History 
of Playing Cards (1816), woriis which be- 
long to very important points of bibliogra- 
. phy, are deficient in correct criticism ; and 
if we are not dazzled by the type, the 
paper and the engravings of Dibdin's 
productions (Typographical Antiquities, 
1810 ; Bibliolkeca l^enceriana, 1814 ; Bib- 
Hogmphical Decameron, 1817; Tour in 
France and Germany, 1821), we cannot 
be blind to the superficial acquirements 
of the author. There is now publishing, 
in E^^land, the Bibliographer's Manual, 
an imitadon of Bruners Marmd above- 
mentioned. It is to be completed in 12 
pan& The learned Germans, litde assist- 
ed by public, almost entirely destitute of 
private collections, consulting only the 
real wants of the science, have actively 
endeavored to promote it. Ersch is the 
founder of Gennan bibliography. He 
gave it a trulv scientific character by his 
extensive work, •^^gemeuKA Repertorium 
der LUeraiur (Universal Repertory of 
Literature, 1793— 1807)» and by his Hand- 
buck der DevUchen LUaratvr (Manual of 
German Literature). German bibliogra- 
phy is particularly rich in the literature 
of separate sciences ; and the bibliogmphy 
of the Greek and Latin Literature, as well 
as the branch which treats of ancient edi- 
tions, was founded by the Germans. The 
first attempt, in Germany, to prepare a 
universal bibliographical work, was made 
l^Ebert (q. yX who wrote, also, in the 
10th number oi Hermes, a review of the 
whole modem German bibtiography. 
The bookseUers' dictionary is a very 
valuable German biblioj^phical work. 
A supplement is published annually. 
The «>llowing are valuable German bib- 



liographical works in particular depart- 
ments of science and literature : — ^T. A. 
Noeselt's JSmoemaut vur KtnntnUs der BeS' 
ten AUgememen Bucker in der Theologies 
4th ed. L^psic^ 1800, and the continua- 
tion of it by Simon, Leipsic, 1813 ; C. F. 
Burdach's lAteraiur der Heilwissemchc^ 
Gotha, 1810, 2 vols. ; W. Gf. Ploucquet's 
LUeraiiura Medica, Tfibingen, 1808, 4 vols. 
4to. ; T. G. Meuael"^ BiHwtheca HisUnica, 
Leipsic, 1781^1802, 11 vols, in 22 vol- 
umes, not finished ; fiis LUeraiur der 
Statistik, Leipsic, 1816, 2 vols. ; G. R. 
Bohmer's Bibliotktca Seriptorum lEstoria 
Max&aliSy Leipsic, 1785—99, 7 vols.: 
Alb. Ua^le^sBttdioihecaBotanicaf Zurich, 
1771, 2 vols., 4to.; AnaUmdca^ Zurich, 
1774, 2 vols., 4lo. ; Chirurgica, Bern, 1774, 
2 vo]s.,4to., and Medieina Pradiat, Bern, 
1776 et seq., 4 vols., 4to., &c.— Fred. Blume 
has lately published the first volume of 
Iter Italicum, containing an account of the 
archives, inscriptions and libraries in the 
Sardinian and Austrian provinces. Italian 
bibliography is no longer what it was in 
the times of Mazzuchelli, Audiffi«di and 
Tiraboschi. A great indifference is al- 
most universal in regard to the public 
libraries; the private coDections are be- 
coming more and more scarce, and the 
precious oQes of count Cassano Serra 
and Melzi, in Naples and Milan, have 
been lately sold to England. The bib- 
liographical works of Italy treat prin- 
cipally^ of the provincial libraries (one of 
the latest is Moreri's Bibltogrcfia deUa 
Toseanoy 1805) : Gamba*s Sarit de Terti 
(1812) is a very valuable worit. The 
Dutch, Spaniards and Portuguese have, 
of late years, done little for this science ; 
but the learned Bentkowsky's Polish 
Literature (1814) deserves the highest 
praise. The count Zechenyi, a Hunga- 
rian, published a catalogue of all Hun- 
garian works. Pest, 1799—1807, 9 vols., 
8vo., and 1 vol, 4to. Russia has pro- 
duced, in the department of bibliography, 
little more than catalogues. In regard to 
particular sciences, manv useful cata- 
logues exist, commonly called Bildioihecce. 
Well arranged and accurate catalogues 
of libraries, which are rich in particular 
departmenia, ma^ be used with advan- 
tage by the bibhogmpher, as may, also^ 
the annual catalogue of the book-fair at 
Leipsic. (See .^Au, CataUmes of,) — 
Directions for the study of bmHoffraphy 
are contained in Achard^s Cours de Bib- 
liograpUt (Marseilles, 1807, 3 vols.), Th. 
Hartwell Home's Introduction to the 
Study of Bibliography (London, 1814, 2 
vols.), and Gabr. Peignot'e Dictiomudn 



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97 



rmmmU de BiUUogk (Ptm, 180S-4, 
3 vola) 

Material Btbliognmhf, often called, by 
way of eminence, 6t6/togn^/^, considers 
books in regard to their exterior, their his- 
tory, &>c^ and has been princiiMlly culti^ 
Tated in France and Enguuid. The differ- 
ent branches of material bibliography 
(see, also, BtUiomama) may here be men- 
tioned : — ^the knowledge of the ancient 
editions (incunabuUiy or, if classical au- 
thors, edUiones principea), some of the 
best works on which are, G. Wfg. Pan- 
zec^s ^maka Thfpagraphiei (Nuremberg, 
1793 — 1803, 11 vols., 4ta), cominff down 
to 1536; the Anrudes JypogmjpMcij by 
Maittaire' (Hague, 1719 et seq., 11 vols^ 
4to.), which not only contains the titles, 
but investigates the subjects of works. 
More exact descriptions of particular an- 
cient editions are found in Sema Santan- 
der's Didionn, BUdiogr. der ISihiu SUcle 
(Brussels, 1805, 3 vols.) ; Fossius' C(da^ 
io^ Codicwn^ sec 15, Imprtssar, BtUi- 
MeoB MaMtbtcehianiB (Florence, 1793, 

3 vols, fol!), and others. The study of 
rare books, on account of the vague prin- 
ciples on which it rests, is more difficult 
than is generally believed, and easily de- 
generates into superacid and capricious 
trifling. This has been more injured 
than promoted by I. Vogt's Cakdagus 
lAbrorvm Rariorum (Frankfort and Leip- 
sic, 1793), and J. Jac. Bauer's Bibliothua 
IjUiror, Rarior, Universidis (Nuremberg, 
1770-^1, 12 vols.) We may also men- 
tion here the catalogues of the books pro- 
hibited by the Roman church (Inaices 
Jjibrorum ProhOntorum et Expurgatorum), 
For the discovery of the authors of anon- 
ymous and pseudonymous works, we may 
use Barbiers Dtctiomaire des Oworagta 
anonumes et naeud^mymes (Paris 1806 — 9, 

4 vols.), whicn is valuable for its accuracy 
(but it contains only French and Latin 
works). We need not observe, what an 
important source of information, in 
department of bibliography, are lite 
journals. (See BUdiomama^ 

BiBLiOMANCT ; diviuation performed by 
inecms of the Bible; also called sortes 
bibUem^ or aortes sanctorum. It consisted 
in taking passages at hazard, and drawing 
indications thence concerning things fu- 
ture. It was much used at the consecra- 
tion of bishops. It was a practice adopted 
from the heathens, who drew the same 
kind of^ prognostication fixmi the worics 
of Homer and VirgiL In 465, the coun- 
cil of Vannes condemned all who prac- 
tised this art to be cast out of the com- 
munion of the church ; asdidthecoundJs 

VOL. Ill' 9 



of Agde and Auxerre. But, in the 12th 
century, we find it employed as a mode 
of detecting heretics. In the GaUican 
church, it was lon^^ practised in the elec- 
tion of bishops ; children being employed^ 
on behalf of each candidate, to draw slips 
of paper with t^xts on them, and that 
which was thought most favorable de- 
cided the choice. A similar mode was 
pursued at the installation of abbots, and 
the reception of canons ; and this custom 
is said to have continued in ihe cathedrals 
of Ypres, St. Omer and Boulogne, as late 
as tlie year 1744. In the Greek church, 
we read of the prevalence of this custom 
as early as the consecration of Athana- 
sius, on whose behalf the presiding pre- 
late, Caracalla, archbishop of Nicomedia, 
opened the Gospels at tne words, ''For 
the devil and his angels." Matt. xxv. 41. 
The bishop of Nice first saw them, and 
adroitly turned over the leaf to another 
yerscy which was instantly read aloud: 
** The birds of the air came and lodged 
in the branches thereof Matt. xiii. 32. 
But, this passage appearing irrelevant to 
the ceremony, uie firet became gradually 
known, and the church of Constantinople 
was violently agitated by the most fiital 
divisions during the patriarchate. 

Bibliomania is a word lately formed 
from the Greek, and signifies a passion 
for possesedng curious Moks. Tne true 
bibhomanist is determined in the purchase 
of books, less by the value of their con- 
tents, than by certain accidental circum- 
stances attending them. To be valuable 
in his eyes, they must belonff to particular 
classes, be made of singular materia^ 
or have something remuicable in their 
history. Some books acquire the char- 
acter of belonging to particular classes, 
firom treating of a paxticular subject of 
interest to the bibliomanist ; others finom 
something peculiar in their mechanical 
execution, or fi*om the circumstance of 
having issued firom a press of uncommon 
eminence, or because they once belonged 
to the library of an eminent man. Some 
of tliese collections are of much intrinsic 
value. Among them are, various editions 
of the Bible (the most complete is at 
Stuttgart); collections of editions of 
single classics (e. g., those of Horace and 
Cicero, in the city library at^ Leipeic); 
the editions in tunim Ddpkaii and evm 
notia variorum; the editions of Italian 
classics printed by the academy delta 
Cruaca; woiks printed by the Ejzevirs, 
hv Aldus, Comino in Padua, and Bodoni 
(the most complete collection of Bodoni's 
editions is in the librvy of the duchess 



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BIBLIOMANIA. 



d'Abrantes) ; the clashes edited by Mait- 
taire, Foulis, Barbou, Brindley, and oth- 
eiB, and the celebrated Bipont editions ; 
with otheiis. — It was more customary in 
former times than at present to make 
collections of books which have some- 
thing remarkable in their history ; e. g., 
books which have become very scarce, 
and such as have been prohibited. Of 
the first sort, the collections of Engel and 
Salthon were formerly among the most 
considerable. The one at Dresden is 
among the largest now existiAg. Books 
distinguished for remarkable mutilations 
have also been eagerly sought for. Those 
which appeared in the infancy of typog- 
raphy, called ijicunabtdoy from the Lat- 
in cunoBj a cradle, principally the first 
edition^ (editiones jnincipes) of tlie an- 
cient classics, are still in general request 
Much of the value of a book, in the eyes of 
a bibliomanist, depends upon the material 
of which it is composed. An enormous 
price is frequently given for splendid proof 
impressions of copperplate engravings, and 
for colored impressions, for works adorned 
with miniatures and illuminated initial let- 
ters ; Ukewise for such as are printed upon 
vellum. (The most considerable collec- 
tion of vellum copies was sold at auction, 
in 1815, at the sale of M'Carthy's books, 
in Paris. A bibhographical work upon 
this subject is now preparing by van Praet, 
in Paris.)— Works printed upon paper of 
uncommon materials (e. g^ (Euvres du 
Marquis de VUleto, Lond. 1786, 16mo.), or 
various substitutes for pe^er (e. g., E. 
Bruckmann's Natural History of Asl^stos, 
upon paper made of asbestos, Bmnswick, 
1727, 4to.), have been much sousht afler ; 
likewise those printed, upon colored pa- 
per. In Italy, tlie color of books of this 
sort is commonly blue ; in France, rose- 
color ; in some ancient German books, the 
color is yellow *, sometimes, though rarely, 
green. A Ust of books of this class is to 
be found in Pei^not's Refertqtre des Bib- 
licgrapldta sptcudeSy Pans, 1810. — Oflier 
books, in high esteem among bibliomanists, 
are those which are printed on large pa- 

i)er, with verv wide margins. True Wb- 
iomanists onen measure the margin by 
inches and lines. In English advertise- 
ments of rare books, some one is often 
mentioned as particularly valuable on ac- 
count of its being " a tall copy." If the 
leaves happen to be uncut, the value of the 
copy is much enhanced. — Other works, 
highly valued by bibliomanists, are those 
Which are printed with letters of gold or 
silver, or ink of singular color ; e. g., 1. 
FatH NiapolwMi^ Paris, 1804, 4to., a copy 



on blue vellum paper, with golden letters $ 
2. Magna Charta, London, Whitaker, 
1816, foho, three copies upon purple- 
colored vellum, with golden tetters ; also, 
books printed from copperplates. Cata- 
logues of these have been made by Peig- 
not and others. — In France and England, 
the bibliomania often extends to the bind- 
ing. In France, the bindings of Derom0 
and Bozerian are most valued ; in Eng- 
land, those of Charles Lewis and Roger 
Payne, several specimens of whose skill 
are to be seen in the library of lord Spen- 
cer ; among others, the Glasgow edition 
of ^schylus, 1795, the binding of which 
cost £16 7«. sterling. Payne is said to 
have sometimes received from 20 to 30 
guineas for binding a single volume. 
Tins species of luxury is carried to such 
a height in London, tliat a copy of Mack- 
lin's Bible (4 vols, in fi>Uo\, in red or blue 
morocco leather, costs To guineas, and 
BoydelPs large edition of Shakspeare 
(9 vols, with large engravings) £132 ster- 
ling. Even the edges of books are often 
adorned with fine paintings. Many de- 
vices have been adopted to give a fectitious 
value to bindings. Jeffery, a London 
bookseller, had Fox's History of King 
James II bound in fox-skin, in allusion to 
the name of the author ; and the Ibmous 
English bibliomanist Askew even had a 
book bound in human skin. In the li- 
brary of tlie castle of K6nig8berg are 20 
books bound in silver (commonly called 
the sUver library.) These are richly 
adorned with large and beautifully en- 
graved gold plates, in the middle and on 
3ie comers. To the exterior decorations 
of books belongs the bordering of the 
pages with single or double lines, drawn 
with the pen (exemplaire regU), common- 
ly of red color — a custom which we find 
adopted in the early ase of printing, in the 
works printed by Stephens. The custom 
of coloring engravings has been dropped; 
-except ineases where the subject particu- 
iaily requires it (for instance, in works 
on natural history, or the costumes of 
different nations), because the colors con- 
ceal the delicacy of the en^ving. On 
this account, tl^ colored copies of Durer's 
wood-cuts are esteemed less than those 
which are lefl uncolored. The other 
means of idle competition being almost 
all exhausted, the bibliomanists have late- 
ly hit upon the idea of enriching many 
worics by the addition of engravmgs, il- 
lustrative indeed of the text of the book, 
but not particularly called for, and of pre- 
paring only single copies. Thus Long- 
man, m London, ofien an illustrated copy 



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BIBLIOMANIA--BIDDLE. 



of the otherwifle common Biognphical 
Dictionary of all the Engravers, by John 
Stniu (London, 1785--86, 2 vols. 4to.), 
which is increased, in this way, to 37 large 
Tols^ in folio, and costs not less than 
£2000 sterling. The library of Dresden 
lias a similar copy of BuddsBUs's Historical 
Lexicon, of an earlier date. Among the 
auctions, where the bibliomania raged 
with the greatest fuiy, was that of the 
library of the duke of Roxburgh (q. ▼. ), in 
London, 1812. Every work was bought at 
al meet incredible prices. The iirst edition 
of Boccaccio, published by Vaklarfer, in 
1471, was sold for £2260 sterling ; to the 
memory of which a bibliomanio-Rox- 
hurgb club was founded in the following 
year, of which lord Spencer is president 
It meets yearlv on the 13th of July, the 
anniversaiy of the sale of Boccaccio, in 
theSL Alban's tavern. No further evi- 
dence is necessary to show that biblioma- 
nia, which flourished first in Holland (the 
seat likewise of the ttdipomcmia), towards 
the end of the 17th century, prevails at 
present in Endand to a much greater ex- 
tent than in France, Italy or Germany. 
— Thomas F. Dibdin's Bibliomania or 
Book-madness (London, 1811), and his 
Bibliographical Decameron jLondon, 
1817, § vols.), contain many useful direc- 
tions (or the assistance of collectors of 
books. — ^The modem bibliomania is very 
different from the spirit which led to the 
purchase of books, in the middle ages, at 
prices which appear to us enormous. Ex- 
ternal decorations, it is true, were then 
held in high esteem ; but the main reason 
of the great sums tlien paid for books 
was tbeor. scarcity, and the- difficulty of 
prociuring perfect copies before the in- 
vention of the art of printing. There is 
sometimes found a rage for possessing 
books, without reference to the value of 
tiieir contents, or the other circumstan- 
ces which have been mentioned as in- 
fluencing the bibliomanisL A priest in 
Saxony is said to have murdered three 
persons, with a view of getting posses- 
sion of their libraries. These, however, 
^e did Hot read. 

Big^tre; a casde and village in the 
neighborhood of Paris, ^tuated on a hill, 
and commanding one of the finest pros- 
pects of Paris, of the course of the Seine, 
and of the environs. Louis XIII erected 
the castle for the rendence of invalids. 
When Louis XIV afterwards erected the 
great h/Hd royal des inwdidu, B. became 
a great hospital, for which it is particidar- 
ly adapted by its healthy situation : water 
miy w»8 wandog in its vicinity, to obttihi 



which a well was dug in the rock (1733). 
B. contains also a house of correction 
(maison de force) for dissolute persons, 
swindles, thieves, &c. Since the revo- 
lution, a prison for criminals condemned 
to the galleys has been erected here, 
Srom which they are transferred to the 

Eubllc ship-yards. In the prisbn and the 
ouse of correction are shops foi* the 
grinding of glass, and for other kinds of 
work, in which the prisoners are usefiilly 
employed. ' In the hospital of B., 2200 
beds are devoted to the reception of aged 
patients. No one is admitted under the 
age of 70 years. They are attended to 
with the greatest care, and febricate neat 
little works of wood and bone, known in 
France by the name of jBic^treworilu. A 
large hospital for incurable madmen has 
also been erected since the revolution. 

BiDASsoA, a boundary river between 
Spain and France, rises in the Spanish 
territory, becomes a boundary at Vera, 
and is navigable to Biriatou at high tide. 
It forms the isle of Pheasants, or the isl- 
and of Conference, where the peace of 
the Pyrenees was concluded (1659), and 
fldls into the bay of Biscay, between 
Andaye and Fontarabia. On the Span- 
ish side of the river, on the margin of the 
valley through which it flows, is an advan** 
tageons position, near St. Mareial, which 
commands the great road to Bayonne, 
before which (Aug. 31, 1813) 8000 Span- 
iards repulsed a French foroe of double 
that nimiber, who attempted to fbree this 
position in order to relieve St Sebastian. 
BiDDLE, John, a celebrated Socinian 
writer, was lK>m in 1615, at Wotton- 
under-Edge, in Gloucestershire. He en- 
tered Magdalen college, Oxford, in liia 
ISHh year. He graduated as A. M. in 
1641. Being led to doubt of the doctrine 
of the Trinity, he drew up 12 arguments 
on the subject ; in consequence of which he 
was committed to jail by the parliament- 
ary committee then sitting at Gloucester, 
but was liberated on security being given 
for his appearance when caUed for. About 
six months afterwards, he was examined 
before a committee of the parliament, to 
whom he readily acknowledged his opin« 
ion against tlie divinity of tlie Holy Ghost, 
I£s Twelve Arguments were now order- 
ed to be burnt by the common hang- 
man. He however pernsted in his opin- 
ion, and, in 1648, published two tracts, 
containing his Confessions of Faith 
concerning the Holy Trinity, and The 
Testimonies of Ireneeus, Justin Martyr, 
and several other eariy writera on the 
same subject. These publications in»^ 



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100 



BIBDLE— BIGAMY. 



duced the assembly of dimes to solicit 
parliament to decree tlie punishment of 
death against tliose who should impuen 
the established opinions respecting the 
Trinity and other doctrinal points, as 
well as to enact severe penalties for mi- 
nor deviations. The parliament indulged 
these ministers in their intolerant request, 
which imme^ately exposed Biddle, who 
would neither consent nor recant, to the 
loss of life ; but difference of opinion in 
the parliament itself, and the pehaltiee to 
which this sweepins measure rendered 
many in the army liable, prevented its 
execution. He was, some time after, 
again remanded to prison, by the zeal of 
president Bradshaw, and remained for 
some years in confinement, subjected to 
the greatest privations. A general act of 
oblivion, in 1651, restored him to liberty, 
when he immediately disseminated his 
opinions, both by preaching and by the 
publication of his Twofold Scripture 
vatechism. A complaint being made 
to Cromwell's parliament against this 
book, he was confined, in the ^te-house 
for mx months. Cromwell banished him 
to Sl Mary's castle, Scilly, where he as- 
signed him an annual subsistence of a 
hundred crowns. Here he remained 
three years, until the protector liberated 
him, in 1658. He then became pastor of 
an independent congregation, and contin- 
ued to support his opinions, until fear of 
the Presbyterian parliament of Richard 
Cromwell induced him to retire into the 
country. On the dissolution of that par- 
liament, he preached as before, until the 
restoration, which obliged him to confine 
his exertions to private preaching. He 
was, however, in June, 1662, apprehend- 
ed at one of the private assemblies, and, 
upon process of law, foied £100, and 
orderea to lie in prison until it was pejd. 
He fell a martyr to this sentence, by catch- 
ing one of the distempers so common at 
that time in jails, and died in Sept of this 
year, in the 47th year of his age, a mar- 
tyr to religious intolerance. The private 
character of this courageous sectarian, 
like that of most of those who suffer 
from principle, was moral, benevolent 
and exemplaiy; and his learning and 
logical acuteness rendered him very fit 
to gain proselytes. He did not agree in 
all points with Socinus, but was apparent- 
ly unsolicitous to establish a perfect agree- 
ment Toulmin styles hun the father of 
iA# modem Vinianane* 

BiDPAi. (See Pilpiy.) 

Bielefeld ; a town m the province of 
Westphalia, near PiuaaiaQ Mmden ; km. 



8P 27' E.; lat 5P 53^ N.; population, 
6000« Tlie best German linens are man- 
ufactured here, and exported, in Urge 
quantities, to South America. 

Bi&vkE, marquis de, maisha], bom 
1747, served in the corps of the French 
musketeers, was a life-guaid of the king 
of France, and acquired much reputation 
by his puns and repartees. After pubhsb- 
ing several entertaining works, he com- 
posed (1783) Le S^dudettTj a comedy in 
verse, for m& theatre, which has main- 
tained its place on the stage, although it 
is bad both in plan and execution. W hen 
he was introduced to Louis XV, the king 
wished to hear a ccderrdMmrg (pun) of his. 
Dwinez-moi tin eujet, sire^ said B^-^Fcdtes^ 
en un surmoi, — iSKre, k roi fCtttpas tin sujetj 
was the witty answer of B. In 1789, he 
went to Spa for the benefit of his health, 
and died tuere. Mea amis, he said, dying, 
je m'm vais de ee pas (de Spa). He has 
written several worics; among others, an 
Mmanae des Calembourgs. There is also 
a collection of his jests called Bihniana, 

BioAMT, in the canon law, means being 
twice married ; in the common acceptation 
of the word, as a term of municipal law, 
it means the being married to two wives 
or husbands at the same time. Though 
the laws relating to plurality af wives or 
husbands mifht, with more strict propri- 
ety, be treated of under the head ofpobfg- 
amy, they are more usually brought under 
that of bigamy; and, in compliance. with 
this usafie, they will be introduced in this 
place. The laws of every civilized soci- 
ety make some provision respecting this 
subject By the statute of 4 Edward 
I, Stat 3, c 5, the marrying of a second 
husband or wife, the first being alive, was 
made felony ; and, by that of 3 James I, 
c ll,«this crime was made punishable b^ 
death. But the same statute provided 
that, where either party was absent be- 
yond seas for seven years, whether 
known or not known to the other party 
to be alive, or was absent, thouffh not be- 
yond seas, for the same^ period, and not 
known by the odier to be alive, the other 
party was at liberty to many again. The 
determination of bigamy involves the con-* 
siderationof what constitutes a valid mar- 
riage. If a person be married within the 
age of consent, which, in England, in the 
case of the husband, is 14, and in that of 
the wife 12 years, or was otherwise inca- 
pable of making such a contract ; or in 
case the roaniage was not celebrated 
with the forms and ceremonies required 
by law; in these cases, a second marriage 
does not subject the party to the pena^ 



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BIGAlffY— BUA-PUR. 



101 



«f bigamy. The iMatute of James I has 
been adopted in moat of the U. States as 
to the description of the crime, but the 
American laws generally differ from it as 
to the penalty, naving assigned, hereto- 
fore, instead of death, as provided by the 
English statute, the punishment of whip- 
ping, setting on the gallows, &c, which 
latter is the punishment in Franca ; but 
most, if not all of the U. States, have now 
dispensed with these corporeal inflictions, 
some of them prescribing imprisonment 
and hard labor for a numb^ of years, 
according to the discretion of the court ; 
others leaving it to the verdict of the juiy 
to fix the penod of imprisonment 

Bio. (QeeBad^,) 

BioNON, Louis Edward, bom 1771, at 
MeiUeraye, department of Lower Seine, 
studied at Paris, in the colUge Ligieux. 
He approved the principles of the revolu- 
tion in 1789, but was proscribed in 1793, 
because be opposed all violent measures. 
He therefore joined the army. In 1797, 
lie entered on the diplomatic career. In 
Berlin, where the royal family of Prussia 
l)estowed on him many marks of favor, 
he was, in 1801, secretary of leffation, and, 
in 1802 and lQ(Xiy char fiiPaffiares, From 
1803 to 6, he was minister plenipotentiaiy 
at the court of Cassel, where, the day be- 
^re the battle of Jena, he proposed to the 
elector a treaty of neutrality, which was 
declined. After the entry of the French 
troops into Berlin, h^ was appointed im- 
perial commissaiT to the Prussian states. 
He was afterwards charged with the gen- 
eral administration of the domains and 
finances in the countries taken possession 
of until the end of 1808. He asserts, that 
he conducted this difficult business with 
as much mildness as possible, and that he 
has since received many proofs of gmti« 
tude from the people among whom he 
acted. In 1809, he was minister pleni- 
potentiary to the grand duke of Baden, 
when an imperial decree, dated Schon- 
brunn, appointed him administrator-gen- 
eral in Austria. He was afterwards in- 
trusted witli an important mission to 
Warsaw^ with secret instructions: here 
he remained about three yeoxs. At the 
opening of the campaign m 1812, M. de 
F^dt succeeded him, and he was appoint- 
ed imperial commissary at the provisory 
government in Wilna. Afler the retreat 
m>m Moscow, he took the place of M. de 
Pradt in the embassy at Waraaw, and, in 
conjunction with prince Poniatowski, sue* 
ceeded in delaying for four months the 
retreat of the Austrian allied army under 
prince Schwarzenberg, afterwards under 
9* 



general Frimont, until the scattered Polish 
corps, of about 7000 men, were collected 
UDaer Poniatowski in Cnicow. Thisviras 
increased to 20,000 men, and made its re-* 
treat, in May, throueh Austria into Saxo-, 
ay. B. now repairea to the French head* 
quarters at Dresden, and remained there, 
with the other members of the diplomatic 
corps, during the siege, until the capitula- 
tion. As he had procured passports fix>m 
the confederation of the Rhine for several 
foreign ministers, prince Schwarzenberg 
caused him to be escorted by one of his 
aides to the French out-poets at Strasburg, 
On his arrival in Paris, Dec. 7, 1813, he 
brought to the emperor the first informal 
tion of the defection of Murat He soon' 
aflter retired into the country. On the 
restoration of the Bourbons, he wrote his 
Exposi comvcaratif de la Situation de la 
Drance et ceUt des principales Puissances 
de VEuroptj in which he showed great 
penetration, and also proved himself a 
true Frenchman of the school of Napole- 
on. During the "hundred days," ^fapo- 
leon appointed him under-secretary of 
state for foreign afiSiirs, and, in 1820, sev- 
eral departments chose him their deputy. 
He spoKe against the law of exception, 
and advocated the recall of the exiles, 
reminding the ministers of certain secret 
circumstances, on which he did not think 
proper to explain himself more fully. B, 
also advocated the law of election. In 
1820, he wrote Des ProscnpHons^ in 
which he paints the struggle for liberty 
against eveiy kind of tyranny. His latest 
writinffs on national disputes have at- 
tracted much notice ; for instance, Coup 
d^(Eil star les Dimilis des Cours de Baviire 
et de Bade (1818), and particularly his 
work Du Congrh de Th^au (1821), his 
Lettre sur les Diff&ends de la Maison 
d^ArOudt avec la Prusse^ and his Les 
Cabinets et les Peuples (Paris, 1824). 

BiJA-puR, or ViJAYA-PDRi; a city of 
Hindostan, formerly capital of the prov- 
ince of Beejapoor (q.v.),called Vixiapoar^ 
by the European travellers of the three 
last centuries. The city is 306 miles N, 
Seringapatam, 384 N. W, Madras ; Ion, 
75° 47' E. ; hit 1G° 46' N. It is situated 
in a fertile plain, and is of very great 
extent, consisting of three towns witliin 
each other: the mnermost is the citadel, 
a mile in circuit ; the next a fort, eight 
miles in compass ; and the exterior is en- 
vironed with walls many miles in circuit. 
But a great proportion of the space is 
covered with ruins. It is thinly inhabited, 
but the population is unknown. The in- 
habitants affirm, that, according to au- 



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ica 



BUA-PUR— BILE. 



tbentic record9, it contained, in the* time 
of it8prosperiDr,964,456 houses, and 1600 
moeqiies; and travelleis are of opinion 
that the latter number is not esmgferated. 
It was taken by Aurangzeb in 16B9, when, 
it is said, 15,00P cavaliy could encamp 
between the fort and the ci^ wdl. It 
was one of the wealthiest cities of Asia* 
The fort is protected by high walls, with 
massiye towers, and is surrounded by a 
ditch. It has seven gates, and contains 
several cannon of enonnoos dimensions, 
particularly one called the iovtreign rf' 
ike plains. 

Bilbao. (See BUboa,) 

BiLBOA, or Bilbao^ or Vilvao, a 
Spanish province in Biscay. The capital, 
or the same name, is a seaport on the 
Ybei^baJ, in a plain surrounded with 
high mountains; Ion. 3° 4^ W.; lat, 43** 
16^ N.; population, 15,000. It contains 
about 1300 houses, part of which are built 
on piles. The harbor is good, and well 
frequented. Between 500 and 600 ves- 
sels visit this port annually ; and the year- 
ly export of wool is estimated at 50 or 
60,000 sacks of 2 cwt each. The aur 
is healthy; the inhabitants are strong, 
robust, and live long. It is well supplied 
virith water and provisions : fish are very 
abundant ; and tne environs are fertile in 
legumes and fruits. It contains 5 parish- 
es and 12 religious houses. Among the 
laws peculiar to the town is one a^nst 
ingratitude. Its commerce principally 
consists in wool and iron. 

BiLDsanTK, William, bom at Amster- 
dam, 1750, lives at Leyden, and is now 
considered one of the greatest lawyers in 
Holland— « man of learning in the iullest 
extent of die wwd, and, according to the 
jadgmeift of the Dutch critics, one of the 
greatest poets of tlie present age. He 
studied the classics at Leyden, chieflY 
under Ruhnken and Valkenaer. In 1776, 
he obtained from the learned society of 
Leyden, whose judgment was always re- 
spected, the first pn2e for a poem on the 
influence of poetry upon govemmenL 
In the following year, he obtained from 
the same society two prizes for an ode 
and a didactic [wem, On True Patriotism. 
Since that period, he has ranked with 
Feith and madame de Launoy, amon^ the 
first Dutch poets. The present a^ is the 
epoch of the modem Dutch s<mool of 
poetry, in which, besides B^ Feith and 
Launoy, and paitioularly Bellannr, Hel- 
men^ Tollens, Loots, van Hall, Kinker, 
Klyii and others are distinguished. B. 
introduced into Dutch poetry iambics and 
hMMameMBf rather to ahow ms talent for 



overcoming difilcuhies of an kinds than 
firom preference to these measures, which, 
on the contrary, he declared not admissi*' 
ble into Dutch poetir. In 1780, he ob- 
tained a new prize tor a poem, on the 
connexion of poetir and eloquenee with 
philosophy. He added to this poem, some 
time afterwards, an inqiortant commenta- 
ry, which showed him to be a man of 
learning and a philologer. B., besides, 
devoted himself to law, at the Hague, 
witli great success. On the invasion of 
the Netheriands by the French, he left 
lus country on account of his adherence 
to the hereditary sUidtholder, and remov- 
ed to Brunswick, where he studied the 
Grerman language and poetry, and after- 
wards to London, where he deUvered, in 
the French language, lectures on litera- 
ture and poetry, which were numerously 
attended. After the ijew order of things 
was firmly established in Holland, he re- 
turned, in 17d9, and soon aflerwards pub- 
lished some of his principal works. Among 
these are a didactic poem on astronomy, 
and the masterly imitations of Delilie's 
L'Homme des Chtmpa, and Pope's Essay 
on Man. Louis Bonaparte, on his acces- 
sion to the throne, appointed him his 
teacher of Dutch, and one of the first 
members of the national institute found- 
ed by him. AAer the incorporadon of 
HoDand into the French empire, B.'s 
muse vead silent ; but she rose the more 
vigorously after the deliverance of his 
country. Perhaps there is no poem of 
our time superior in fire, vigor and enthu- 
siasm, to HoUantPs Vedossing^ the joint 
composition of B. and his wife, who is a 
successful poetess. When Napoleon re- 
turned fi^)m Elba, B. produced a number 
of war-songs, which are considered among 
the best in Dutch poetry. lie publislied his 
Mengdpoezy (Miscellaneous Poems, two 
small volumes, Rotterdam, 1823, second 
edition), which contains some ballads and 
imitations of Osflian. We may also men- 
tion that he is a bitter enemy of German 
literamre. 

BiLDOE. (See BUge,) 

Bile; a vellowish-green liquid sub- 
stance, of a bitter taste. Man and many 
animals have, on the inferior 8iu*face of 
the liver, a peculiar bladder, in which the 
bile, formed by the liver from the blood, 
is preserved. It consists of water and 
several other substances. The water 
constitutes the greatest part, and keeps 
the other parts in 9 state of solution. 
The remainins ingredients are a yellow, 
very bitter, flismle resin, which contributes 
most to the taste of the bile ; a small por- 



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BILE^inLL OF EXCHANGE. 



im 



Ikm of natron; some ndbenl alkaline 
salts ; some ozyde of iron ; a small quan- 
ti^ of a yellowish substance, wbidi is 
only partly dissolved in the natron ; «od 
a considerable portion of albumen. The- 
sard and Berzelius have done much to 
determine the ingredients of the bile. Its 
principal use seems to be, to separate the 
excrement fiom the chyle, after both have 
been fi>rmed, and to produce the evacua- 
don of the excrement ftom the body. It 
is prolNMe that the^ substances would 
remain mixed together, and they would, 
perhaps, even be «utly absorbed together, 
were it not for the bile, which seems to 
combine with the excrement, and, by this 
combination, to fiicilitate its separation 
from the chyle, and thus to prevent its 
absorption. Fourcrojr. supposes that the 
bile, as soon as it is mixed with the con- 
tents of the intesdnal canal, suffers a de- 
conposition ; that its alkali and saline 
Ingredients combine with the chyle, and 
render it more liquid, while its albumen 
and resin combine with the excrementi- 
tious mattery and gradually render them 
less fluid, from the late experiments of 
Berzelius on fteces, it cannot be doubted 
that the constituents of the bile are to be 
found in the excrementidous matter ; so 
that the ingenious theory of Fourcroy is 
so far probal^ The bile also stimulates 
the intestinal canal, and causes it to evac- 
uate its contents sooner than it otherwise 
would do ; for when there is a deficiency 
of bile, the body is constantly costive. — 
Biliaiy calculi, or gall-stones, are some- 
times found in the gall-bladders of men 
and animals. They are more rarely met 
with in the substance and body of the 
liver. Those that are found in the human 
subject consist, principally, of that peculiar 
subetance, called, by Fourcroy, adipoeire. 
Thev are of a white, ffrayish-brown, or 
black color. The cafouli found in the 

SJl-bladdera of quadrupeds have been ' 
ought to consist alnoost entirely of ui- 
spissated bile; but, though much less 
complicated than the coirespondlng con- 
cretions in the human subject, they must 
contain something more than the inspi^- 
aated fluid, since they are insoluble, both 
In alcohol and water. 

BiLEDDLOBaiD (Bhekbded Dsherid, coun- 
try of dates) ; a country in Northern Af- 
rica, south of mount Atlas, bounded on 
the north by Tunis, on the west by Al- 
giers and the Sahara, on the east by Tri- 
poli; supposed to be about 180 miles 
square. In ihe desert are oases j(q. v.), 
which are cultivated and watered like 
At the foot of mount Atlas^ the 



winds which come.At>m these mounl^M 
alky the heat of the climate. The ehief 
products- of the oases are barley of an ex- 
cellent kind, used by the caravans, and 
dates^ which are no where else so excel- 
lent. Much dew falls in the oase% rain 
but seldom. All the prodoetiona of the 
tropics, which can ripen vrithout rain, 
grow here in abundance. The Berbers 
who live here, as likewise the Negroes and 
Arabs, carry on trade by means of oenr- 
vans. A laige proportion ofthevonng men* 
are destroyed oy the change of olimate to 
which they are thus exposed, as also by 
bad nourashment and epidemic fevers. 
Certain parts of this connuy, called Dasa, 
Tasilet and Segehnease, belong to Mo- 
rocco ; to Algiers helongs Wai&eag, and 
to Tunis Tozer. Gademes, WeUed-Sidi 
and Mosselemis ars independent. Little 
is known of the customs, lawa^ ^Bc, of 
the inhabitants of B. 



BiLiN, mineral spring of; a celebrated 
spring near the tovim ofBilin,in Bohemia^ 
The watOT is clear, has a sourish taste, 



and mantles, particularly if mixed with 
wine and sugar. The temperature of the 
spring is 59^ Fahrenheit. The vrater is 
used with advantage in many complaints. 
Bilious Feves. (See Fever,) 
Btljm of Hxchargk is a written re- 
quest or order to one person to pay a cer- 
tain sum of money to another, or to his 
order, at all events ; that is, without any 
qualification or condition. The peraon 
who makes the bill is called the drotoer; 
the person to whom it is addressed, tlie 
drawee^ and the person to whom, or whose 
order, on the &ce of the bill, it is payable, 
the payee. If the drawee accepts the bill, 
he tnereby becomes the acceptor. A prom* 
issory note difiers flnom a bm of exchange 
in being merely a promise to pay money 
by the maker, instead of being a request 
to another person to pay it, to the payee. 
The expression promissonf note is not 
strictly confined to lugotnoMt notes, or 
those payable "to bearer," or to the payee 
named 'in it, ''or his order," but is more 
frequently used to denote such instru- 
ments ; and we riiall consider promissory 
notes in this sense in the present article, 
since the same rules and principles are, 
in a great degree, applicable to such notes 
and to bills of exclianffe. The maker of 
the note answers to me acceptor of the 
bill, since he is the party promising to 
pay it ; whereas the maker or drawer of 
a bill of exchange does not directly prom- 
ise, on the fSice of the instrument, to pay 
it, but merelv requests the drawee to do 
so: this is, however, conattoed to be « 



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BILL OP EXCaiANGE. 



vktual promifle that the dnwee, on the 
presentment of the bill for acceptance, 
and demand of payment according to its 
tenor, will pay it, and a conditional virtual 
promise, that he, the drawer, will pay it, 
m case of the drawee's ftiling either to 
accept it on due presentment, or to pay it 
on due demand* Bank checks are cff a 
character similar to promissory negotiable 
notes, as to the rules by which the fiabili- 
tiee and rights of the parties to them are 
determined, with this difference in their 
common form, that pnmussory notes are 
usually made payable to the payee or ^ his 
order, whereas checks, as also bank-notes, 
are usually made payable to. the ''bearer,'' 
and the right to demand and receive pay- 
ment of them is transferred from one per- 
son to another by mere dehveiy, without 
any mdonement or written order by the 
original payee ; while the transfer or as- 
signment of a promissoiy note or bill of 
exchange is made by the payee in vniting, 
either by indorsement or otherwise. He 
usually merely writes his name on the 
back, whereby he becomes the indoraer, 
and the person to whom it is thus indors- 
ed or assigned, who is called the mdorae^ 
has a right to fill up this blank indorse- 
ment by writing over it an order to jMiy 
the contents to himself or to any other 
person ; and any bona fide holder of the 
note or bill has the same right to fill up 
the indorsement or assignment Thus a 
note or bill of exchange, bein^ once in- 
dorsed in blank, becomes assignable or 
transferable, like a check payable to 
" bearer," merely by delivery of the instru- 
ment. It is an essential qualit}' of a ne- 
gotiable bill, note or check, that it be a 
promise to pay a certain sum of money. 
and that the promise be absolute ; for if 
no definite amount is fixed, or it be a 
promise to deliver goods or do any other 
act than pay money, or if it be conditional, 
it is not a bill of exchange, or negotiable 
promissory note, or check. Besides the 
transfer by indorsement above-mentioned, 
these instruments are also transferable by 
assignment, or mere delivery, so as to 
give the holder all the rights, against the 
maker or acceptor, that he would have 
had if he had himself been the payee. 
Where the transfer is made by mere de- 
livery, the assignor is exempt 'from all 
liability to tlie holder on the paper itself; 
he makes no promise to pay the money, 
but still he, in efiect, warrants that it is 
the bill, note or check, which it purports 
to be ; for if it be a forced instrument, if 
it be not bwiafide the bill, note or check 
which it purports to be, he will be liable 



to indemni^ the person to whom be 
transferred it But if the transfer bft 
made by an indorsement in writing, vrith- 
out any condition or exception, being an 
absolute order to pay the money to the 
indorsee or holder, die indorser in this 
case becomes in his turn a promiser; fer 
he thereby virtually promises, that, in case 
the maker of the note or check, or the 
dravirer or acceptor of the bill, does not 
pay it on due demand, or in case the 
drawee does not accept it, if it be a bill, 
on presentment according to its tenor, 
then he, the indorser, will pay it — ^Though 
the ferms of bills of exchange, promisso- 
ry notes, checks and bank-notes are, re- 
spectively, pretty uniform, yet no precise 
form of words is necessary to constitute 
cither of these instruments. Any words, 
purporting to be an absolute promise to 
pay a certain sum of money, or an abso- 
lute order fer its payment to a particular 
person or his order, or to the bearer, is 
cither a bill of exchange, promissory note, 
or checks— Bills of exchange are, m Eng- 
land, either inland, that is, payable in the 
kingdom, or foreign, that is, payable out 
of Sie kingdom. A similar distmction is 
made in the U. States, where, in most of 
the states, a bill payable in the state in 
which it is made is considered to be in- 
land. The material distinction between 
foreign and inland bills is, that, on inland 
bills, a protest for non-acceptance or non- 
payment is not usually necessary, and that 
less damages can be claimed in conse* 
quence of the dishonor of the bill, if, in- 
deed, any can be claimed. Generally, 
in faat, if not universally, only the face of 
the bill Can, m such case, be recovered of 
the drawer or indorser. In one respect, 
foreign bills most generally, and inland 
bills and promissory notes in many places, 
differ in construction fipom the literal im- 
port of the terms of the instrument as to 
the credit or time of payment, being, in 
fact, payable three days after the time 
specined; these tliree days of additional 
credit being allowed under the name of 
grace : but this additional credit is oflen 
expressed in the instrument itself, thus, — 
" Pay to A. B. or order, in sixty days and 
grace,^ which is equivalent to sixty-three 
days. Another mode of expression for 
the credit to be allowed on a bill is by 
the word tuance. Thus a bill is drawn 
payable at one or two usances; and it is 
necessary, in order to ascertain the time 
of payment, to know what period is meant 
by a usance, and this will vary according 
to the place at which, and on which, the 
bill is orawn. Thus a bill dravm in £ng-i 



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BUX OF EXCUANQE. 



105 



bod* ftt one usance, on Amsterdam, Rot- 
tefdam, Altona^or any place in FraDce,is 
payable in one calendar month from the 
date ; on Cadiz, Madrid or Bilboa, in two ; 
on Genoa, Leghorn or Venice^ in three 
months. — If, on presentment of a bill of 
exchange to the drawee, he refuses to ac- 
cept it according to its tenor, the holder 
has an immediate cause of action against 
the drawer and indoraers, and may, on 
giTing them notiee of the non-acceptance, 
forthwith demand the amount of the bill, 
though it was on a long credit, and, if it 
had been accepted, he must have waited 
three or six months for his money. This 
rule is perfectly equitable, since the draw- 
er and mdorsers impliedly agree that the 
draft shall be accepted on presentment, 
and, on its not being so, their promise is 
violated. But the holder must give no- 
tice to the drawer, and the other parties to 
whom he wishes to resort, of the non- 
acceptance or non-payment of the bill 
In case of the dishonor of a bill, the hold- 
er has ^nerallv the right to recover of 
the parties liable to him, that is, the draw- 
er and indorsera^ not only the amount 
expressed on the face of the bill, together 
with the expenses of protest and interest, 
but something in admtion, on account of 
his disappointment in not having funds at 
the place on which the bill is drawn, as 
he had a right to expect The rate or 
amount of this damage must, as is evident, 
be very various, according to the distance 
of the places, the credit on which the bill 
WHS drawn (in case of protest for non-ac- 
ceptance), and the rise or fall of exchange 
on the same place afler the purchase of 
the bill. One rule of estimatmg the dam- 
age is the cost of reCxchaoge, or of an- 
other bin on the same place, with the 
addition of one, two, &c., up to twenty 
per cent damages. In other places, no 
regard is had to refixchange, but the hold- 
er recovers a certain per cent over the 
ftce of the bill, by way of damage, and 
this rate is the same whether exchange 
may have risen or fallen from the time of 
purchasing the bill to that of its being 
returned dishonored. — ^Exchange appears 
to have been known anciently at Tyre, 
Carthage, Athens, Corinth, Syracuse and 
Alexandxia. The first well-ascertained 
traces of it, in modem times, are found, 
subsequently to the 12th century, in some 
of the provinces of France, particularly at 
the &ir of Champagne. It was brought 
to perfection m Italy. Its ^reat utifity 
an^ convenience connst in its negotia- 
faihty. Suppose, fi>r instance, a number 
of penKina to hKve^ aererally, sums of 



money deposited in various countriesL 
One, whose fiinds are in South America, 
wishes to make purchases at St Peters- 
burg ; and one, who is entitled to the pro- 
ceeds of a cargo at St Petersburg, wishes 
to make a purchase at Canton ; and an- 
other, having funds at Canton, desires to 
make an importation from South Amer- 
ica. By merely making and deUvering a 
slip of paper, each one will, in efiSct, 
transfer his funds quite across the globe. 
Another advantage of exchanse is the fa^r 
cility it afibrds in a^justinflf balances. Its 
effect in this respect may be illustrated by 
the practice of banks and bankers in some 
particular cities. In London, for instance, 
the bankers meet at a certain hour everv 
day, to pay and receive payment of each 
others' cheoks ; but the amount actually 
paid will bear a very smaU proportion to 
the whole amount of the checks, sinee 
the greater part is settled by merely can- 
celling the checks Iftiev hold against each 
other. So where tJl tne' batiks of a city, 
as is the practice in many commercial 
towns, take indiscriminately each other's 
notes, and settle the balances every day, 
thev all make an exchange of the notes 
which they hold against each other, and 
only pay over in specie the balances. 
Thus^ by the paymem in specie of a com- 
parativeiy Veiy small sum, some hundreds 
of thousands may circuhite between these 
institutions and their respective customers 
and depositors. In the seme manner the 
balances are adjusted between two com- 
mercial countries, or all the commercial 
countries of the world. Among the rm* 
ous merchants of the United states, for 
instance, some have sent goods to Eng- 
land, others to,Fiance, and others to H(3- 
land, and each one. may wish to import 
goods from a countiy other than that 
wh^re his funds lie. One, according^ 
ly, sells exchange on Amsterdam, and 
buys exchange on London, or, which is 
the same thmg in effect, as far as he is 
concerned, he orders his coirespondent at 
Amsterdam to buy excbanffe on London, 
and remit it thither for nis (the mer- 
chant's) account If the funds which 
some merchants have in each foreign 

Elace are exactly equal to what is wanted 
y others in the same place, th^ whole 
transaction is onlv a transfer among them- 
selves of each other's claims, or exchange, 
and no balance remains ; whereas, wim- 
out this fiioility, one must order speeie 
home from Amsterdam, whieh the other 
would purchase of him to ship it to Lon« 
don ; a transaction involving much delay, 
besides the expense of irel^t and insuc* 



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BILL OF EXCHANGE— BILLINGTON. 



ance. But sdH^ all the merchants of the 
country may wish to invest or pay greater 
sums abroad than the proceeds of all the 
exports aheady made or making from the 
country amount to, in which case the 
course of exchan^ is said to be against 
the country, and, in this case, as m all 
others where the quantity of an article 
wanted is greater than that offered in the 
market, the price will rise, and foreign 
exchange will be above par. So, if the 
quantitv of exchange demanded on any 
particular country is greater than that of- 
fered, the rate of exchange, in respect to 
that particular country, isunfavor^Ie, and 
rises. This has most generally been the 
case in the U. States, in respect to Eng- 
land. So, vice vtrsoy if the funds belong- 
ing to Americans, in any particular for- 
eign country, are greater than the sum 
wanted by other Americans to make pay- 
ments or investments there, the rate of 
exchange vrith that particular country is 
£ivorabTe, and the pnce of it falls. And 
it is to be observed, that what is called a 
faoorabU rate of exchange is, in fact, 
unfavorable to the person bavins funds 
abroad, who wishes to realize them at 
home ; for he must, in that case, sell, at 
home, his foreign exchange, for a smaJler 
sum than its nominal amount It is to be 
borne in mind, therefore, that an unfavor- 
able rate of exchange is not necessarily 
disadvantageous to a countiy. To follow 
out the inquiry, and determine in what cir- 
cumstances it is actually disadvantageous 
or indifferent, or in ract advantageous, 
w^ould occupy more space than we can 
give to the subject But we perceive 
Rom this operation of the system of ex- 
change, that it is onl^ neces^uy, at most, 
to shif) abroad, or import nt>m abroad, 
in specie, the actual batEince on the whole 
aggregate of debts and credits, all the 
items of which, as far as they o^t each 
other, are adjusted by exchange ; and it 
is by no means always the case that this 
aggregate balance is paid in specie ; for 
the very circumstance of the rise of ex- 
change on any particular country may 
make the trade more favorable, and in- 
duce shipments, the proceeds of which 
are drawn for as soon as the shipments 
are made ; so that, in such a case, the un> 
favorable balance may be actually advan- 
tageous, by promoting trade. 

BiiiL OF Ladino; a memorandum si^- 
ed by masters of slups, acknowledging 
the receipt of goods intrusted to them 
for transportation. There are usually tri- 
plicate copies, one for the party send- 
ing^ another for the party to whom the 



goods are sent, and the third for the cap* 
tain. 

Bill of Rights, or Declaration of 
Rights, is the assertion by a people, or 
recognition by its rulers, "of that residu- 
um of natural liberty, which is not re- 
quired by the laws of*^ society to be sacri- 
ficed to public convenience ; or else those 
civil privileges, which society has engaged 
to provide, m lieu of those natural lii^r- 
ties so given up by individuals.'* The 
houses of lords and commons delivered to 
the prince of Orange a list of such rights 
and privileges, February 13, 1688, at the 
time of his succession to the British 
throne, concluding with the words " and 
they do claim, demand, and insist upon, 
all and mngular the premises, as their un- 
doubted rights and privileges." The dec- 
laration is usually called thehtUof rights, 
A omilar declaration was made in the 
aci of setdemeni, whereby the crown was 
limited to the house of Hanover. Similar 
bUls of rights are prefixed to some of the 
state constimtions in the United States. 
But the constitutions of all the states, as 
well as that of the United States, virtually 
include in themselves declarations of 
rights, since they expressly limit the 
powers of the government The same is 
true of the constitutional charters of those 
European governments which have adopt- 
ed constitutions, one of the objects of 
these being to guaranty certain rights and 
hberties to the people. 

Bill in EquiTT, or Crancekt, is the 
statement of the plaintiff's case in a court 
of equity, or chancery, corresponding to 
the declaration in a court of law, and the 
libel in an ecclesiastical court 

Billiards; a very interesting game^ 
contributing also to health by affording 
the body moderate exercise. It was in- 
vented in France, and is now played by 
all European nations and their descend- 
ants. Tne rules for the different games 
of biUiards are too numerous to be given 
here. They are also generally found in 
billiard rooms. We therefore omit them, 
although we usually give the rules of 
games, in order to furnish a means of 
reference in doubtful cases. They are 
to be found in Hoyle's Games. 

BiLLiNOTON, Elizabeth ; the most cele- 
brated English female singer of her day. 
She was of German origin, but bom in 
England, in 1770, her father, Mr. Weich- 
sell, being a native of Saxony. At an 
early age, she studied the piano-forte mi^ 
der Schrofiter, and attained to an extraov^ 
dinanr proficiency. At 14, she made^ 
her first appearance .as a singer at Ox-» 



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BILLINGTON— BINNACLE. 



lor 



fbfd,uid two yean afterwanis married 
Ma BillingtoD, a perfonner on the double- 
baas, whom she accompanied to Dublin. 
She made her ddnd there in the opera of 
Orpheus and Euridice. From Ireland 
she returned to London, where she ap- 
peared at Coyent-garden, for the' first 
time, as Rosetta, in Ame's Love in a 
Village, with such success as to secure 
her an immediate engagement at what 
was then considered the enormous salaxy 
of £1000, for the remainder of the season, 
besides a benefit; the managers after- 
wards voluntarily giving her the profits 
of a second niffht While in town, she 
continued to tuLB lessons of Mortellori, a 
celebrated Italian master, then in London, 
and, on the clonng of the theatre, repaired 
to Pans, in order to profit by the instruc- 
tions of SacchinL In 1785, she returned 
to England, and appeared at the concerts 
of ancient music with madame Mara, 
whose brilliant performance she, to say 
(he least, fully equalled. From this pe- 
riod till 1793, no music meeting, opera, or 
concert, of reputation, was considered 
complete without her. In the last named 
year, she visited Italy, and performed, ac- 
companied by her brother C. Weichsell, 
at the theatre of St Carlos at Naples ; 
Francis Bianchi composing eitpressly for 
her his celebrated opera mez de Castro, 
Her engagement here met with an abrupt 
and melancholy interruption, her husband 
dying suddenly of apoplexy, just as she 
was preparing to set out for the theatre. 
In 1796, she appeared at Venice, and after- 
wards at Rome, being every where re- 
ceived with the loudest expressions of* 
applause. In 1799, she mamed Mr. Feli- 

rt, whom she accompanied to Milan. 
1801, her wonderful powers being 
then in then: meridian, she returned to 
the London stage, appearing alternately at 
either house, and astonishmg the whole 
musical world by her Mandane--« per- 
formance that has never since been 
equalled in English opera. Engagements 
now multiplied upon her, and continued 
incessantlv till her final retirement from 
public Uf€, which took place in 1809. 
The last exhibition of her powers was in 
aid of a charitable institution, at Whitehall 
chapel, the aueen, the prince regent, and 
most of the branches of the royd fiimily, 
being present In 1817, she quitted Eng- 
land for ever, and died, aAer a short illnesa, 
at her villa of St Aitien, an estate she 
had purchased in the Venetian terri- 
tories. 

'BiN^Eif; a town on the left shore of 
the Khine, where the Nahe joms this river, 



opposite RiJ^esheim, fkmous for its excel- 
lent wine. Lon. 7° 48^ E. ; lat ^ 5^ N. 
Population, 3300. Near it the Rhine is 
compfessed into a narrow channel, be- 
tween rocks, so as to make the navi^on 
difficult This strait is called Bxngen- 
loch (hole of Bingen). The fiimous M&u- 
sethurm, or Tower of Mice, where the 
avaricious bishop Hatto is said to have 
been eaten by nuce, as a punishment for 
usiuy, exercised in a time of fiunine, is 
situated in the vicinity. 

BiNOLET. This Garrick of the Dutch 
stage was bom at Rotterdam, in 1755, of 
English parents in good circumstances. 
On leaving school, he was placed in a 
counting-house. It was not long, how- 
ever, before he discovered an invincible 
inclination for the stage, and, at the age 
of 18, joined the company under the di- 
rection of the celebrated Corver, who 
was his first instructer. In 1779, in the 
24th year of his age, he made his (Ubut 
on the stage of Ainsterdam. The pubUc 
odium was then excited agauist England, 
on account of its ships having captiu«d 
vessels under the Dutch flag, without any 
previous declaration of war, and B. was 
unfavorably received on account of his 
English descent But he soon conquered 
this prejudice by his performance of 
Achilles, in the tragedy or the same name ; 
and firom that time he continued to be 
the favorite of the public. He was, also, 
so well acquainted with the French lan- 
guage, as to appear successfully in the 
French theatres of Amsterdam and the 
Hague, by the side of the great French 
actors, who, while on their tours for tiie 
sake of improving themselves, used to 
visit the Netherlands. In 1796, he was 
director of a company of actors, who 
played principally at Rotterdam and the 
Hague, but, also, visited other cities of 
HoUand. Meanwhile, he was always 
ready to perform at the theatre in Am- 
sterdam, in such parts as could only be 
acted by himself. One of his last repre- 
sentations, in which he was asrasted by 
the great actress Wattier Ziesenis, was 
the part of Famese, in Lalain's tragedy 
Maria, acted, in 1818, before the royal 
family. In the same year, he died at the 
Hague. 

Binnacle, or Bittacle ; a case or box, 
which contains the compass for steering 
a ship, and lights to show the compass 
at night In ships steered by a wheel, it 
is common to have two binnacles, or a 
double binnacle, for die convenience of 
the steersman, on either side of the 
wheel ; but, in this case, the compaeses af- 



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BINNACLE— BIRCH. 



hu eaeh othen' directioii, and thus ren- 
der the ship^ coinw onoertain. 

Bill ojtfiAt, in algeknm ; a quantity con- 
sisting of two terms, or membera, con- 
nected by the sign -|-or-^. Binomial 
coefficients are the numbers that indicate 
how often a given power of a binomial, 
for instance, cS'a 4- 1) contains each of the 
products of its parts. — ^The binomial the- 
orem is that celebrated formula, which 
teaches to find any power of a given bi- 
nomial a-\-b,by means of the two terms 
a and 6, and of the exponent of the power. 
This theorem, frequent]^ called the JSTeuh 
fottum theoremj on which the system of 
analysis is principally founded, was 
known, as &r as relates to integral |>08i- 
tive exponents, to several mathematicians 
before Newton. But Newton was the 
first who tauj^t its application to frac- 
tional and negative exponents ; and this 
discovery, one of the most important of 
those made by that great man, is en- 
graved upon his tomb-stone. 

BiOEiursTjkEHL, James Jonas, a dis- 
tinguished traveller, bom at Rotarfoo, in 
the Swedish province of Siidermannland, 
in 1731, studied at Upsal, afterwards en- 
tered the familv of baron Rudbeck, as 
tutor, and travelled with his son to Eng- 
land and the continent of Europe. WhUe 
residing in Paris, he studied the Oriental 
languages. On the return of his pupil to 
Sweden, B. was appointed, by Gustavus 
III, to make the tour of Greece, Syria 
and Egypt, receiving, at the same time, 
the title of professor at the university of 
Lund. He now went, at the king's ex- 
pend, to Constantinople, in 1776, where 
he remained for some time, to learn the 
Turkish language. He then proceeded on 
his travels as rar as Saloniki, where he 
died of the pla^e, 1779. B. had given 
an account of his travels, in the form of 
letters to his friend Gioerwell, who, at 
firat, published them separetelv in a jour- 
nal, which appeared in Stockholm, hut 
afterwards by themselves (1783). This 
work contains learned and profound re- 
searches on medals, manuscripts, rare 
books; and a great many anecdotes, of 
which the most interesting are those re- 
ladng to Voltaire, whom B. had visited at 
Femey. His remarks and opinions on 
morals, manners, relicion and literature 
are often destitute of^ truth and justice. 
He was possessed of more learning than 
taste, of more memory than discernment 
and judgment His health, naturally 
strong, and fortified by exercise, enabled 
him to support constant labor, and to en- 
dure the greatest hardships. 



BioLoer and BtoiimT. (See L^eA 

BioK ; bom in Smyrna, or in its neign- 
borhood; a Grecian pastoral poet, of 
whose life no account is to be Tound. The 
eleg^, which Moschus, his friend and 
disciple, composed on the occasion of his 
death, seems to imply, that he was a con- 
temporary of Theocritus, and died of 
poison. He proliably lived in Sicily or 
Magna Grecia. Among the fow poems 
written- by him, which have descended to 
our times, his elegy on Adonis is con- 
sidered as the l>est The poems of B., 
together with those of Moschus, are gen- 
erally found as an appendix to the idyls 
ofTheocritus. They have been published 
separately by Fr. Jacobs, Gotba, 1795; 
Gilbert. Wakefield, London, 1795; and 
J. C. F. Maass, Leipsic, 1807. 

BioT, Jean Baptiste, a natural philoso- 
pher and astronomer, member of many 
French, as well as foreign literary socie- 
tieS) and of the leirion of honor, horn at 
Paris, in 1774, studied in the college of 
Louis-le-jGfrand, then ioined the amiy« 
and served in the artillery. His love of 
the sciences soon led him back to Paris, 
where he continued his studies in the 
polytechnic school, tiH he felt himself fit 
for a professorship at Beauvais. In 1800, 
he was made professor of phvsics in the 
colUge dt Ihmce, In 18(», he was ap- 
pointed a member of the first class of the 
mstitute. In 1804, he prevailed on the 
institute not to vote in favor of Bona- 
parte's elevation to the throne. In 1806, 
ne was sent with Arago to Spain, to con- 
tinue the measurement of an arc of the 
' meridian, undertaken to establish the ba- 
sis for the introduction of a new decimal 
system (q. v.) in France. Before he de- 
parted, he was appointed a member of 
the board of longitude. His mission was 
successful. He now devoted himself 
with unremitted zeal to his studies and 
lectures. In 1816, he was chosen editor 
of the department of mathematical sci- 
ence for the Jotinud des Sav€ms, His 
principal works are, Th-aiUdt Phvaiqut 
exphimehtale et maUUmaHque (1816); the 
abridgment of the same, in a popular 
style ; Precis iUmentaire de Phystque tx- 
pirimentalef and JVaiU Hhnentaire d^An- 
tronomie physique. In 1817, he visited 
the Orkney islands, to correct some dis- 
puted astronomical observations, for the 
nieasurement of a degree. B. still com- 
municates important articles to the litera- 
ry journals, &c. 

Birch (hehda alba) is a forest-tree, ean- 
ly known by the smooth appearance and 
nlvery color of its baric ; by its leaves be- 



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BIRCH— BIRD-ISLAND. 



109 



iftg flomewfaat triangular, but acute, and 
small in comparison with those of other 
timber-trees, and by all the small branches 
being slender and flexible. — Although the 
Ikrch is considered by no means a valua- 
ble timber-tree, yet its wood is used for 
numerous purposes. Being of white 
color, and firm and tough in texture, it is 
variously employed by hoop-benders and 
wheel- Wrights. Turners use it fop trench- 
ers, bowls, ladles, and other wooden 
ware. Ox-yokes, small screwd, women's 
shoe-beela, pattens, and, in France, wooden 
8hoes,arenubdeofit The North American 
Indians use the bark of the birch-tree for 
canoes, boxes, buckets, baskets, kettles, and 
dishes, curiously jomuig it together with 
threads made of roots of the -cedar-tree. 
Birch-trees are not unfrequently planted 
along with hazels, for the purpose of pro- 
eurinff wood to be converted into char- 
coal &r forges. This charcoal is much 
esteemed ; and the soot, which is formed 
on burning the wood, constitutes a good 
black sub^ance for printers' mk. Nearly 
all the other parts are applicable to use- 
fid purposes. The inhabitants of Sweden 
employ the bark in the tabnmg of leather, 
and, aner burning it to a certain degree, 
use it as a cement for broken china and 
earthen ware. The navigators of the 
river Volga construct of it portable boats, 
cradles, &c It is serviceable in dyeinff 
a yellow color. In Norway, it is drieo, 
ground, mixed with meal, and boiled, 
with other food, for swine. The houses 
or huts, in many parts of the north of 
Europe, are covered with the outward 
€md tnicker part of the bark, instead of 
slates or tiles. It is spun into a coarse 
kind of ropes, woven into shoes and hats, 
and, in Kamtschatka, even made into 
drinking-cups. The Laplanders fasten 
toj^ther large pieces of it to keep off the 
nun. Abounding in resinous matter, 
sUces of the bark are sometimes tied to- 
gether, to make torches. Diuing a scar- 
city of com, it has, in several instances, 
been sround with bread com, and suc- 
cessftulv used as food for men. In most 
parts of England and America, the twigs 
of this tree are made into brooms. They 
are also made into die tops of fishing- 
rods ; and, when smeared with bu^-lime, 
are used by bird-catchers. The Norwe- 

rs fi«qnently employ them as fodder 
their horses. The leaves affi>rd a 
yellow djre. 

Birch, Thomas ; an industrious histo- 
rian and biographer of the 18th century. 
He was bora in London, in 1705 ; and 
his fither, who was a Quaker, pFScdsed 

VOL. II. 10 



the occupation of a cofTee-mill maker, to 
which the son, also, was destinecL His 
early taste for reading induced him to 
prefer a hterary life, which he was per- 
mitted to choose, on condition of sup- 
porting himself by his own exertions. 
He, accordingly, after some previous tu- 
ition, became usher* in three different 
schools, and then went to Ireland with 
dean Smedley. Having left the Quakers, 
he took orders in the church, in 1730, 
and obtained, m 1732, a living in Essex, 
through the patronage of the attomey- 

feneral, afterwards lord Hardwicke. In 
734, he engaged, with some coadjutors, 
in writing the General Historical and 
Critical Dictionary, founded on that of 
Bavle, and completed, in 10 vols, folio, in 
1741. He subsequently obtained various 
preferments in the church. In January, 
1765, he was killed by a fall fix>m his 
horse, in the road between London and 
Hampstead. B. had formed very ex- 
tensive manuscript collections, which, 
together with his hbrary of piinted books, 
he bequeathed to the British museum. 
He produced a large number of historical 
and biographical works in the course of 
his laborious life. B. was one of the 
pioneers of literature. He collected fiil- 
ly and fidthfiilly, but without much 
discrimination, materials relating to the 
various subjects of his research, wnich are 
calculated to afford important assistance 
to writers possessed or more taste and 
judgment. Doctor Johnson was repeat- 
edly obliged to B. for literary informa- 
tion : he bestowed on him a Greek epi- 
gram, and for many years corresponded 
with him. The literature of his country 
is much indebted to the activity and dili- 
gence of B. 

Bird, Edward (R. A.) ; an English 
painter, who died at Bristol, in Nov., 1819. 
He excelled in comic subjects. The 
marquis of Stafford patronised him. He 
was appointed historical painter to the 
princess Charlotte of Wales. 

Bird Island ; the name of a very large 
number of islands in almost all the parts 
of the world, of which we shall mention 
only the following : — B, Mands ; a clus- 
ter near the N. E. coast of New Holland, 
80 called by captain Cook. They are 
almost covered with birds. — B. Lin the 
S. Pacific ocean; Ion. 216^ 24' £.; lat 
17^48^ S.—J5r. /., inthegulf of St Law- 
rtnce; Ion. 60* 45^ W. ; lat 47* 55^ N. 
— ^Another, in the S. Pacific ocean ; Ion. 
38» 2y W.; hit 54« S.— One in the 
northern part of the same ocean ; Ion. 
W&'&E.;lBX.2^6^l!f.—B. blonds; a 



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no 



BIRD-ISLAND— BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



cluster of islands in the Caribbean sea ; 
Ion. 66° 5(y W.; lat. 12° N.— The name 
Bird island is as common, and as vague, 
as that ot Blue mountains, &c. 

Birds. (See Ornithology.) 

Birds' Nest. The hirundo escvlentOy or 
salangane, a species of swallow, the nests 
of whicli are used as an article of luxury 
among the Chinese, is found in Uie In- 
dian seas. They are particularly abun- 
dant in Sumatra, especially about Croe, 
near the south end of the island. The 
nest has the shape of a common swal- 
low's nest, is about tlie size of a goose's 
egg, is found in caves, particularly on the 
sea-shore, and has tlie appearance of 
fibrous, imperfectly concocted isinglass. 
More or less of this substance is contained 
in the nests of all swallo^vs of that region. 
The manner in which tliis substance is 
procured is not ascertained. The most 
probable suppositions are, that it is the 
spawn of fish gathered by the bird, or a 
secretion elaborated in tlie body of the 
animal. The Chinese collect the nests, 
and sell them to all parts of the world. 
Dissolved in brotlis, &c., they make a de- 
licious gelly. The finest are those obtained 
before the nest has been contamuiated by 
the young birds: they are pure white, 
and are scarce and valuable. The inferior 
ones are dark, streaked with blood, or 
mixed with feathers: they are chiefly 
converted into glue. Some of the cav- 
erns, in which they are built, are diflicult 
of access, and dangerous to climb, so that 
none can collect the nests but persons 
accustomed to the trade fi-om tlieir 
youth. 

BiRE??, Ernst John von, duke of 
Courland, bom in 1687, was, as is assert- 
ed, the grandson of a groom of James, 
duke of Courland, and the son of a Cour- 
landish peasant, by the name of Bfihren. 
He studied at K6nigsberg,and endeavored 
to^ conceal the meanness of his origin by 
raising himself m the favor of the great. 
His agreeable person and cultivated mind, 

Srocured him the highest favor of Anna, 
uchess of Courland, and niece of the 
emperor of Russia ; but he was unsuc- 
cessful in his attempt to obtain admission 
among the Courlaudisb nobility. When 
Anna (q[. v.) ascended the Russian throne 
(1730), B., in spite of the conditions to 
which the empress had consented (one 
of which was not to bring him with her 
to Russia), was loaded by her with honors, 
and introduced at the Russian court. 
Here he assumed the name and coat of 
arms of the dukes of But)n in France, 
and governed under the name of his 



mistress. Fierce and haughty by natur^^ 
he indulffed his hatred against the rivals 
of his amhition. The princes Doleorucky 
were his first victims. He caused 11,000 
persons to be put to death, and double 
that number to be exiled. It is said, that 
the empress often threw herself at his 
feet, to induce him to lay aside his severi- 
ty, but that neither her entreaties nor her 
tears were able to move him. The firm- 
ness of his character, however, introduced 
vigor and activity into all branches of the 
administration throughout the great em- 
pire. In 1737, Anna forced the Cour- 
fanders to choose her favorite (who had, 
in 1722, married a Courlandish lady of 
the family of Trotta, by the name of 
Trey den) for their duke. After having 
declared prince Ivan her successor, she 
appointed B., according to his wish, re- 
gent. Anna died Oct 28, 1740. The 
new regent acted with prudence and 
moderation. But a secret conspiracy 
was soon formed against him. Field- 
marshal Munich, witli the consent of the 
young emperor's mother, caused him to 
be arrested in his bed, during the night 
of Nov. 19, 1740, by Manstein, and to be 
confined in the castle of Schliisselbur^. 
He was subjected to a trial ; but, no proots 
of the projects, which he was accused of 
having formed for the advantage of his 
fiimily, being discovered, the sentence of 
deatli was changed into diat of imprison- 
ment for life, and his fortune was declared 
confiscated. Together with his family, 
he was transported to Pelim, in Siberia, and 
thrown into a prison, of which Munich 
himself had furnished the plan. In the 
following year, Elisabeth, daughter of 
Peter the Greal^ being raised to the Rus- 
sian throne by a new revolution, B. was 
recalled, Dec. 20, 1741, and Munich was 
obliged to occupy his prison. At Kasan, 
tlie sledges met ; the travellers recognised 
each other, and proceeded on tlieir way 
without interchanging a word. The 
fiimily of B. afterwards lived in a very re- 
spectable condition at Jaroslaw. — ^After a 
subsequent exile of 22 years, die duke, as 
well as Miinich, was recalled, in 1762, by 
Peter III. When Catharine II ascended 
the throne, the duchy of Courland was 
restored to B., in 1/63. He governed 
with wisdom and lenity, transferred ^the 
government to his eldest son, Peter, 1769, 
and closed his restless life, Dec. 28, 1772. 
BiRMAN Ebipire. The great peninsula 
east of the bay of Bengal includes Aschem, 
or Assam, and the Birman empu«. The 
latter extends firom 9° to 26° N, lal., is 
about 1000 miles long and 700 broad ; pop- 



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BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



Ill 



ulation, according to Syme6,in 1795, about 
17,000,000. The natives of the peninsula, 
a handsomer and more athletic race of 
men than the Hindoos, though not so 
neat, are warlike and hospitable, have no 
mendicants among them, and reverence 
the aged. The iSirman empire, accord- 
ing to the reports of missionaries, compre- 
hends the kingdoms of Ava, Pegu, Arra- 
can, and the tuijacent states on the north. 
It is bounded on the north by Thibet, As- 
sam and China ; on the west, it is separat- 
ed from the British possessions by a chain 
of high mountains and the river Naaf. 
In the 16th century, the Birmans in Ava 
made themselves independent of Pegu ; 
but, in 1740, they were subjugated anew 
by this state. Alompra, one of their 
leaders, however, with about 100 faithful 
adherents, almost immediately summoned 
the people again to arms, and, in 1753, 
conquered the city of Ava. Defeat and 
victory succeeded alternately, till Alom- 
pra, in 1757, conquered the city of Pegu. 
This celebrated monarch died in 1760, at 
the age of 50 years. He labored to make 
his subjects happy by promoting agricul- 
ture, by restricting the arbitrajy exercise 
of power on the part of his officers, and 
improving the public morals. Every act 
of the magistrates, in the Birman empire, 
was required to be public, and every 
decree to be made known : even commer- 
cial treaties, and all relations established 
with foreign countries, were registered 
among the laws of the state^ and open to 
the inspection of every one. Namdogee, 
his ekiest son and successor, who died in 
1764, inheriting his father's spirit, adopted 
from other nations whatever was of gen- 
eral utility to his own, and was anxious 
to do away abuses. Both father and son 
attended particularly to the administration 
of the East India company. Shambuan, 
the emperor's brother, became regent, as 
guardian for his nephew Mornien ; but he 
usurped the throne himself^ and conquered 
Siam. In 1771, however, this province 
recovered its independence, while the 
principal part of the Birman forces were 
engaged in a war with China. In this war 
tliey were victorious, and compelled the 
Chinese, whom they took prisoners, to 
intermanry with the Birman females, and 
to remain in their territory. Fortune 
continued to attend this pnnce ; and, in 
1776, he left his empire, much enlarged, 
to his son Chengenza. This prince hved 
uk the unrestrained indulgence of every 
appetite, till, in 1783, he was dethroned 
aod put to death. InnK>nsequence of the 
j«yoliitioD, Shembuan Menderagan, the 



fourth son of Alompra, ascended the 
throne. He ordered his nephew Mornien, 
who was a state prisoner, to be drowned, 
and, in 1783, subdued Uie kingdom of 
Arracan. He then engaged ii^a war wltli 
Siam, which continued till 1703, and 
finally compelled it to submission on cer- 
tain conditions. About this period, some 
highway robbers fled from the Birman 
empire, and took refuge in the territory of 
the East India company. Shembuan de- 
manded that they should be delivered up. 
His demands were not immediately com- 
plied with, and he marched, witli a strong 
force, into the oflending country. At the 
same time, he carried on a friendly nego- 
tiation with the government in Calcutta, 
which resulted in the surrender of the 
criminals, and tlie conclusion of a treaty 
of amity and commerce between tlic two 
governments, wliich agreed to afford each 
other mutual aid, in case of an invasion 
from China. It was negotiated by cap- 
tain Symes. Shembuan was succeeded, 
in 1819, by his grandson. The last vic- 
tory of the Birmans was, in 1822, over the 
northern mountainous province of Assam, 
at the source of the Burrampooter. The 
jiaity driven firom Assam, together >vith 
the Birman rebels, fled to the British ter- 
ritories, whence they intended to invade 
Birmah. The British government forth- 
with disarmed the insurgents, but refused 
to deliver them up or to drive them from 
the island of Shapuri, which they had 
occupied. The court at Ummerapoora, 
therefore, attempted to set the Mahrattas 
and all Hindostan iu arms against tlie 
English. At length, the monarch witli 
the golden feet (one of tlie titles of tlie 
sovereign of Birmah) demanded of the 
government at Calcutta the cession of 
Northern Bengal, as being a part of Ava; 
and, in January, 1824, the Birman forces 
marched hito ICadschar, which had dej)os- 
ed its rulers, and put itself under British 
protection. Lord Amherst, as govenior- 

Senenil of the British East Indies, now 
eclared war against Birn^ah, and general 
Archibald Campbell prosecuted it so suc- 
cessfully, that, after tiie victory at Prome 
(Dec. 1— -3, 18S25), he obliged the monarch 
to conclude a very unequal peace at Pa- 
lanagh, Dec. 31, 1825. As tne treaty was 
not ratifled, on the part of Boa, the Bir- 
man emperor, by the time specified (Jan. 
18, 1826), Campbell renewed the war, on 
the 19th, and stormed the fortress of Mun- 
nun. Feb. 24, the peace was ratified, and 
the war concluded. The king of the 
white elephants ceded to the company the 
provinces of Arracan, Merguy, Tavoy and 



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119 



BIRMAN EMPIRE. 



Yea, and paid tliem a sum omountJiig to 
about $4,300,000. Aasam was made once 
more independent, and rajahs were ap- 
pointed by the comjpany to govern the 
northern provinces or Munnipore, Assam, 
Kadscharand Yeahung. The important 
city of Rangoon was declared a free port 
Thus all the western coast of the Birmaa 
empire was ceded to the East India com- 
pany, and the most powerful of the East 
Indian «tates was divided and weakened. 
— Before tbe rains commence, the heat in 
the valiejTB of this, in most respects, healthy 
country is excessive. Though B. is in 
general fertile, it contains several vast 
deserts. In the northern part, it is moun- 
tainous, and abounds in gold, silver, pre- 
cious stones and marble; also in iron, 
lead, tin, antimony, arsenic, sulphur and 
petroleum, which issues from the earth in 
abundance. In the southern districts, 
owing to the numerous rivers, the soil is 
marshy and extremely productive. Here 
grow rice, sugar-cane, fine tobacco, cot- 
ton, indigo, and all the tropical fruits. 
Land is cheap. Timber for ship-buildinff, 
especially teak or Indian oak, whicn 
grows most luxuriantly in a wet soil, on 
3)0 banks of rivers, is abundant. The price 
of labor is high. All but the low^ lands 
produce grain, or serve for pasture. Of 
manufactured goods, B. exports cotton 
and silk stuffs, glass, saltpetre, powder, 
porcelain and marble images of Gaudaraa, 
to which the workmen in stone give an 
exquiate smoothness. The East India 
company builds vessels even of 1000 
tons burthen in the Birman docks ; and 
the shipwrights there (giants in compar- 
ison with the puny Hmdoos) find con- 
stant employment The Pegu ships, how- 
ever, are not so well made as those built 
by the company, in their own territory. 
Tlie trade of the Birmans is very lively, 
especi^ly with China, by means of the 
river Irrawaddy, which extends 1240 
miles into the interior, and has populous 
cities all along its banks. From Bamoo, 
goods are conveyed throud|i the interior 
to China, to which the Birmans send 
many commodities from the eastern ar- 
chipelago of Asia. The government en- 
courages the increase of the population 
by fiivoring the settlement of foreigners, 
tolerates the religion of eveiy nation in 
the ports of Rangoon, Negrais and Mer- 
ffuy, and encoura^s the intermarriage of 
torei^ers with Birman females. Instead 
of com, silver and lead in bars are used, 
and their purity is strictly tested in trade. 
The forging and stamping of these bars 
forms a particular branch of business. — 



Menderagee removed the royal reaideiiee 
to tlie new city of Umnterapoora (190 
leagues east of Calcuttal-on a tongue of 
land which runs up into tne lake of Toun- 
zemahn. Ava, once so magnificent a city, 
about four or five miles distant, now lies 
in ruins. The buildings among the Bir- 
mans are veiy slight, as the government 
requues them to be chiefly of wood or 
bamboo. There are weU-oi]piQized fire- 
companies, for the protection of these 
combustible edifices. The Birman nobles 
are distinguished fit>m the lower classes 
by their dress, houses and furniture, and 
are divided into several ranks. The prince 
is absolute, but custom obliges him to ask 
the opinion of the nobility in important 
state matters: he is not bound, however, 
by theur counsel. The Birmans are all 
fond of painting both their fiu^es and 
hands, xhey slau^ter no tame animals, 
and live simply: for the most part, on 
vegetables. No Birman can have more 
than oae wife ; but he may have as many 
mistresses as he will. The latter live in 
the same house with the wife, and are 
her servants. A foreigner and an adult 
male Birman may, at any time, leave tbe 
empire ; but females and children are not 
allowed this privilege. Females cannot 
appear before a couit of justice. The 
chief amusement of the Birmans is their 
theatre, where declamation, dancing and 
music alternate: the higher classes are 
fond of dramatic spectacles. The new 
year is celebrated with all sorts of purifi- 
cation. At this time, young women ap- 
pear in public with water, and sprinkle 
every one they please. It is considered 
improper, however, to sprinkle females 
first, or those in a state of pregnancy^ at 
all. Among the Birmans, the distinguish- 
ed dead are burned ; the poor are interred ; 
the richest are embalmed, commonly in 
the ancient simple mode, in honey. Ev- 
er^ Birman learns arithmetic, reading and 
writing. The common people write on 

galm-^ves, with an iron style : the rich 
ave libraries, with books the leaves of 
which are thm pieces of iv(»y, with gilt 
edges. The Birmans, in genenJ, are fond 
of fielding every thing. Their materia 
medica is conmied to herbs, spioes and 
mercury : with vaccination they nave long 
been acquainted. The English mission- 
aries are tolerated, and serve the East 
India company as the outposts of their 
diplomatic system. The literary Birmans 
translate from the En^tish aH important 
works of science, particulariy on astron* 
omy and law. The religion of the coun- 
tiy is that of Buddha, whom the people 



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BIBMAN EMPIRE-BIRMmGHABL 



113 



can Gmtdamom Iteojoins no bloody sacri- 
ficoB, and is extremely tolerant The 
JKrmans have no secular clergy, but only 
a kind of monks dwelling in convents. 
All the cleivy practise ceUbacy, and eat 
but once a £iy. Every eamal indulgence 
18 punished by a cKsgraceful and public 
removal from office. The clergy are lit- 
erary metif and highly esteemed for their 
piety and knowledge. They aie permit- 
tedf however, to gild and paint Former- 
ly, there were priestesses ; but this order 
has been abolistied, because it was found 
injurious to the increase of population. 
The government has long been struggling 
to maintain its independence between 
the British dominions on the Ganges and 
the Chinese empire. No part of Eastern 
Asia seems to apprehend an excess of 
population, and hence no female in China 
18 suffered to emigrate. The Birmans are 
skilful weavers, smiths, sculptors, workers 
in gold and silver, joiners, &c. Of this 
' the citizens of London have hai ocular 
evidence, in the great state carriage, de- 
voted to the service of the gods, 19 feet 
high, 14 lonff, and 7 wide, whjch was 
taken by the British troqM^ in the war of 
1825. In Birmah there are no hereditary 
offices. Its civil and criminal code is very 
judicious; general principles are first laid 
down, and then applied to distinct cases. 
Bobberv is punished with death only 
when toe property stolen is very great, 
or the offence is aggravated by particular 
circumstances. Capital punishment is 
commonly inflicted tjy decapitation, and 
extends to those who eat opium fieely, 
and to drunkards in general. The magis- 
trates have a great ducretionaxy power to 
mitigate the punishments of the law, and 
few penal laws are executed in all their 
severity. The standing army is small 
Levies are made, in case of war, by way 
of conscription ; and a specified number of 
houses is required to furnish a soldier 
completely equipped, or pay a considera* 
ble Ime. For the crime of insubordina- 
tion, the conscribed are either punished 
])er9onally, or their &miiies are made to 
suffer, however innocent they may be. 
The principal part of the militia are em- 
ployed in the war-boats of the crown, 
which siuk about three feet deq), and are 
provided with ordnance. The revenue 
18 a tenth part of the productions of the 
soil and of all impoked goods. The 
treasury is rich, and the sovereign regards 
an active trade among his subjects as the 
surest basis of national revenue: he calls 
his great income fiom customs the iribuU 
i^tSrangerMf, The empire at present con* 



sists of seven provinces. The capital, 
Ummerapoora, contains 175,000 inhabit- 
ants. Rangoon, at the mouth of the 
Irravniddy (pop. 90,000|, is an important 
trading city, and many Europeans reside 
in it The Voyage du Capjt, Hiram Cox, 
dans VEmpirt dea Birmana is better in this 
French coition, by Chalons d'Anee (Paris, 
1834, 3 volsOthanin the ori^nal English 
(London, 1831). (See, also, JSTarrative 
of the Birmese War, by major Snodgrass 
London, 18S^ ; and Mis. Ann H. Jud- 
son's BdaHon of ike American Baptigt Mis" 
turn to the Birman Empire, Wash., 1823). 
Birmingham ; a town in Warwickshire, 
En^., on a declivity, on the river Rea, 
which joins the Tame ; 63 miles N. W. 
Oxford, 87 N. Bristol, 109 N. N. W. Lon- 
don; popuktion, m 1831, 85,753; families, 
18,165; houses, 16,65a Of the inhabit- 
ants, 81,643 consist of femilies connected 
with trade and manufactures. B. has long 
been distinguished for the variety, extent 
and excellence of its manufactures, par- 
ticularly in hardware. Witli perhaps the 
exception of Manchester, it is the greatest 
manu&eturing town in England. Among 
the principal manufactures are buttons, in 
immense variety, buckles and snuff-boxes ; 
toys, trinkets and jewellery ; polished steel 
watch-chains, cork-screws, &c.; plated 
goods for the dinins and tea-table ; japan- 
ned and enamelled articles; brass worK 
of eveiy description ; swoids and fire- 
arms ; medals and coins of various kinds; 
copying machines and pneumatic appara- 
tuses ; the more ponderous productions of 
the casting-furnace and rolhng-mill ; and, 
indeed, every hardware commodity that 
can be considered as curious, useful or 
ornamental. The manufactories are es- 
tablished upon the largest scale, and with 
the most astonishing ingenuity. A coin- 
ing-mill was erected in 1788, which is 
now capable of striking between 30 
and 40,000 pieces of money in an hour. 
Before the close of the last war. no less 
than 14,500 stands of arms were aelivered 
))er week to the ordnance ofl!ice. At tiie 
]Nn-works, it is said, 13,000 pins can be 
cut and pointed, and 50,000 pin-beads 
can be made from the wire, in an hour. — > 
B. is about two miles in length. The 
lower part of tlie town consists chiefly of 
old buildings, is crowded with workshops 
and warehouses, and is inhabited princi- 
pally by manufacturers; but the upper 
part has a superior appearance, consisting 
of new and regular streets, and containing 
a number of elesont buildings. It con- 
tains three churches and five chapels of 
^«se, and mttoy places of worship belong^f 



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BIRMINGHAM— BISCAY. 



ing to Diflsenters. St Martin's church 
has a fine lofty spire, with a peal of 12 
bells, and a set of chimes. B. is disdn* 
ffuished fbr its chariiable institutions, and 
has various schools, and several libraries, 
one of which contains 10,000 volumes. 
The town has the benefit of several canals, 
which enable it to carry on an easy inter- 
course with foreign countries. It has three 
weekly markets, and two annual fairs. 
The soil about the town is diy, and the 
clirnate is considered remarkably healthy. 
The average mortaUty of B., for six years, 
ending 1801, was only 1 to 59 ; of Man- 
chester, 1 to 37; and of London, 1 to 31. 
BiRON, Charles de Gontaut, duke of; 
son of marshal Armand de Gontaut, baron 
Biron, bom about 1562. Educated as a 
Csdvinist, he had twice changed his reli- 
gion before he reached the 16th year of 
his age. In his 14th year, B. was made 
colonel of tlie Swiss regiment, and served 
Henrv IV with much zeal and courage. 
By the king's &vor, he was, in 1592, 
raised to the rank of admiral of France. 
Though distinguished at court as well as 
in the field, always feared and praised, 
he was violent, obstinate and presumptu- 
ous. At the retaking of Amiens, in 1598, 
B. served under Henry IV, and, in the 
same year, was made a peer and duke. 
He tliought himself, however, not suffi- 
ciently rewarded. The Spanish par^, 
wliich, after the peace of Vervijis, could 
injure Heniy onW by secret intrigues, 
took advantage of the duke's discontent 
Henry appointed him his ambassador at 
the court of Brussels, to receive the oath 
of the archduke to the peace of Vervins. 
The Spanish court seized this oppor- 
tunity to dazzle him with festivals, spec- 
tacles and honors; the female arts of 
seduction were put in practice, and the 
weak B. promised to join the Catholics, 
whenever they should rise again. In 
1599, he concluded an agreement with 
the duke of Savoy and the count of Fuen- 
tes, by which he pledged himself to take 
up arms against his Mnefactor. Mean- 
while, war beinff declared against the 
duke of Savoy (1600), B. saw himself 
reduced to the necessity of attacking him. 
For fear that his understanding vrith the 
duke should become visible, he possessed 
himself of almost all the towns in the 
duchy, which was the easier because 
Emanuel had expected some forbearance 
on his part Fuentes and the duke ven- 
tured to propose to B., that he should 
deliver the pecsoii-pf the king into their 
hands ; but he retiified. Their suggestions, 
however, were not without effect upon 



him, and, while engaged in die lifige of 
the fort St Catherine, in the vicinity of 
Genoa, having reason to believe that the 
king would come to inspect the trenches, 
he sent word to the governor to dispose 
harquebussiers so as to fire on him at a 
certain signal. At the decisive moment, 
however, he prevented the king from 
gomg to the fatal spot In 1601, peace 
was made vrith Savoy. So many nego- 
tiations had not, however, escaped the eye 
of the kin^, nor could he remain ignorant 
of their object He therefore interrogated 
the marshal as to his designs, with prom- 
ises of pardon. B. made a partial confbs- 
non, and continued his intrigues as before. 
Notwithstanding this, Heniy tn&at him, in 
the same year, to queen Elizabeth of 
Enffland, to inform her of his marriage 
with Maria of Medici. In the mean time, 
B.'s confidant Lafin, having become sus- 
pected by the count of Fueiites, and begin- 
ning to fear for himself^ discovered the 
whole plot A frank confesnon and 
repentance would have saved B., since 
Henry was inchned to forgive him. He, 
however, persevered in his denial, rejected 
the ofifers of pardon, and was, therefore, 
at the urgent entreaties of the aueen, at 
last surrendered to the rigor of tne laws. 
Upon leaving the king's room, he was 
arrested, earned to the Bastile, tried be- 
fore the parliament, and beheaded, July 
31,1602. 

Bi&TH. (See Labor.] 

Biscay ; a province in Spain, bounded 
N. by the bay of Biscay, E. by France and 
Navarre, S. by Bur^^ includin||^ the 
three following subdivisions or provmces: 

Sq.M. Pop. Capitals. 
B. Proper, . 1375 112,731 Bilboa. 
Guipuscoa, . 653 104,479 St Sebastian. 
Alava, .... 1138 71,396 Vittoria. 
3166 288,606 

B. is a mountainous country, containing 
much wood, and has mines of lead and 
iron. It abounds in apples, pears, lemons, 
oranges, figs, nuts ana currants, but pro- 
duces little wine. The air is miki and 
more temperate than the rest of Spain. 
The country is well cultivated, and the 
houses clean and convenient The in- 
habitants call themselves Euicaldunac, 
boast of their descent fit>m the ancient 
Cantabri, and preserve strong traces of 
the character or that high-siHrited and in- 
dependent people. They are robust, biiive, 
active, industrious; at the same time, 
haughty and irritable; have open, ani- 
mated countenances, and handsome per- 
sons. Their language ii suppoeed to be 



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115 



a dialect of the Celtie, and nmriy allied 
to the Armorican, (See JB^if9iief.)---B. 
forms a kind of aeparate state, distinct 
firom the rest of Spain, governed accord- 
ing to its ancient laws and usages. The 
king of Spain, who is simply styled IM 
ilfBiKay^ has no right to impose taxes; 
ind no custom-houses were allowed, till 
lately, within the povince. 

Biicm Proper is bounded N. by the 
hjay of Biscay, £. by Guipuscoa, d. by 
Alava, and W. by Santander. The coast 
is inhabited by seafaring people and fish- 
ermen; in ths interior, great quantities 
of iron are extracted from the ore, and 
wrought into different articles. The rich- 
est nunes are in the vicinity of Bilboa and 
Somorresto. 

Bisaa/f bay of; that part of the Atlantic 
which ues N. of the province of Biscay, 
between the prmeotin^ coasts of France 
and Spain, extending m>m Ushant to cape 
Finisterre. 

Biscay^ bay of; a large bay on the south 
coast of Newfoundland, between cape 
Race and cape Pine; Ion. 53° 6^ W.; laL 

Bisa^f «A/h0, or Dunmgo ; a province 
in Mexico, bounded N. by New Mexico, 
E. by New Leon, S. by Zacatecas, and 
W. bv Culiacan ; 600 miles long, and 400 
broad ; pop. 159,000. The country is, in 
general, mountainous, and watered bv a 
great number of rivers and brooks: it has 
' some mines of silver and lead. Durango 
is the capiudi 

BiscHOFSWERDBR, John Rudolph von, 
a Prussian general and minister, Dom in 
Saxony, in 1756, entered the university of 
Halle, was admitted into the Prussian 
service in 1760, and appointed major in 
1779. Under Frederic William II, he 
exercised an unlimited influence at the 
court of Berlin. The attachment which 
he had shown Frederic William, while 
yet crown-prince, procured him the lasting 
affection of this snort-sighted and prodi- 
gal monareh. As plenipotentiary, he took 
a great part in the congress at Sistova. 
He afterwards effected the interview with 
lord Elgin, at Pihiitz. After the king's 
death, he was dismissed, and died at his 
countiy-8eat,in the neighborhood of Ber- 
lin, 1803. His views, as a statesman and 
a man, were very limited. His propensity 
to mysticism had consequences in the 
highest degree injurious. R bebnged to 
tlie society of the llluminati. 

Bishop, in the New Testament, is the 
instructer and spiritual superior of a Chris- 
tian congregation. The bishops who were 
installed by the apostles themselves, or, 



aeoording to the apoBtolic idea of th^ 
office, chosen by the oongregations, weva 
the assistants and successors of the apos- 
tles in their labors lor the propagation of 
Christianity. They had tiie supervision 
of the whole congregation, and its offieen, 
the presbsrters and deacons, but without 
claiming, in the first century, anv preem- 
inence or rights of diocesans, which they 
afterwards acquired, as the chuich^v- 
emmentWBS gradually established. \^eB 
the cnrstem of ecclesiaatical rule was ma- 
tured, the almost absolute authority which 
they exercised over the clergy of their 
dioceses ; their interierence in the secular 
concerns of governments, to which they 
soon rendered themselves necessary, by 
their superior information and their ele- 
vated rank; the administration of the 
chureh-revenues ; the maintenance of their 
ecclesiastical prerogatives, and their ex- 
tensive ecclesiastical as well as criminal 
i'urisdiction, occupied them too much to 
eave them any time or inclination ibrthe 
clischarge of their duties as teachers and 
spiritual fathers. They therefore reserv^^ 
ed to themselves onljr the most important 
functions of their spiritual office, as the 
ordination of the clergy, the confhmatioa 
of youth, and the preparation of the holy 
oil In the middle ages, they attached to 
themselves particular vicars, called miffiu" 
gansy bishops inparttbua, or coadjutors, 
ft>r the performance even of these ftmc- 
tions, which they had reserved to them- 
selves, and for the inspection of all that 
concerned the chureh. Bishops who have 
preached themselves, and attended to the 
spiritual welfare of their concregations^ 
have been rare once the seventh century. 
The episcopal office beuif^ such as we 
have described it, the nobility, and even 
the sons of princes and kmgs, strove to 
obtain a dignity which was as honorable 
as it was profitable ; and which, moreovw, 
pennitted festivals and sensual enjoynients 
of every description. These apjuications, 
which were aioed by rich donations made 
to the churches, and, in the case of , the 
German bishops, by the influence of 
the emperor, gave to the bishops of 
Germany, jparticulariy, a high degree of 
dimity. The German bisbops became 
pnnces of the empire, and their influence 
upon all public amrs was important The 
reformation, however, lessened their num- 
ber, and akhouffh, in some of the Protest- 
ant countries of the north of Europe, the 
higher clersy have retained the utle of 
bishop, yet tiiey have lost the greater part 
of their former revenues and privileges. 
The Swedish bishops constitute one of 



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116 



BISHOP— BISBfUTH. 



the estates of the kingdom, Vke the Eng- 
Ksb, but have little influence. The Eng- 
liah church has left to its bishops more 
authority than the rest, and, for mis rea- 
son, has received the name of the ^co- 
paL In Protestant Germany, bishoprics 
were abolished by the refoimation, but 
they have been restored, in Prussia, with- 
in the last 10 years. The church of 
Rome early lost manv bishoprics by the 
conquests of the Mobammeaans; hence 
the great number of titular bishops, whose 
bishoprics lie in partibus xnfidditan, that 
IS, in countries in possession of the infi- 
dels. The Roman see, however, honors 
with this title only ecclesiastics of a high 
Tank. In consequence of the cession of 
several German countries to France, 23 
bishoprics were abolished ; but, by partic- 
ular agreements witli the Roman court, 
they have been reestablished in several 
Gennan states. (See Coneordai, and Crtr- 
man Ckureh.\ The former subjects of the 
German bisnops remember their mild 
government with gratitude, and the prov- 
erb ** It is good to dwell under the cro- 
sier^ proves that the episcopid power was 
not prejudicial to the prosperity and hap- 
piness of those subject to it (See CUrgif, 
and Church of England.) 
Bishop's Hood. (See JifUre») 
Bishop's Staff. (See Crosier.) 
Bi SHARK, Frederic William, count ; 
seneml of cavalry in the service of the 
king of Wtoemberg, and, since July 
18SS, his ambassador in Dresden, Berlin, 
Hanover; bom at Windheiin, in West- 
phalia, in 1783. He is distinguished as a 
writer on cavaliy, and also as a practical 
officer. He was esteemed by Napoleon. 
The reigning king of WCirtemberg, on his 
accession to the throne, purposing an en- 
tirely new organization of his army, com- 
mitted to count B. that of tlie cavalry. 
Here he established a new system. It 
must be confessed that tlie Wiirtemberg 
cavalry acquired, from his rules, much 
facility in manoeuvring. The objections 
which have been made against his system 
are refuted by the practical demonstration 
which B. has given of its utility in his 
regiment His views on cavalry are ex- 
plained at large in his Vbrlesungen iiber 
die Taktik der ReUerei (Lectures on Cav- 
alry Tactics), 1818, which is considered a 
standard work, and has been translated 
into French. Of his Fdddienstingtruction 
/&r SchiUzentmd Reiler (Itistruction in the 
Field-service of Riflemen and Cavahy), 
four editions have been pubhshed within 
the space of two years. He has published, 
also, several other military works. 



Bismuth is a metal caUed, by vtu/tBf 
tin glass, a name obviously derived from 
the French Hain de ghee. It is found 
both pure and mineralized by sulphur, 
oxygen and arsenic. — ^Native bismtitn oe- 
curs in tlie veins of primitive mountains, 
and is accompanied W ores of lead, sil- 
ver, and sometimes of"^ cobalt and nickeL 
It exists in reticulated, lamellar, or amor- 
phous masses; is soft, and of a white 
color, occasionally tinged with red. Spe- 
cific gravity, 9. It is found in many 
countries,— in France, England, Sweden, 
Bohemia and the U. States, — but its chief 
locaUty is at Schneeberg, in Saxony, from 
whence the supply of bismuth, in com- 
merce, is principally derived. To procure 
the metal, the ore requires merely to be 
reduced to convenient fragments, and 
heated in furnaces, when the bismuth 
separates from the earthy matter in which 
it IS engaged, and flows out into cast-iron 
moulds prepared for its reception.^^Bis- 
muth, when pure, has a radish-white 
color, is harder than lead, and is easily 
broken under the hammer, by which it 
may even be reduced to powder. It 
melts at 470° or 480°, and ciystallizes, on 
cooling, with ffreat regularity, in the form 
of cutes. When kept in a state of fusion, 
nt a moderate heat, it is covered with an 
oxyde of a greenish-gray or brown color ; 
at a higher temperature, it enters into a 
feeble combustion, forming a yellow 
powder, called Jlowers of bismtdh. — It 
combines, by fusion, with a great num- 
ber of metals, communicating to them 
brittleness and fusibility. The mixture 
discovered by Newton, and produced by 
melting together 8 oz. bismuth, 5 oz. lead 
and 3 oz. tin, fuses at 203°. From it are 
made toy s|K)ons, which melt on beine 
employed to stir veiy hot tea. A still 
more fusible compound was invented by 
Mr. Dalton, composed of 3 parts tin, 5 
lead and lOi bismuth, which melts at 
197°. The addition of a little mercury 
renders it even more fusible, and fits it to 
be used as a coating to the inside of glass 
globes. An alloy of equal parts of tin 
and bismuth melts at 280° ; a less pro- 
portion of bismuth adds to the hardness 
of tin, and hence its use in the formation 
of pewter. Equal parts of tin, bismuth 
and mercury form tne mosaic gold^ used 
for various ornamental purposes. 1 part 
of bismuth, with 5 of lead and 3 of tin, 
forms plumbers^ solder, a compound of 
great importance in the arts. Bismuth is 
also usea by letter-founders in their best 
type-metal, to obtain a sharp and clear 
face for their letters. Bismuth combines 



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117 



witb sulphur, and fonns a bluisb-flnray 
Buli^uret, having a metallic lustre. The 
flame compound is found native in small 
quantity, and is caUed, in mineralo^, 
KmuflTi jflc^ance. — ^Nitric acid dissolves bis- 
muth with great readiness. The solution 
Is decomposed on the addition of water, 
and a white substance, called magegtens 
of hismuihj is precipitated, which consists 
of a hydrated oxyde, united to a small 
proportion of nitric acid. This precipita- 
tion, by the addition of water, being a 
peculiarit^r of bismuth, serves as an excel- 
lent criterion of this metal. The mages- 
tens of bismuth, fiom its whiteness, is 
sometimes employed to improve the com- 
plexion, as well as the pearl powder^ a 
similar preparation, differing only by the 
mixture of a little muriatic acid with the 
nitric acid in effecting the solution of the 
bismuth. The libertu use of either, how- 
ever, is highly prejudicial to the skin. 
They are, besides, liable to be turned 
black by the vapors evolved ftom nearly 
all putrefying substances. — ^The chloride 
of bismuth, formerly termed buUer of his- 
mtdkj is formed by pouring bismuth, in 
fine powder, into chlorine faSj or by de- 
priving the muriate of bismuth of its 
water of crystallization by heat 

Bison (}>o8 AmerieanuSf GmeL) ; a spe- 
cies of ox found only in North Amenca, 
peculiarly distinguished by a great hump 
or projection over its fore shoulders, and 
by the length and fineness of its woolly 
hair. The hump is oblong, diminishing 
in height posterioriy, and gives a consid- 
erable obliquity to the outline of the back. 
The hair over the head, neck and fore 
part of the body is lonff and shaggy, form- 
ing a beard beneath me lower jaw, and 
descending below the knee (wrist) in a 
tufl. The hair on the summit of the 
head rises in a dense mass nearly to the 
tips of the horns, and, directly on the 
fit>nt, is curled and matted stronj^ly. — The 
numbers of this species still existing are 
surprisingly great, when we consider the 
immense destruction annually occurring 
since European weapons have been em- 
ployed against them* They were once 
extensively difiiised over what is now the 
territory of the U. States, except that part 
lying east of Hudson's river and lake 
Ohamplain, and nairow strips of coast on 
the Atlantic and Pacific. At the present 
day, their ranffe is very different. They 
are no longer found except m the remote, 
unsettled regions of the north and west, 
being rarely seen east of the Missisaippi 
or south of the St Lawrence. West of 
lake Winnipeg, they are found as &r 



north as G3P ; west of the Rocky mou»- 
tains, it is probable they do not extend 
north of the Columbia river. — ^The bison^ 
on his native plains, is of savage and for- 
midable appearance, uni|brmly insphring 
dread when beheld for the firot time. 
His ponderous head, rendered terrific bv 
its thick, shaggy hair and streaming beard, 
is supported upon a massive neck and 
shoulders, whose apparent strength is 
more imposing from die aunnentation 

Eroduced by the hump and thelong fell of 
air covering the antierior parts of th« 
body. Nevertlieless, the bison is not 
known to attack man, unless when 
wounded aiid at bay. The difference 
between tlie summer and winter dress of 
the bison consists rather in die length 
than in other oualities of the hair. In 
summer, from tne shoulders backwards, 
the sur&ce is covered with a very short, 
fine hair, smooth and sofl as velvet 
The taU is short, and tufled at the end* 
Except the long hair on the fore parts, 
which are, to a certain extent, of a rust 
color, .or vellowish tin|p», tlie color is a 
uniform dun. Varieties of color are so 
rare among this species, that the hunters 
and Indians always regard them as mat" 
ters of special wonder.— The bison bull is 
poor, and his flesh disagreeable in the 
months of August and September. They 
are much more easUy approached and 
killed than the cows, not bemg so vigilant, 
though the cows -are prefeEred both on 
account of theur finer skuis and mora 
tender flesh. The cow is much less than 
the bull, ^nd has not so much of the long 
hair on tlie shoulders, &c ; her horns are 
not so large, nor so much covered by. the 
hair. The sexual season begins towards 
the end of July, and lasts till near the be- 
^ning of September; after this time, 
uie cows separate from the bulls in dis- 
tinct herds. They calve in April ; the 
calves seldom leave the mother until a 
year old ; cows are sometimes seen with 
calves of three seasons following thern^ — 
Bison beef is rather coarser j^ramed than 
that of the domesdo ox, but is considered 
by huntera and travellers as superior is 
tenderness and flavor. The hump, whieli 
is highly celebrated for its richness and 
delicacy, is said, when properly cooked, 
to resemble marrow. The Indian method 
of prerariug this delicacy is the foUow^ 
ing :— The hump is cut off the shoulders, 
the bones removed, and a piece of skin is 
sewed over the denuded part The hair 
is then sinsed off, and the whole is now 
ready for the oven. This is a hole in the 
earth, in and over which a fire hi 



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118 



BISON— BITHYNIA. 



bturned, and into this heated receptacle 
the hump is conveyed, and covered, about 
a foot deep, with earth and ashes. A 
strong fire is again built over the spot, 
and, supposing these preparations to be 
begun on the evening of one day, the 
hump will be ready for eating by the next 
day at noon. The tongues and marrow 
bones are regarded, by the connoisseurs, 
as next in excellence. — Herds, consisting 
of thousands of these fine animals, stiU 
roam over the fer western prairies, led by 
the fiercest and most powerful of the 
bulls. During the sexual season, the 
noise of their roaring resembles thunder, 
and the males often fi^ht desperate battles 
■with each other. While feeding, they are 
often scattered over a vast sunace ; but, 
when they move forward in mass, they 
form a dense, impenetrable column, 
which, once fairly in motion, is scarcely 
to be turned. They swim large rivers 
nearly in the same order in which they 
traverse the plains; and, when flying firom 

Eursuit, it is in vain for those in fi^nt to 
alt suddenly, as the rearward *^^brong 
dash madly forward, and force their lead- 
ers on. The Indians sometimes profit by 
this habit : they lure a herd to the vicin- 
ity of a precipice, and, setting the whole 
in rapid motion, they terrify them, by 
shouting and other artifices, to rush on to 
then- inevitable destruction. Numerous 
tribes of Indians are almost wholly de- 
pendent on these animals for food, cloth- 
mg, tents, utensils, &c. Vast multitudes 
of bisons are slaughtered annually ; but it 
is to be deeply regretted, that the white 
hunters and traders are in the habit of 
destroying these valuable beasts in the 
most wanton and unnecessary manner. 
It is common for such persons to shoot 
bisons, even when they have abundance 
of food, for the sake of the tongue or 
hump alone, or even because the animals 
come so near as to present a fair aim. It 
is, therefore, not to be wondered, that, 
fit>m all causes of diminution, the bison 
should become less numerous every year, 
and remove farther and farther from the 
haunts of men. The preference always 
given to the cows, which are too often 
shot while gravid, operates powerfully in 
thinning the herds. — ^The skms of bisons, 
especially that of the cow, dressed in the 
Indian mshion, with the hair on, make 
admirable defences against the cold, and 
may be used for blankets, &c. They are 
called buffalo robes ; the term buffalo being 
generally, but inaccurately, applied to the 
bison. The wool of the bison has been 
manufactured into hats, and has also been 



employed in making coarse cloth. The 
time cannot be veiy fer distant, when this 
species, like the Indian tribes which hover 
near them, will have passed away, and 
the places which know them now shall 
know them no more. 

BissAoo, or BissAux, or Bissao; an 
island in the Atlantic ocean, near the 
western coast of Africa, and tlie principal 
of the cluster called Bissagos, 100 miles 
in circumference ; Ion. 14° IQf W. ; lat. 
11° 24' N. The ground rises impercepti- 
bly to the middle of the island. The soil 
is cultivated and fertile, abounding with 
several sorts of trees, particularly fine 
large orange and mangit)ves near the 
shore. The inhabitants are Portuguese 
and Ne^Oes intermLxed. The island is 
divided into 9 provinces, 8 of which are 
governed by ofiicers appointed by the 
sovereign, each bearing the title of'^king. 
— ^There is another cluster of islands of 
the same name, Ion. 15° W., lat. 11° 30* 
N., 255 miles south of cape Verd. 

BissET, Robert ; a native of Scotland, 
educated at Edinburgh, for the clerical 
profession. He took the degree of LL. D., 
and became a schoolmaster at Chelsea; 
but, not succeeding in that occupation, he 
employed himself in writing for the press. 
His chief productions are, a History of 
the Reign of George IH, 6 vols. ovo. ; 
the Life of Edmund Burke, 2 vols. 8vo. ; 
and an edition of the Spectator, with 
lives of the authors, 6 vols. He died in 
1805, aged 46. 

BiTAUBE, Paul Jeremiah ; born in K6- 
nigsberg, in Prussia, 1732, of French i>a- 
rents. He translated Homer into French. 
In consequence of this translation, and 
tlie recommendation of d'Alembert, he 
was elected a member of tlie academy at 
Berlin. Frederic II, king of Prussia, fa- 
vored him much, and allowed him to stay 
a long time in France, to finish several 
translations from the German into French. 
Among bis translations is one of Gothe's 
Hermann and Dorothea. Napoleon con- 
ferred marks of favor on him. He died 
in 1808. His works appeared in 9 vols., 
Paris, 1804. 

Bithyivia; a country in Asia Minor, 
lying on the Pontus Euxinus, the Tbra- 
cian Bosphorus and the Propontis, and 
bounded on the south by Phry^ia. In 
early times, it was called Bebiycuij from 
the Bebrycians, who inhabited it. Before 
the time of Crcesus, B. was an independ- 
ent state, under its own princes. After 
the death of Prusias I, in Uie war against 
CrcBsus, it fell into the power of the Lyd<> 
ians, B. C. 560 ; mto that of the Persians, 



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B. C. 555 ; and into that of Alexander, B. 

C. 334. The restorer of the Bithynian 
throne was Bias or Bas, a native prince, 
at the court of one of whose successors, 
Prusias II, Hannibal took refuge, and 
where he ended his life by poison, 183 B. 
C. Nicomedes, the last kmg of this race, 
bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, 
75 B. C. The famous cities of Nicorae- 
dia, Nic«ea and Heraclea were in B. In 
the 11th century, B. was conquered by 
the Seljuks. In 1298, a new kir^dom 
was founded there by the Ottoman Turks, 
of which, m 1307, Prusa was the capital. 

BiTscH ; a city in the department of 
the Moselle, with 2500 inhabitants, and a 
citadel on a hill ; by its situation and the 
art of Carmontaigne, one of the strongest 
places in France. 

Bittern. A name commonly applied 
to several species of heron ; ardea, L. ( See 
Heroru) 

Bitumen; the name of a species in 
mineralogy, the individuals composing 
which have acquired several distinct 
names, from their diversity in appearance. 
This depends chiefly upon their state of 
aggregation, which forms an uninterrupt- 
ed series from the perfectly fluid to the 
solid condition. — Miphtha, the most fluid 
variety, is nearly colorlee, or of a yellow- 
ish tinge, transparent, and emits a peculiar 
odor. It swims on water, its specific 
gravity bein^ firom 0.71 to 0.84. It bums 
with a bluish-white flame and thick 
smoke, and leaves no residue. It con- 
sists of carbon, 82.20, and hydrogen, 14.80 ; 
and, being the only fluid destitute of oxy- 
gen, it is used to preserve those new 
metals in, which were discovered by sir 
H. Davy. It is found in Persia, in the 
peninsula of Apcheron, upon the western 
shore of the Caspian sea, where it rises 
through a marly soil in tlie form of vauor, 
and, being made to flow through earthen 
tubes, is inflamed for the purpose of as- 
sisting in the preparation of food. It is 
collected by sinking pits several yards in 
depth, into which 5ie naphtha flows. It 
is burned in lamps, by the Persians, m- 
stead of oil. Near die village of Amiano, 
in the state of Parma, there exists a spring 
which yields this substance in sufficient 
quantity to illuminate the city of Genoa, 
for which purpose it is employed. With 
certain vegetable oils, naphtha is said to 
form a good varnish. — ^The variety petro- 
leum is much thicker than naphtha, re- 
sembling, in consistence, common tar. It 
has a strong, disagreeable odor, and a* 
blackish or r&ddish-brown color. During 
combustion, it emits a thick, black smoke, 



and leaves a little residue in the fbrm of 
a black coaL It is more abundant than 
the first mentioned variety, from which it 
does not appear to difier, except in being 
more inspissated. It occurs, oozing out 
of rocks, in the vicinity of beds of coal, or 
floating upon the sur&ce of springs. In 
the Birman empire, near Rainanghong, is 
a hill containuig coal, into which 520 pits 
have been sunk for the collection of pe- 
troleum ; and the annual product of this 
mine is 400,000 hogsheads. It is used, 
by the inhabitants of that country, as a 
lamp-oil, and, when mingled with earth 
or ashes, as fuel. In the U. States, it is 
found abundandy in Kentucky, Ohio and 
New York, where it is known under the 
name of Seneca or Genesee oil. It is used 
as a substitute fi)r tar, and as an external 
application for the remedy qf rheumatism 
and chilblains. — MaUha is a bitumen, still 
less fluid than petroleum, firom which it 
differs in no other respect Its principal 
locality is at Puy de la P^ge, in France, 
where it renders the soil so viscous, that 
it adheres strongly to the foot of the trav- 
eller. It is also found in Persia and in 
the Hartz. It is employed, like tar and 
pitch, on cables and in calking vessels : it 
IS Used, as well as the petroleum, to pro- 
tect iron fit>ni rusting, and sometimes 
forms an ingredient in black sealing-wax. 
— ELadic bSumen yields easily to pressure, 
is flexible and elastic. It emits a strong, 
bituminous odor, and is about the weight 
of water. On exposure to the air, it be- 
comes hard, and loses its elasticity. It 
takes up the traces of crayons in the same 
manner as tlie caoutchouc, or Indian rub- 
ber, whence it has obtained the name of 
the nUneral cttoutchmic. It has hitherto 
been found only in the lead mines of 
Derbyshire. — Compact bitumeTi^ or asphat- 
turn, IS of a shining black color, solid and 
brittle, with a conchoidal fracture. Its 
specific gravity is fit)m 1 to 1.6. Like 
tne former varieties, it bums finely, and 
leaves but little residue. It is found in 
Judea, in the Palatinate, in France, in 
Switzerland, and in large deposits in 
sandstone in Albania; but no where so 
largely as in the island of Trinidad, where 
it forms a lake three miles in circumfer- 
ence, and of a thickness unknown. A 
gentie heat renders it ductile, and, when 
mixed with grease or common pitch, it is 
used for paying the bottoms of ships, and 
is supposed to protect them firom the te- 
redo of the West Indian seas. The an- 
cients employed bitumen in the construc- 
tion of their buildinffs. The bricks of 
which the walls of Babylon were built 



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were, according to lustorians, cemented 
with hot bitamen, which imparted to 
them great solidity. 

BivQUACK (from the German hitoaekt) ; 
the name given to the modem eystem, by 
which the soldiers in service lie in the 
open air, without tents, in opposition to 
tlie old system of cam^ and cantonments. 
They remain dressed, m order to be ready, 
at a moment's warning, to take their places 
in order of battle. Tents beinff laid aside, 
on the continent of Europe, ror the sake 
of diminishing the baggage of an army, 
large masses ^troops are always obliged 
to bivouack, even if they are not near the 
enemy. The soldier, however, is per- 
mitted to build himself a hut of straw or 
branches, if circumstances allow it. Fre- 

3uent bivouacking is very injurious to 
le health, and is also a great disadvan- 
tage to the countries in which it takes 
place. 

Blacas, count ; bom at Aulpe, in Pl^ov- 
ence (1770) ; serveld in La Vendue ; accom- 
panied Louis XVIII to Russia, and after- 
wards to England. On the restoration 
of the Bourti^ns, he was made minister 
of the king's household. After the second 
restoration, he was sent to Naples to ne- 

S^tiate the marriage Of the duke de Benri. 
e was afterwaros ambassador to Rome, 
where he concluded the l^ous <y)ncor- 
dat of 1815, so unpopular in France, that 
the government did not venture to pro- 
pose it to the chambers. On the fall of 
the ultras and the elevation of Decazes, 
he retired to Rome, and is said to have 
been secretly employed at the congress 
of Laybach. He has since been ambas- 
sador to Naples, where, as well as at 
Rome, he has declared himself the pro- 
tector of the ultramontanists. B. is a thor- 
ough ultra-royalist 

Black, Joseph, a distinguished chem- 
ist, bom at Boideaux, of Scottish parents, 
in 1728, studied medicine at Glasgow. 
Doctor CuUen, his instmcter, inspired him 
with a taste for chemical studies. In 
1754, he was made doctor of medicine, at 
Edinburgh, and delivered an inaugural 
dissertation, De Humore acido a CUns orto 
€t Magnesia oUmIj which exhibits the out- 
line of his discoveries relative to caibonic 
acid and the alkalies. In 1756, he pub- 
lished his Experiments on White Mag- 
nesia, Quicklime, and several other Alka- 
line Substances, in the 2d volume of the 
Essays, Physical and Literary, of the Ed- 
inburgh Society. He demonstrates the 
existence of an aerial fluid in these sub- 
gtances, which he calls Jixed air, the 
presence of which dunlmshes the corro- 



sive power of the alkalies and the calca- 
rious earths. This discoveir may be con- 
sidered as the basis of all those which 
have immortalized the names of Caven- 
dish, Priestley, Lavoisier, &c., and given 
a new fonn to chemistry. In 1757, B. 
enriched this science with his doctrine of 
latent heat, which has led to such im- 
portant results. In 1756, he was ap- 
pointed professor of medicine and lecturer 
on chemistry in the university at Glasgow, 
in the place of doctor CuUen, and, in 
1765, when CuUen left the professor's 
chair in Edinburgh, he was there, also, 
succeeded by B. No teacher inspired his 
disciples with such a zeal for study ; his 
lectures, therefore, contributed much to 
make the taste for chemical science gen- 
eral in England. He died in 1799, at the 
age of 71. Upon Lavoisier's proposal, 
the academy of sciences, in Paris, had 
appointed him one of its eight foreign 
members. His habits were simple, &s 
character cold and reserved. Though of 
eminent ability as a chemist, he injured 
himself by his long opposition to the re- 
ception of the new chemical theory. At 
length, however, he was convinced of its 
superior accuracy, and did justice to its 
merits. There is a paper of his in the 
Philosophical Transactions of 1774, and 
another in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, m 1791. Two of 
his letters on chemical subjects were 
published by Crell and Lavoisier, and his 
Lectures on Chemistry, in 1803, in 2 vols, 
by Robison. 

Black Art. (See Magic,) 

Blackbird ; a trivial name, applied to 
birds of different species^ and distinct gen- 
era, but properly belonging to a species 
of the genus quiscaluSf as restricted by 

I)rince C. L. Bonaparte, di Musignano, the 
atest and most accurate writer on orai- 
tholo^cal nomenclature. The trae black- 
birds are either of a rich, glossy black, 
showing metallic reflections, purple, or 
femiginous; being alto^ther free from 
macmation. The Kinds improperly caUed 
blackbird, such as the teamng, couibirdy 
&C., have bright colors, and are species 
of icterus or trwqnal. — All the nlack- 
birds are gregarious and migratory, diflus- 
ing themselves in vast flocKs from south 
to north; returning thence as the cold 
season approaches. They build their 
nests in trees, socially, and lay about Are 
efgB, The young are unlike the adult 
biras. — ^Three species of blackbird are 
known m the Umted States ; ^unong these, 
the great croW'blackbM (<l, tiuyor, VieL), 
is the largest, and, as its name implies^ 



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121 



ttroDgly resemblesy in all respects, the 
mischievous plunderer of our cornfields. 
Tbe male is 16 inches long, having a most 
clossy black plumage; the tail is cunei- 
form, and, when the wings are folded, they 
extend nearly &ve inches beyond it The 
female is of a light brown color, whitish 
beneathy and twelve and a half inches 
long. This species is found in the South- 
em States, pnncipaHy alonff the sea-coast: 
it also inhabits Mexico, and is said to be 
common in the West Indies. — ^The rusty 
grakU, or Uacfthirdy is nine inches long. 
Its migrations extend from the south, 
where it winters, to as &r north as within 
tlie arctic circle, where it breeds. Accord- 
ing to Pennant, they arrive in the vicinity 
or Hudson's bav about the beginning of 
June, when the ground is sufficiently 
thawed to allow them access to the grubs 
and worms, upon which they chiefly feed. 
They sing finely until they have ceased 
laying, an4 when the young are fledged, 
they again resume their song. Their 
nests are formed of moss and grass, and 
placed in trees about eight feet from the 
ground. They pass through the Middle 
States, on their northern tour, early in 
April : in September, they collect in vast 
flocks, to seek their winter-quarters in the 
south. — The niarpU grakle, lesser or comr 
ffum crow-Uackbird, ( Q. versicolor, VieL), is 
the most notorious of these sable plunder- 
ers. On their first arrival in the Middle 
States from the soutli, which is in the 
latter part of March, they come in scatter- 
ed flocks, and are most frequent in 
swamps, meadows, and recently plough- 
ed ^und. At this season, they consume 
an mimense number of destructive in- 
sects, and, if they continued to fe^d on 
such food, they would be among the 
fiirmer's chief benefactors. Towards the 
beginning or middle of April, they begin 
to build upon ,the tall pines or cedars 
nearest to tne fields whence they obtain 
their food. As many as 10 or 15 nesj^ 
have been found on the same tree. T^ 
nests are about &ve inches in dianaeter, 
composed, externally, of long stales and 
knotty grass-roots, and are lin<)d with 
horse-hair, &c. The eggs are <»f a bluish- 
olive hue, with large spots, «ad irregular 
streaks of dark brown. TJ* period when 
the green blade of they<^ng Indian com 
begins to sprout above the surface of the 
ground is that in which the common 
crow-blackbird commences its ravages. 
Vast flocks, chattering and screaming, as 
if anticipating the pleasures of the feast, 
descend upon the soil^ and pluck the 
swelling grain firom its recess. In a few 
VOL. ij. 11 



hours, the careflil bnsbandnian beholds 
his &ir prospect of an ample harvest al- 
most destsoyed, and that, too, with but 
little chance of his being able to rem^y 
the evik It is tme that the guns are 
commonly put in requisition, and a few 
volleys, fired among these insolent thieves, 
destroy a small part of their nunobers. 
But tliey only change their place to other 
parts of the field, and return ere long to 
renew the assault with increased activity. 
It is not until the month of November 
that they begin to collect their forces, 
now renovated and au^ented by their 
young, to seek the gemal cUmate of the 
south for the winter. When we consider 
that a very ample quantity of com is pro- 
duced, notwithstanding the depredations 
of these and other birds, and recollect the 
vast number of insects they consume be- 
fore their attacks unon the com begin, 
we shall be inclined to agree with our 
great ornithologist, Wilson, that the ser- 
vice they render the cultivator by devour- 
ing the insects is quite an adequate com- 
pensation for the tax they levy upon the 
grain. If we extend our observation a 
little further, and remark that these birds 
destroy the insects before they have at- 
tained their perfect or breeding state, and 
that a single fly or bug is capable of lay- 
ing thousands of eggs, the magnitude of 
the benefit they confer upon mankind 
may be more accurately appreciated. 
Nevertheless, it is perfectly right, that, 
during their rava^ upon the grain-field, 
they sriould be duvf^ oflT and destroyed. 
The extermination of the species is as 
impossible as tlie wish to effect it would 
be ridiculous- If such an event could be 
brought al^^ut, we should speedily be 
convmc^f that the supreme Author of 
nature ^ftd devised all things in wisdom, 
by ^discovering, that, without the aid of 
tbc:se seemingly useless creatures, the 
/arth would lie deepoiled of its vegeta- 
' tion, and the habitations of man become 
loathsome from the multiplication' of vo- 
racious and disgusting worms. 

Blackfish ; a species of lahruSf caught 
on various parts or the American coast, 

Xcially in the vicinity of Long Island, 
nee large supplies are obtain^ for the 
New York market For the following par- 
ticulars concerning this, valuable article of 
food, we are indebted to doctor Mitchell's 
excellent ptaper on the fishes of New York, 
published in the Transactions of the Lit- 
erary and Philosophical Society. The 
spedfic name given by the learned de- 
scriber i» L, toutog, in which he has pre- 
served the designation used by the Mmi^ 



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BLACKFISH—BLACK FOREST. 



gan Indiaiis for this fish. The common 
name, UaM^ is bestowed on account of 
the color of its back and sides, which are 
of a bluish or crow-black ; the lips, lower 
jaw, neck and belly, especially in the 
males, are white. The mouth is rather 
small, the lips skinny or fleshy, and tlie 
teeth are about twelve in number in each 
jaw, the two front teeth being largest, and 
the rest of the respective rows gradually 
decreasing in size. Within the external 
ranges are the points of smaller teeth, in- 
serted with rather less regufauity: they 
are sharp, distinct, and covered by the 
lips. The tongue is white, smooth, lying 
close, but dis^yverable by raisirig; tail 
entire, and somewliat convex, the middle 
rays being somewhat more prominent 
than the upper and lower ones ; gill cov- 
ers smooth, neither scaly, serrated nor 
rough; extremities of tlie pectoral fins 
whitish; eyes rather small The black- 
fish is plump in appearance, and is much 
esteemed for the taole. It varies in size, 
from 2 or 3 to 10 or 12 pounds. Rocks, 
reefi and rough bottoms of the sea, in the 
neighborhood of the coasts, are the situa- 
tions most frequented by tlie blackfish, 
which appear to be stationary inhabitants 
of the salt water,, as tliey do not, like the 
salmon, herring, &c., desert their haunts 
to visit the ^b-water rivera. These 
fish are caught in abundance, along the 
whole of Long Island sound, Fisher's 
Island sound, atid in Narragansett bay. 
They are also fouisd in the southern bavs 
of Long Island, and on the ocean banks 
off Sandy Hook. Th%y were formerly 
carried over land from Newport and 
Providence to Boston miirket, but are 
now caught in Massachusetts bay in suf- 
ficient numbers to render such importa- 
tion unnecessary. — In catching b'lickfish, 
the hand line is generally used, though 
the angle rod may often be advantageous, 
ly employed : diey seize the bait greedilj, 
at proper seasons, and pull strongly, in 
proportion to their size and weight. They 
are occasionally taken in seines. The 
bah commonly employed is the sofl clam 
(na/a\ the soldier-crab or fiddler {ocypo- 
lb), or the large finny worm of the salt- 
water beaches, called ntreU. As the 
warmth of spring comes on, the blackfish 
begin to acquive their appetite, which is 
suspended during the cold of winter, at 
which time a membrane is found to form 
over and close up the vent. They may 
be caught, as above stated, until the warm 
weather becomes well advanced, when 
sach an abundance of food is to be pro- 
cured as to render the bait of the fisner- 



man no k>nger a teinptation. The floir* 
erin^ of the common dog-wood (carmts 
Jltmda) is considered an indication of the 
beginning of the fishing season ; and 
where this tree is not to be seen, the 
vegetation of the chestnut-tree is regard^ 
ed as a similar indication. These fish 
are broueht to Philadelphia market in 
wagons, m>m Long Branch, &c., being 
packed in ice, and fix>zen as soon as 
caught 

Black Forest (in German, Schwarz- 
wdd) ; a chain of mountains in the grand- 
duchy of Baden and the kingdom of 
Wurtember^^. It runs almost parallel - 
with the Rhme, fix)m south to north, often 
onlyfiY)m 15 to 20 miles distant fivm this 
river ; is about 85 miles long, and, from 
east to west, in the southern part, about 
30 miles wide ; in the northern, about 18. 
The Danube rises in these mountains, as 
well as many other rivers. Those on the 
west side run into the Rhine, those on the 
east side into the Danube. The Black 
Forest is rather a chain of elevated plains, 
than of isolated peaks. The highest sum- 
mit, the Feldberg, measures 4610 German 
feet Except from June to September, 
these mountains are generally covered 
with snow, and even during this period, 
are not entirely free fit>m it. Among the 
many valleys of this chain, the Murgthal 
is particularlv celebrated for its beautiful 
scenery. T^e whole chain consists of 
primitive mountains : its skeleton, through- 
out, is granite ; its higher points are cov- 
ered wnh sand-stone, and other layers of 
less consequence, and are surrounded by 
heights composed of flpetz rocks. On 
the western side, at the foot, appears 
gneiss. Porphyry and clay-slate are 
found on several heights, as, likewise, sil- 
ver, lead, copper, iron, cobalt and miner- 
al waters. Tne woods are abundant, and 
consist mostly of pines and similar spe- 
cies. The raising of cattle is the princi- 
pal branch of husbandry carried on in this 
uEitrict The ground is not fertile, and 
the Vrihabitants, scattefed over the moun- 
tains, live extremely frugally, but are very 
industricus. Their manner oflivin^, build- 
ing their hvuseS) and cultivating their lands, 
is very pecinUar. Till the 17th century, 
there was no whit of trade or industry 
among them ; ha\ ihe wars of that period 
daveloped it, and tjie manufactures of 
glass, straw hats, wooden clocks, and oth- 
er wooden ware, are now very important 
They make, annually, more than 180,000 
wooden clocks, the value of which 
amounts to over half a million of guilders. 
Neufltadt aad Furtwangen axe the central 



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9LACK FOREST— BLACKLOCK. 



123 



pcuots of this singular commerce, which 
embraces all Europe, and extends even to 
America. Large numbers of these clocks 
aie sent to Spain and Portugal, from 
whence they go to South America. From 
the north of Germany, and from Havre, 
they are exported to the U. States. Of 
late, the clocks have been much improved, 
and the correctness of some ot them, 
made of different woods, in order to 
counteract the influence of the weather, is 
surprising. — ^Two passes of the Black 
Forest became particularly noted in the 
time of the French revolutJo;i — ^the Knie- 
bis and the HoUe passes. The fonner, at 
the foot of the Murg, was taken in 1796 
and 1797 ; the latter is famous for Mo- 
rcau's skilful retreat through it in 1796. 

Blackfriars' Bridoe ; one of the six 
fine bridges of London, over the Thames, 
built between 1760 and 1768, afler a de- 
slffu of Mr. Robert Mylne, at an expense 
of £152,840. There are 9 arches, the 
centre one being 100 feet wide. The 
whole length is ^5 feet Over each pier 
is a recess, supported by Ionic pUiars. 
The bridge is situated at about an equal 
distance from those of Southwai'k and 
Waterloo. It commands a venr fine 
view of St PauPs cathedral, as weU as of 
both sides of the river, including the tow* 
er, the monument, Somerset nouse, West- 
minster abbey, and about 30 churches. 
The constant bustle on this and the Lon- 
don bridge is enonnous, and beyond any 
thing of the kind to be met with in other 
cities. 
Black Lead. (See Plumbago,) 
Black Rock. (See Buffalo,) 
Black Sea ; with the ancients, known 
by the name of Pontus Euxinus (4' v.) j a 
sea which Is situated between Europe 
and Asia, bounded on the west by Roma- 
nia and Bulgaria, on the north by the 
Russian dominions, on the east by Min- 
grelia and Guriel, on the south by Nato- 
lia, being connected with the Mediter- 
ranean by the Bosphorus, and, by the 
Cimmerian Bosphorus, with tlie sea of 
Azoph {q. v.), which is, in fact, only a bay 
of tlie BladL sea. The area of the Black 
sea and the sea of Azoph amounts to 
about 297,000 square miles. The water 
is not so dear as that of the Mediterrane- 
an, and, on account of the many large 
rivers which fall into it, — ^the Danube, 
Dniester, Dnieper, Don and Cuban,— beuig 
less salt, Sneezes more I'eadily. The tem- 
pests on this sea ore tremendous, as the 
land, which confines its agitated waters, 
giyes to them a kind of whiriing. motion. 
In the winter, it is so boisterous^imrticiilar- 



ly near the coast firom the Danube to the 
Crimea, that it is scarcely navieable, even 
bv the most experienoed sauors. The 
chief current runs fipom the shallow seA 
of Azoph, from north to south, to the 
Thracian Bosphorus and the Hellespont 
The Black sea contains no islands ; there 
is one, however, in the Cimmerian Bos- 
phorus. The iisfaeries in the sea of 
Azoph and the Black sea are not unim- 
portant, various kinds of valuable fish, 
l>oth large and small, being taken ; among 
others, several species of stureeon. Seines 
are used, in which 60,000 fishes are some- 
times caught within six hours ; but there 
are never many lar^e ones among them. 
Caviare (q. v.) is also made on the eoast, 
as well as fish-glue, fish-oil, and, from the 
spawn of the sea mullet, botargo; the 
latter, however, only in small quantity. 
The salt and smoked mackerel fonn an 
important article of the commerce of the 
Crimea. Raoul-RocheUe has published, 
in Paris, 1822, a work on tlie remarkable 
Grecian antiquities on the northern shore 
of the Pontus, which has been corrected 
and completed by the Russian counsellor 
Peter von Koppen, Vienna, 1823. Quite 
recently, Mr. von Blaramberg, director of 
the museum established at Odessa and at 
Kertch, has discovered many interesting 
remains in this quarter. (See CrimeaJ) 

Blackguard. This name tvas origin- 
ally given to the scullions and coal-carri- 
ers in great houses and palaces, who, in 
the journeys of the families to which they 
belonged, usually rode in tlie carts with 
the pots and kettles. 

Blacklock, Thomas, a poet, remarka^- 
blo for his hterary attainments under the 
misfortune of a deprivation of sight, was 
bom at Annan, in the county (3* Dum- 
fries, in 1721. His parents, who were 
natives of Cumberland, although poor 
were industrious and well-informed. At 
the age of six months, he lost his sight fay 
the small-pox ; and, as he grew up, his 
fatlier, with exemplary industry and af- 
fection, endeavored to lessen his calamity 
by readmg to him such books as instruct- 
ed or entertained hkn, when he always 
appeared to be particularly pleased with 
the Vvorks of Spenser, Milton, Prior, Pope 
and Addison. Such was the kindness 
his pecuUar situation and gentle temper 
excited, that he was seldom without some 
companion, who aided in his singular 
course 'of education, until he had even 
acquired some knowledge <of the Latin 
tongue. At the age of 12, he besan to 
versify, and his performances at length 
became the subject of discourse in his 



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BLACKLOCK— BLACKSTONE. 



ueHghborhood. At the age of 20, he lost 
his father, on which he was invited by 
doctor Stephenson, a physician in Edin- 
burgh, to visit that metropolis, in order to 
pursue his studies at the tmiversity. He 
soon became a proficient in Latin, as also 
in French, which he chiefly acquired by 
conversation with a French lady, the 
wife of provost Alesomder. He also, in 
the course of nearly 10 years' study at 
the university, made a considerable prog- 
ress in the sciences. In 1754, he publish- 
ed a second edition of his poems, which 
gained him the patronage of Mr. Spence, 
who published an account of his life, 
character and productions, which brought 
him into general notice ; and a quarto edi- 
tion of his poems being soon afterwards 
published by subscription, a considerable 
sum was thereby raised for his benefit 
He now devoted himself to the study of 
theology, and, having passed through the 
usual course, was licensed, in 1759, by 
tlie presbytery of Dumfries. In 1762, he 
married the daughter of Mr. Johnson, sur- 
geon, of Dumfries ; a connexion which 
proved to him a source of comfort and 
felicity for tlie remainder of his life. He 
was soon after appointed minister of 
Kirkcudbright, on the presentation of the 
earl of Selkirk ; but, being opposed by his 
parishioners, after two years' contention, 
lie resigned his hving, upon a moderate 
annuity, and retired to Edinburgh, where 
he adopted the plan of receiving a few 
students of the imiveiBity as bo^irders, 
and of assisting them in their studies 
when desirable. In 1766, he was created 
D. D. ; and, having now taken a respecta- 
ble Station among the literati of Scotland, 
he maintained it by various pubtications, 
until his death, July, 1791, at the age of 
70. His private character, according to 
the testimony of Hume and others, was 
sin^larly amiable. Letters and conver- 
ntion were his solaCe, to which he joined 
the practice of music. His poetry is easy, 
polished and harmonious; and he com- 
posed with considerable rapidity. The 
number of his images from visual objects 
will surprise those who ore not aware of 
the uniform strain of imitation in com- 
mon-place poetiy. B. wrote, besides his 
poems, several prose works. 

Blackhore, sir Richard, a physician 
and poet of notoriety, if not of eminence, 
was the son of an attorney in the county 
of Wilts. In 1668, he entered the uni- 
versity of Oxford. There he remained 
13 years, and, for some time afterwards, 
appears to have fottowed the profession 
of a schoohnaster. At length he turned 



his attention to physic. In 1697, he fafld 
risen to so much eminence in his profes- 
sion, as to be appointed physician to king 
William, who knighted him. The pre- 
ceding year, he hod made himself known^ 
as a iK>et, by the publication of his heroic 
poem of Pnnce Arthur, which was soon 
followed by King Arthur ; and, in 1700, 
he published a paraphrase of the book 
of Job, in folio ; as also a poem entitled a 
Satii^ on Wit, being an attempt to retort 
on the wits by whom he had been very 
successfully assailed. By the sdictness 
of his whiggish principles, he had incur- 
red the resentment of the tory jmito, 
composed of Swift, Pope, Ari)uthnot and 
others; while something solemn in the 
complexion of his religion and morality, 
added to the real absurdity of starting 
epic after epic in quick succession, in- 
sured the raillery of all those to whom 
his gravity, perseverance and mediocrity 
afforded so much subject for ridicule. 
This worthy man and middling poet be- 
came the common butt of his day, and 
for almost two senemtions, for Pope took 
up the quarrel which Dryden b^an. 
The woric which produced him the 
greatest reputation was the Creation, a 
poem in seven books, which went through 
several editions, and was ^reatiy applaud- 
ed, but is, generally speaking, very tamely 
elaborate. In 1721, B. published a New 
Version of the Psalms of David, which, 
although recommended by authority, has 
never been adopted. He died^ at an ad- 
vanced age, in 1729, leaving behind him 
the character of a pious, well-meaning 
and respectable man, of limited genius 
and little taste. Besides the epics already 
mentioned, he wrote Eliza, in 10 books ; 
the Redeemer, in 6 books ; King Alfred, 
in 12 books, &c. He also composed a 
History of the Conspiracy against Kine 
William III, and several medical and 
theological treatises, especially against the 
Arians, all of which have quietiy reached 
oblivion. As a physician, ne was a stren- 
uous opposer of the new system of inocu- 
lation for the small-pox. 

Blackstone, ^ir William, knight and 
LL. D., a celebrated English lawyer, and 
the most popular vniter on the laws and 
constitution of his country, was bom in 
London, m 1723. He was the third son 
of Mr. Charles Blackstone, a silk-mercer, 
but, being left an orphan, was brought up 
by his maternal uncle, Mr. Thomas Bigg, 
surgeon, from whose kindness he re- 
ceived an education, which the narrow 
circumstances of his father could scarcely 
have supplied. He was educated on the 



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BLACKdTON£. 



!» 



IbuBdation of the charter-house, whence, 
ju 1738y he was remoYed to Pembroke 
college, Oxford. He wee much distin- 
guished, both at schod^ADd at the univer- 
sity, and at an early, a^e compiled a work 
for his own use, entitled the Elements 
of Architecture, which has been much 
praised. Having chosen the profession 
of the law, he was in due time entered at 
the Middle Temple, and on this occasion 
published the admired vesKS, called the 
Lawyer's Farewell to bis Muse, which 
appeared in Dodaley's Miscellany. In 
1743, he was elected fellow of All Souls' 
college, Oxon^ and, in 1746, was called to 
the Mr, and commenced the practice of 
Jaw. Being deficient in elocution^ and 
not possessed of the popular talents of an 
iidvocate, bi^ progress was slow. Having 
attended the courts of law at Westminster 
lor seven yeais, without success, he de- 
termined to quit the practice of his pro- 
fession, and retire to his fellowship at 
Oxford. The system of educatiim in the 
English univerBities supplying no provis- 
ion for teaching the laws and constitution 
of tfie country, B. undertook to remedy 
this defect, by'a course of lectures on that 
iiufiortant subjest; and the manner in 
which he executed the task has conferred 
a lasting distinction on Oxford. His first 
course was delivered in 1753, and was 
repeated for a series of years with in- 
creasing effect and reputation. These 
lectures doubtless suggested to Mr. Viner 
the idea of founding, by his will, a liberal 
establishment in the university of Oxford 
for the study of the common kw; and B. 
was, with great propriety, chosen the first 
Vinerian professor. His en^;agements at 
^Oxford did not prevent his occasional' 
' practice as a provincial barrister, and, in 
1754, being engaged as counsel in a con- 
tested election for the county of Oxford, 
he was led into considerations on the 
elective fi^anchise, which produced his 
work entitled Considerations on Copy- 
holds. In this treatise he denied the 
right of copyholders to vote as fi'eehold- 
ers; which led to a dedaimtory act of 
parliament in establishment of ibat nar- 
row doctrine. In 1759, he published a 
new edition of the Great Charter and 
Charter of die Forest, with a historical 
pieiace ; and, during the same year, the 
reputation which he had obtained by his 
lectures induced him to resume his atp 
tendance at Westminster hall, when busi- 
ness and the honors of his profession soon 
crowded in upon him. In 1761, he was 
elected M. P. for Hindon, made king's 
counsel and solicitor-geneFal to the queen, 
11* 



About this time, he also married, and, 
thereby losing his feUowship, was ap- 
pointed principal of New Inn hall \ which 
ofiice, with the Vinerian professorship, he 
resigned the next year. In 1765, he also 
pukuish'ed the first volume of bis Com-» 
mentaries on the Laws of England; a 
wodc of greater merit than any which 
had- yet appeared on the subject In this 
celebratea production, the author does 
not confine himself to the humble duty 
of an expositor, but aspires to the higher 
character of a philosophical writer on 
iurisprudence ; and, having been preceded 
by no authors in the same line^ his man-' 
ner of accomplishing his task is entitled 
to great praise. It must not, however, be 
re^uded as a philosophical investigation 
into the grounds and merits of the Eng- 
lish laws and constitution, so much as an 
elegant expositioa and defence of an ex- 
isting system. Whatever he found insti- 
tuted, it was his purpose to support and 
eulogise ; and consequently we are rather 
made acquainted with the ^ legal reasons" 
of what is established, than instructed in 
the general principles of national legisla- 
tion.. This mode of treating the suoject 
may be, in some degree, usefiil, by con- 
veying a due notion of the grounds on 
which government and usage have pro* 
ceeded, but, of course, will do little to «id» 
vance the mind of a nation, and often 
a great deal to nurture prejudices and 
impede amelioration. Notwithstanding 
some passagee against standing amnes, 
and in exposition of the progress of the 
influence of the crown, B. is uniformly 
the advocate of prerogative, and very 
confined in his notions of toleration. On 
the latter ground, he was involved, on the 
publication of his Commentaries, in a con- 
troversy with Priestley ; and, some years 
afterwards, his political principles were 
assailed, with much aouteness, in a pub* 
lication entided a Fragment on Crovem- 
meut, now known to be the work of Mr. 
Jeremy Bentham. In the debates which 
took place on the Middlesex election, in 
relation to the re«>eliffibility of an expelled 
member, he was led to language in par. 
liament, against tiie tenor of which Mr. 
James OrenviUe, witii great adroitness, 
quoted bis own book, and he vvm also 
wamdy atuicked for tiie saiv*^*?<M»«»- 
tency by Junius. The v^. "J^wt and 
talents of B., backed j^lyliUcid tenden. 
cies, which are ga^"?. »v<>"«^ ^ ad* 
vancement, ti^V'^^J^fL^^^ ?^ 
ministerial finror, and ^%r^^^ ^e 
post of •oticitor^genej;;* IS-.u .» ™*'» <*^ 
&g it, was n^ *^ ^^^e jttsticestrf 



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BLAKE-BLANCHARD. 



honored with a magnificent public funer- 
al, and intened in Henry VlFs chapel, 
whence it wae pitifully removed at the 
restoration, and buried in St Mar^ret's 
church-yard. — ^The foregoing detail euf- 
^ciently evinces the bravery and talents 
of this able commander, who first deviat- 
ed from the old practice 6f keeping ships 
and men as much out of danger as possi- 
ble, and gave the example of bold and 
spirited achievement. So disinterested 
was he, that^ afierall his rich captures and 
high posts, he scarcely left behind him 
XSOO of accjuired property, freely sharing 
all with his friends and seamen, into 
whom he infiised that intrepidity and 
spirit of enterprise, by which the British 
navy has been ever since so highly dta* 
tinguished. 

Blakelet, Johnston, a captain in the 
U. States navy during the late war, was 
bom in Ireland, in October, 1781. Two 
years after, his ftither, Mr. John Blakeley, 
emigrated to the U. States, and settled in 
Wilmington, North Carolina. Young B. 
was placed, in 1796, at the university of 
North Carolina, being intended fi>r the 
law. His father died the year after. In 
the year 1799, circumstances having de- 
prived B. of the means of support, he left 
college, and, the next year, obtained a 
midshipman^s warrant. In 1813, he was 
made a master-commandant, and soon 
after ikppointed to the command of the 
Wasp. In this vessel, he fell in with his 
Britannic majesty's ship Reindeer, in lat. 
48« 36^. This sliip he took, after an 
action of 19 minutes. The loss of the 
Americans was 21 killed and wounded ; 
that of tlie enemy, 67. The Reindeer 
was cut to pieces in such a manner as to 
render it impossible to save her ; and she 
was accordingly set on fire. After this, 
the Wasp put into L'Orient ; from which 
port she sailed August 27, and, four days 
afterwards, ialling in with 10 sail of mer- 
chantmen, under convoy of a ship of the 
line, she succeeded in cuttine oft" one of 
tlie vessels. — The eveninff of the first of 
September, 1814, she feU in with four 
sail, two on each bow, but at considerable 
distances from each other. The first was 
the brig-of-war Avon, which struck after 
a severe action ; but captain B. could not 
take possession, as anotlier enemy was 
approaching. This enemy, it seems, how- 
ever, was called off to the assistance of 
the Avon, which was now sinking. The 
enemy reported that they had sunk the 
Wasp by the first broadside ; but she was 
afterwards spoken by a vessel off the 
Western Isles. After this, we hear of 



her no more.-^In hie peiiOD, captain B. 
was rather below the middle stature ; his 
eyes black and ezpraaaive, his manners 
mild, manly and unassuming. Among 
his brother officers, he was cODflidered as 
a man of uncommon intellect, courage, 
and profesaonal skUL He was married, 
in December, 1813, to a lady of New 
York ; and left an only daughter, who 
received one of the most affectmg tributes 
of pubhc gratimde, which have occurred 
in the history of the U. States. The legia- 
lature of North Carolina, December 27, 
1816, after prescribmg the destmation of 
the sword they had voted to captain B., 
"Resolved, unanimously, that captain 
Blakeley's child beeducated at the expense 
of this state ; and that Mrs. Blakelev be 
requested to draw on the treasurer of thia 
state, from time to time, fi>r such sums of 
money as shall be required for the edu-> 
cation of the said child." 
Blakc, Mont. (See Mont EUsnc^ 
Blamchard, Francois, one of the first 
aeronauts, bom at Andelys, in the depart- 
ment of the Eure, in 1738, was fond of 
mechanics fi:ofti his youth, and, in his 16th 
year, invented a self-moving carriage, 
m which he rode a distance of 18 miks. 
This invention, which he improved in 
1778, recommended him to the court of 
Versailles. He displayed equal ingenuity, 
by the invention of a hydraulic machine, 
in the 19lh year of his age, and, after- 
wards, in the construction of a flying 
ship, which, by means of a counterpoise 
of six pounds, was raised to more than 20 
feet from the ground. He eagerly availed 
himself of the discoveries of the brothers 
Montgolfier, and the improvements of the 
same hy professor Charles and Robert in 
Paris. After having made his first aeros- 
tatic voyage, March 4, 1784, he crossed 
the channel from Dover to Calais, 1785, 
with doctor Jeffiries, a gentleman of Bos- 
ton, in the U. States, For this exploit, he 
was rewarded, by the king of France, \vith 
a present of 12,000 fiancs, and a pension 
of 1200. In the same year, at London, 
he first made use of a parachute, invent- 
ed by liim, or, according to others, by 
Etieune Montgolfier. After having per- 
formed many aerostatic voyages in for- 
eign countries also, he was accused K>f 
propagating revolutionary principles, and 
imprisoned, 1793, in the fortress of Kuf- 
Btem, in the Tyrol. Having obtained his 
liberty, he made his 46th ascent in the 
city of New Yoric, 1796. In 1798, he 
ascended, with 16 persons, in a laiige bal- 
loon, at Rouen, ana descended at a place 
15 miles distant In 1807, his aerostatic 



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BLANCHARD-^BLASPHjBMY. 



129 



voyages amounted to more than 66. He 
died in 180$. Madame Blanchard con- 
tinued to make aerial voyages. In 1811, 
she ascended in Rome, and, after going a 
distance of 60 miles, she rose again to 
proceed to Naples. In June, 1819, hav- 
mg ascended from Tivoli, in Paris, her 
balloon took fire, at a considerable height, 
owing to some fire-works which she car- 
ried with her. The gondola fell down in 
the rue de Provence, and the hapless aer- 
onaut was dashed to pieces. 

Blanco^ Ci^ie (literally, WkUe cope) ; a 
name given to a great number of capes 
by the Spaniards, Portuguese and Ital- 
ians. It corresponds to the French cap 
Bkmc, The name is as common and as 
unphilosophical as that of White hill. 
Black river, &c. 

Blank Verse, in modem poetry ; verses 
without riiyme ; e. g., Milton's Paradise 
Lost Only those languages which dis- 
tinguish long and short syUables can em- 
ploy it. (See Verse,) 

Blanoini, Giuseppe Marco Maria Fe- 
lice, bom at Turin, 1781, studied under 
the abbot Ottani, chapel-master in the 
cathedral there. In his 12th or 13th year, 
he accompanied the choir of this church 
on the organ. At the age of 14 years, he 
executed a mass, with a complete orches- 
tnL In 1799, he went to Paris, gave les- 
sons in singing, and nras soon employed 
as a composer. The completion of the 
False Duenna, an opera, left unfinished 
by Delia Maria, was intnirted to him; 
and soon after appeared his Zdie and 
TervUle, MiphthaU, and other operas. His 
concerts, in which be accompanied his 
own, singing with much taste and expres- 
sion, were Sie resort of ail musical con- 
noisseurs and amateurs. Having, in 1805, 
been invited to Munich, he executed an 
opera there, in consequence of which the 
king of Bavaria appointed him his chapel- 
master. In 180d, the princess Borghese 
appointed him her director of music and 
master of concerts ; and, in 1809, after the 
departure of Reichardt,the king of West- 
phalia invited him, in the same capacity, 
to Cassel. After the expulsion of the 
Westphalian court, he lived in Miinich, 
where he composed and performed his 
l^an in Daeia, Some time after, he went 
to Paris, where he is sttU living. Besides 
many comic and heroic operas, we have 
a collection of pleasing ballads, noUtamos^ 
Italian alia, and charmmg duets, composed 
IrfT him. In Italy, hfr is called the .^ta- 
crton ofmune* 

Blasphemy la aomewhat variously de- 
fined. According to the more general defi- 



nition, it meaAa the denying the existence 
of God ; assigning to him false attributes, or 
denying his tme attributes ; speaking irrev- 
erently of the mysteries of religion ; and, 
fi)rmerly, in Catholic countries, it also in- 
eluded the speaking contemptuously or 
disrespectfiiUy of the Holy Virgin or the 
saints. Public blaapliemy has been consid- 
ered, by the church of Rome, as an unpar- 
donable sin ; and it was, formeriy, punish- 
ed with death by the nnjnici]>al laws. The 
77th novel of Justinian assigned this pun- 
ishment to it ; and the capitularies inflict- 
ed the same punishment upon such as, 
knowing of an act of blasphemy, did not 
denounce the offender. The former laws 
of France punished this crime with fine, 
corporeal punishment, the gallows and 
deatli, according to the degree and agpa- 
vation of the offence. The records ofthe 
parliaments supply numerous instances of 
condemnation for this crime, and many 
of punishment by death ; others of brand- 
ing and mutilation. A man was, for this 
offence, condemned to be hanged, and 
to have his tongue afterwards cut out, 
and the sentence was executed at Orleans, 
as late as 1748. But it is very justly re- 
marked by a writer in the French En- 
cychpedie ModemCj that we should form 
an erroneous opinion, firom the pres- 
ent state of society, of the effect of this 
offence, and the disorders it might intro- 
duce in former times*, fi>r religion was 
once so intimately L tended with the gov-, 
emment and laws, that to treat the re- 
ceived articles of faith or religious cere- 
monies with disrespect, ^vas, in effect, to 
attack civil institutions. The French coda 
provides no punishment for blasphemy; 
but a law has been enacted, since the res- 
toration of the Bourbons, which places it 
again^on the list of criminal offences. By 
the common law of England, blasphemies 
of God, as denying his being and provi- 
denee, all contumelious reproaches of 
Jesus Christ, &c., are punishable by fine, 
imprisonment, pillory, &c.; and, bv the 
statute of 9 and 10 William HI, ch. 32, 
if any one shall deny ^Uker of the Penons 
of the Trinity to be God, or assert that 
there are more sods tlian one, he siiall be 
incapable of holding any ofiice ; and, for 
a second offence, to disabled firom suine 
any action,- or being an executor, and suf- 
fer three years' imprisonment. By the 
statute of 53 Geo. Ill, ch. 160, the words 
in Italics were omitted. This law* was 
an infringement of the liberty of eon^ 
science, and certainly could not now be 
practically enibrced in England, since 
some of the doctrines of some sects of 



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180 



BLA8PHEMY— BLEHMYES. 



Christians, openly and habitually incul- 
cated in their public assemblies, would be 
violations of it. This was, no doubt, the 
reason of omitting the part of the statute 
above referred to. The early leffislation 
of tlie American colonies followed that of 
the mother countiy, and, in some of them, 
tiie crime of blasphemy was punished 
with death; but the penalty was mitigated 
before the establishment of the indepen- 
dence of the states, and imprisonment, 
whipping, setting on the gallows, or in 
the pillory, having the tongue bored with 
a red-hot iron, &c. were substituted. The 
statutory provisions of the different states 
on this subject are very various. In some 
of them, the offence of blasphemy is dis- 
tinguished from that of profane sweariug; 
in others, blasphemy is not mentioned as 
a distinct offence. Several penalties 
against blasphemy are to be found in the 
laws of some of the New England States ; 
according to which it is provided that^ if 
any persons shall blaspheme, by denying, 
cursing, or contumeliously reproaching 
God, his creation, government, or find 
judging of the world, or by cursing or re- 
proaching Jesus Christ or the Holy Ghost, 
or contumeUousIy reproaching the word of 
God, consisting oif the conmionly received 
books of the Did and New Testament, he 
is liable to imprisonment for a term not 
exceeding five years. But the most direct 
and pubUc violations of these laws are 
passed over without famishment or pros- 
ecution. In many, and, we believe, the 
greater number of the states, the ofience 
of blasphemy, not being a subject of spe- 
cial statutory provision, is Only punishable 
either as an oftence at common law, or a 
violadon of the statute laws against pro- 
fane swearing. The ofience, considered 
only as a violation of positive statutes, 
would be liable to a great diversity of 
punishment in the different states, from a 
fine of two shillings and six pence, in 
some, to an imprisonment not exceeding 
a period of five years in others. Viewing 
this subject in a philosophical, religious or 
political view, it would be difficult to lay 
down any general principles applicable 
to different slates of society ; but die pre- 
vailhig principle on this subject in the U. 
States, and that to which the laws and 
opinions of other countries are strongly 
tending, is, that any one may profess or op- 
pose any doctrine, provided he inculcates 
Ills principles, whether orally or in writing, 
in such manner as not to commit a flagrant 
violation of decorum ; what acts or words 
will constitute such an outrase must evi- 
dently depend upon the state ofthe society. 



Blastiito ; the tecfanieai term for spfit^ 
ting any object by means of gunpowder* 

Blazoivino^ or BiiAZONRt, in heraldiy; 
the deciphering of coats of arms, front 
the German Uaten, to blow, because the 
herald blew a trumpet, and called out the 
arms of a knight, when he entered the 
lists at a tournament (See Heraldry,) 

Bleaching is the art of lyhitening lin« 
en, wool, cotton, silk, wax, also the mate- 
rials of which paper is made, and other 
things. It is shown, by experience, that 
organic bodies, after being deprived of 
life, and becoming solid and dry, lose 
their color, and become white by the influ- 
ence of the air and the sun-beams. Upon 
this fact, the manner of bleaching, which 
Was formerly in use, is grounded : since, 
however, the bleaching in the sun com- 
monly requires a whole summer, Berthol- 
let, in the year 1786, first proposed the use 
of chlorine. This, it is known, has so Ut- 
tie corrosive power, that, if diluted, it may 
be taken inwardly in a considerable quan- 
tity. This method has since been much 
improved, principally by Watt It lias 
been found, however, that linen certainly 
may suffer, if too much acid is applied. 
In England, this acid, when used ta 
bleach linen, is maed with one half of 
muriate of lime dissolved in water. The 
quantity of Uiis salt requisite for bleach- 
ing is very different, according to the dif- 
ferent quality of linen. Conmionly, the 
12th or SOth part of the weight of the lin- 
en is employed, tn manufiiictoriee of lin- 
en and cotton goods, the yam or cloth 
passes through a number of successive 
processes, the principal of which are the 
steeping, in which the ffoods are ferment- 
ed in an acescent liquid, at a temperature 
of about 100 degrees Fahr. ; the bucking 
and boiling, in which a hot alkaline lie is 
made to percolate through them for some 
time ; the souring, performed with diluted 
sulphuric acid ; the bleaching with chlo- 
rine, in which the stuff is exposed to tlie 
action of some compound of that sub- 
stance, usually chloride of hme, called 
bleaching salt. Various mechanical ope- 
rations, washings and repetitions of the 
processes are commonly practised to com- 
plete the discharge of the color. The 
fibres of wool and silk are not bleached 
by chlorine, but, after bemg deprived of 
the saponaceous or gummy matter which 
adheres to them, are exposed to the fumes 
of burning sulphur to discha^^ their colon 
Blemhtes, or Blbmtes ; a fabulous 
people of Ethiopia, without heads, their 
eyes, mouths, &c. hein^ placed in their 
breasts. A baiiMunous tnbe of this namo 



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BLEMMYES— BLENHEIM. 



ttppeared in the Sd oentuiy as the ally of 
w Egyptians a^aiDflt Diocletian. With 
« view of oppostng to the B. a suitable 
edversary, Diocletian persuaded the No- 
batie, a people of Nubm, to remove from 
their ancient habitations in the deserts of 
Libya, and resigned to them an extensive 
but unprofitable territory, above Syene 
and the cataracts of the NUe. 

Blende. (See Zinc.) 

Blenheim, or Bliitdhcim ; a village sit- 
uated in the circle of the Upper Danube, 
in Bavaria, on the Danube. -Here was 
fought, Aug. 13, 1704, the famous battle 
of Blenheim, or, as it i»more commonly 
called on the Euronean continent, the 
haUie of Hochstadty from another village 
of this name in the vicinity. Louis XI V, 
in the war of the Spanish succession, had 
to contend with Holland, England, Ausr 
tria. Savoy, Portugal and the German 
empire. T^e elector of Bavaria was his 
only ally ; but, as the territories of this 
prince were contiguous to Austria, which, 
on that ade, was unprotected^ he was the 
more to be feared, especially as he was 
an active and vrarlike prince, who took 
the field himsehj and, in ease of success^ 
could open the way to Vienna for the 
French armies. Se^t 20, 1703, he de- 
feated, near Hochstadt, a. village in the 
vicinity of Donawert, tlie imperial gen- 
eral Styrum, and took the fortress of 
Passau. But his dissensions with the 
and unyielding French marshal 



Villfuv prevented him fi:om reaping, in 
the same year, all the fruits which this 
victory might otherwise have afforded 
faim. Villars was ordered to cede the 
chief conunand to marshal Tallard, who 
overcame, on the Rhine, near Spire, tjie 
margrave Louis of Baden, and rendered 
the situation of the hereditary states of 
Austria very dangerous. Marlborough, 
however, the soul of this whole war, in 
the field and in the cabinet, formed the 
plan of deciding the fate of the contest 
on the Danube. Italy, Flanders and the 
Lower Rhine were to be defended only ; 
but the decisive blow was to be struck In 
the south of Grermanv, whither the best 
imperial troops marched, under Eugene, 
from the Rhme. Mariborouffh attacked 
the Bavarian intrenchments, July 2, after 
a violent combat on the Schellenberg,and 
made his way over the Danube, in order 
to be able to occupy the territory of the 
elector of Bavaria, if circumstances re- 
quired it But, fer this latter purpose, the 
gaining of a decisive batde was indis- 
pensable, since, without it, the invasion of 
Bavaria would have been a hazardous 



enterprise, and a long delay, after the 
manner of carrying on war in those 
times, required well-filled and secure 
ma§^nes. The French and Bavarian 
armies were drawn into an engagement^ 
Aug. 13, 1704, under the most unfiivora- 
ble circumstances. Both these armies 
were posted, under the command of Tal- 
lard, Marsin, and the elector of Bavaria 
himself, between the village of B. and 
that of Kinzingen, behind the Nebelbach, 
a small stream emptying into the Dan- 
ube, which was on their right flank. 
They amounted to 56,000 men, whilst 
the forces of Marlborough and Eugene 
were about 52,000. The fii«t had thrown 
their troops chiefly into the two villages, 
which tbey considered as points of sup- 
port for their wings, though they were at 
too great a distance in front of their main 
position. A large proportion of cavalry 
WBS in the centre, since each army, the 
Bavarian as well as the French, had their 
horse on theur wings, and in this way 
those of two wings must necessarily join 
each other. Both the commanders would 
undoubtedly h&ve perceived and correct- 
ed this mistake, as Tallard had in B. 
alone, 27 battalions of in&ntry ; but they 
expected so little to be attacked, that 
when the line of the allies began to 
move, Aug. 13, at 2 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, they supposed them to be marching 
o£ The greatest part of their cavalry 
was sent to forage. Even at 7 o'Gk>ck, 
when the heads of the ei^t columns, 
with which Eugene and Marlborough 
advanced towards the Nebelbach, were 
to be seen, Tallard thought the whole 
a stratagem intended to cover the re- 
treat ; but he soon saw his error. The 
dispersed troops were recalled in the 
greatest hurry, and the cannon were 
drawn up in line. The French and Ba- 
vaiians made every exertion to prevent 
the passage of the enemy over the Nebel- 
bach, and the^ capture of the two villages, 
the conquest of which was considered, by 
Marlborough and Eugene, as decisive. 
Their line of attack was uncommonly 
long, about 4i miles. Marlborough, in 
order to secure his right wing, attacked 
B., but without success : he then changed 
his plan, and threw himself, with his 
principal forces, into the wide interval 
between the right wing and the centre of 
the enemy, leaving only as many troops 
before B. as were necessary to check the 
body which occupied this position. At 
5 o'clock in the afternoon, he succeeded, 
after great eftbrts, in pessmg the Nebel- 
bacb, by which his victoiy was decided* 



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BLENHEIM— BUGHT. 



The Frencby in the centre, 'were obliged 
to retreat: Uieir examine was followed 
by the Bavarians on the left wing, who, 
for a long time, had resisted the impetu- 
ous attacks of prince Eugene. Marlbor- 
ough, instead of pursuing the retreating 
enemy, placed himself between the line 
of retreat and the position of B., guarded 
by 18,000 men, who were thus cut off 
from assistance, and forced to surrender. 
The cavalry was routed by the fire of the 
English cannon and .musketry ; and a 
large part of the defeated army remained 
dead on the field of battle (which was 
covered with more than IJ, 000 corpses), 
or were made prisoners. Tallard him- 
self was aniong the prisoners ; his son 
was killed. The consequences of the 
battle were decisive. Bavaria, as Mari- 
borough had anticipated, fell into the 
power of Austria. Fortune deserted 
Louis XIV, as it did Napoleon after the 
batde of Leipsic, and, though be was able 
to continue the war fi>r almost 10 years 
longer, it was owing to the dissensions 
among the allies themselves, who con- 
tended about the best use of the victory 
till the opportunity to use it was lost 
(See Mariborough,) 

Blessing, or Benediction. The ex- 
pression of wishing one well soon gave 
rise, in early ages, to a solemn act, accom- 
panied, like other solemnities of those pe- 
riods, by svmbolic signs; this v^s the 
bksnng or bentdictum. In the patriarchal 
times, when the authority of the head of 
a fiimUy included that of the priest and 
the civil ruler, the blessing of course ap- 
pertained chiefly to him, on account of 
his veDeiable character, and, when the 
priests began to form a separate class, be- 
came, in certain, cases, a prerogative of 
theirs. As the authority or the father, in 
the infancy of every nation, is extremely 
great, the idea soon sprung up, that his 
pmyeiB, invoking the lavor of the Deity, 
were more effectual than those of others, 
and that whatever he blessed would be 
likely to receive the fiivor of God. The 
same importance was soon attributed to 
blessings conferred by a priest. The 
heathens, the Jews, and many Chris- 
tian sects, have cherished this idea. By 
the Jewish institutions, certain benedic- 
tions were reserved to tiie priest : the same 
is the case in the Catholic church, in 
which difierent benedictions are appro- 
priated to differeDt degrees of the clergy. 
We shall mention only a few of them. 
The Catholic bishops alone can confer 
those benedictions which are connected 
with- unction, and are called consecrations, 



as, for instance, the contecratkm of kingg 
and oueens, of the cup and paterOf the 
church and altar. To them, also, is con- 
fined the benediction of abbots and ab* 
besses, of knights, and the holy oiL For 
the benedicdon of the holy vestments, 
&c., they may employ a substitute. Every 
Catholic cler^man may confer the bene- 
diction fian^udt (that of betrothment) ; 
also, the marriage oenediction ; may bless 
the firuits of the earth, and the holy water. 
The benediction of a bishop is eageriy 
sought for by a faithful Catholic, as con- 
tributing peculiarly to his spiritual wel- 
fare ; and the Cadiolic clerey, in generaJ, 
use the benediction as a sahitation, or re- 
ward for a service, &c. When the pope 
rides or walks out, the Catholics kneel 
to receive his blessing, which he gives by 
a motion of his hand. In his antecham- 
ber are often seen things of different 
kinds, rosaries, &e.yin large quantities, 
which he blesses in passing by. The 
Cathohc church blesses things animate 
and inanimate, and this is believed by 
many to preserve them fit>m sickness, in- 
juiT,&c. (QeeAgneSySt,) Among sever- 
al Protestant sects, the benediction, at the 
close of the sermon, is in the form givea 
by Moses. This is the case with the Lu- 
therans. Catholics, in many cases, use 
the consecrated water in giving the bene- 
diction. 

' Blioht; a general name for various 
distempeis incident to com and firuit- 
treea The term has been used in a very 
vague and indefinite manner. The origin 
of the disease has been variously account- 
ed for. There appear to be at least three 
distinct species of it. The first originates 
in cold and fitisty winds, in spring, which 
nip and destroy the tender snoots of the 
plant, by stopping the current of the 
juices. The leaves wither and fidl ; the 
juices burst the vessels, and become the 
fpod of numerous insects, which are often 
mistaken for the cause of the disease, 
while diey are really an effect of it The 
second species originates in a sultry and 
pestilential vapor, and happens in sum- 
mer, when the grain has attained its full 
growth. The third originates in /tcngft) 
which attack tlie leaves or stem of herba- 
ceous and woody plants ; but more gen- 
erally grasses, and particularly the most 
useful grains. It generally assumes the 
appearance of a rusty-looking powder, 
which soils the finger when touched. 
There are several sorts of these fimgi, 
known to farmers under the names of 
rtd ru$t, redgwHf &c. The only means 
of preventing the eftect of blight is proper 



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BUGHT-«BLIND. 



ddtore. PalUodveB are to be ibund in 
topical applicatioD& 

^BwwD, the; such as are deprived of 
tlieir aight The loss of the noblest 
sense, by means of which man receives 
an idea of the world that surrounds him, 
clothed in Ught and color, is an event as 
melancholy as it is frequent Blindness 
is different, 1. in its decrees, some per- 
sons being partially bhnd, retaining a 
slight perception of light, with the power 
of disunguishin^ very brilliant colors, and 
the general outlines of bodies ; others be- 
ing entirely deprived of the (acuity of 
see'uig; 2. in its causes: some men are 
blind fit>m their birth ; others have be- 
come blhid by local diseases of the eyes, 
for instance, by inflammation, suppura- 
tion, cancer of the eye-ball, spots, films, 
tumors on the cornea (bv which its trans- 
parency is destroyed^ also by closure of 
the pupU, by a turbid state of the hu- 
mors, by a debility of the optic nerve, or 
by general diseases of the body, violent 
fevers, nervous fevers, plethora and ten- 
dency of the blood to the head, erysipelas 
in the face, small-pox, scarlet fever, &c^ 
or by excessive exertion of the eyes, by 
which the optic nerve is enfeebled ; for 
which reason, some classes of mechanics 
and artists, as blacksmiths, laborers in 
fflass and smelting-houses, watch-makers, 
2&C not unfirequendy lose their sight, and, 
in northern countries, which are covered 
with snow for a long time, and which 
dazzle the eyes by the reflection of the 
aunbeams, as well as in the sandy deserts 
of Afiica, blindness is a frequent com- 
plaint Old age is sonketimes accompar 
nied with blindness, occasioned by the 
drying up of the humors of the eye, or by 
the opacity of the cornea, the crystalline 
lens, &c. There are several causes 
which produce blindness from the birth. 
Sometimes the eyctids adhere to each 
other or to the e^e-ball itself, or a mem- 
brane covers the eyes; sometimes the 
pupil of the eve is closed, or adheres to 
the cornea, or is not situated in the ri^^ht 
place, so that the rays of light do not lall 
m the middle of the eye ; besides other 
defects. Those who are bom blind have 
no idea of vision, and are entirely desti- 
tute of all tlie ideas derived fit>m the 
sense of sight They cannot, therefore, 
be sensible of their misfortune in the 
same degree as those who have lost their 
sight at a later period. Experience has 
shown, that those who acquure the power 
of seeing after being bom blind, or having 
k)8t their sight in their childhood, form 
yery different ideas of visible objects from 

VOL. II. 12 



other penons. A young man, whom 
Cheselden couched for a cataract, at the 
moment he received sight, imagined that- 
all the objects which he saw were in 
contact with his eyes: he could not dis- 
tinguidi objects, although of very differ* 
ent fbnus. Those witn which he waa 
already &miliar l^ the touch, he exam- 
ined with great attention, in order to 
recognise them another time ; but, having 
too many things to notice at once, he 
soon forgot all mat he had observed. He 
wondered that those persons whom he 
loved most were not handsomer than 
others. Before he received his sight, he 
had expressed a great desire to obtain 
this sense. The ouier senses of persons, 
who have been blind for a long tune, be- 
come more exquisite, perhaps, because 
they are not subject to the distraction 
produced by the siffht of so many objects. 
The blind, therefore, are often distin- 
guished for a remaricable mental activity, 
and a wonderful developement of the in- 
tellectual powers. Their touch and hear- 
ing, pamcularly, become veiy acute. 
Thus it is related of a blind man, who 
lived at Puisaux, in France, and was a 
chemist and musician, that he could ac- 
curately estimate the proportions of ob- 
{'ects, could judge of tne distance of fire 
)y die degree of heat, determine the 
quantity of fluid in vessels by the sound 
it produced while running fix>m one ves- 
sel into another, and the proximity of 
objects by the effect of the air upon his 
face. He determined very accurately the 
wdghts of bodies and the capacities of 
vessels. The celebrated Saunderson, pro- 
fessor of mathematics at Cambridge^ lost 
his sight in his eariy youth. He invented 
several processes to f^ilitate his studies 
in arithmetic and geometiy. His sense 
of touch was so acute, that he distin- 
guished spurious coins merely by letting 
tiiem paas through his finffers, though 
they were so well executed, that even 
skilful judges were deceived by them. 

Blind, Lvstitotions for the. In the 
case of persons destitute of sight, it is 
necessaiy to have recourse to die other 
senses to supply the want of the eye. I( 
for instance, we wish to teach them the 
arts of reading and writing, lettera must 
be prepared, which will be palpable to 
the touch, and the hand guided until they 
are able to copy them. If we wish to 
communicate to them a knowledge of the 
surface of the earth, globes and maps 
must be prepared with the divisions, &c., 
in relief Knowledge obtained in this 
way must, of course, be acquired much 



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134 



BUND. 



more slowly than that received by the 
siffht. The senses of touch and of sight 
diner in this reiqpect, that the former as- 
cends by degrees from the perception of 
parts to die perception or the whole, 
whilst the latter views the whole at a 
single glance. It isy therefore, evident, 
that the blind cannot be instructed in 
the common schools destined for those 
who see : in the first place, because the 
means of instruction by the touch are 
wantinff ; and secondlv, because the prog- 
ress orthe other children would be re- 
tarded by the slow apprehension of the 
blind pupils. For these reasons, and as 
the blind form no small part of the popu- 
lation of eveiy country, particular institu- 
tions have, in many places, been establish- 
ed for their instruction. In Prussia, they 
amount to more than 13,000 souls. Zeune, 
in his BeUsar (1821, p. 12 et seqA has 
laid down, as a general law, deduced fix>m 
observation, that the proportion of blind 
persons decreases fit>m the equator to- 
wards the poles. In Egypt, he says, it is 
as 1 to 100, while in Norway the proportion 
is 1 to 1000.>-The instruction given in 
the schools for the blind aims, first, at a 
general cultivation of their intellectual fiic- 
ulties. They are afterwards taught some 
an which may enable them to provide 
for their own subsistence. These arts 
are of two kinds— mechanical employ- 
ments and music. The instruction of the 
blind, therefore, embraces three branches 
— 1. mechanical labois; 2. the fine arts; 
3. science; because it is impossible to 
determine, without trial, the peculiar 
genius of die pupils, whether, ibr instance, 
they should he instructed as mechanics, 
musicians, or mathematicians. The Ger- 
man institutions for the blind, as well as 
those in Paris, have this comprehensive 
character, whilst the Engli^ aim, more 
exclusively, to impart instruction in me- 
chanical trades. Tlie first idea of such 
an institution fi>r blind peisons was con- 
ceived by Valentin HaQy, brother of the 
celebrated mineralogist: it wassuggeeted 
to him by his acquaintance with a blind 
German lady, the baroness von Paradis, 
of Vienna, who visited Paris in 1780, and 
performed on the organ with general ap- 
plause. HaOy repeatedly visitsd this In- 
n'ous lady, ana was much surprised to 
in her apartments several contrivances 
for the instruction of the blind ; for in- 
stance, embroidered maps and a pocket 
printing-apparatus, by means of which 
she corre^ionded with von Kempelen, in 
Vienna (the inventor of the chess-player 
and speaking automaton), and with a 



learned blmd gentleman, named IFniKn 
Imrgf at Manheim. HaQy compared the 
hi^h cultivation of these two Germans 
vntb the degraded state of the Uind in 
France, where, at the annual fiiir of St. 
Ovide, an innkeeper had collected 10 poor 
blind persons, attired in a ridiculous man- 
ner, and decorated with asses' ears, pea- 
cocks' tails, and spectacles without glasses, 
to perform a burlesque concert. Nor did 
the fpreax institution for the blind, or the 
hospital of the 300 (commonlv called ks 
qumze-vingt, founded, in 1260, by Sl Louis, 
after his crusade to Egypt, during which 
so many soldiers became olind by uie oph- 
thalmia, prevailing in that country), pre- 
sent to the philanUifopic HaOy a pleasing 
picture of intellectual cultivation ; rather 
a scene of dulness and moral corruption. 
He, therefore, resolved to do for the 
blind in France what the abb6 de I'Ep^e 
had done for the deaf and dumb. In 
1784, he opened an institution, in which 
they were instructed, not only in appro- 
priate mechanical employments, as ap\nr 
nine, knitting, making ropes or fiinges, 
and working in paste-board, but also in 
music, in reading, writing, ciphering, 
geography and the sciences. For this 
purpose, he invented particular means of 
instruction, resembling those with which 
he had become acquainted by his inter- 
course with the two blmd Germans 
Paradis and Weissenburg. For instruc- 
tion in reading, he procured raised letters 
of metal, fit>m which, also, impressions 
may be taken on paper : for writing, he 
used particular wntmg-cases, in which a 
firame, with wires to separate the lines, 
could be festened upon the paper: for 
ciphering, there were movable figures of 
metal and ciphering-bMffds, in which the 
figures could be fixed : for teaching geog- 
raphy, maps were prepared, npon which 
mountuns, rivers, cities, and me borders 
of countries, were embroidered in various 
ways, &c. In the beginning, the phi- 
lanthropic society paid the expenses of 
12 blind persons ; afterwards, in 1791, the 
institution was taken undw the protection 
of the state^ and united to that for the 
deaf and dumb ; but, as this was found 
inconvenient^ it was, in 1795, separated 
fix>m the latter, and, in^ 1801, united to 
the hospital of the qmnze-^fingL The 
minglmg of young blind persons here with 
old solmers being founa very prejodicial 
to the former, may, full or indignation, 
went to Peteraburg, in 1806, in order to 
' establish a dmilar institution there. After 
the restoration, in 1815, the eiErtablishment 
was put upon its original fixiting, and the 



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135 



physician doctor Guilli^ appointed its 
director. — ^Nezt to France, the first insti- 
tmioDS for the blind were eetablisbed in 
Great ftitain, where, howeyer, they are 
■uppoited onlv by the contributions of 
pnyate individuals. In 1790, an institu- 
tion of this sort was established at Liver- 
pool, in which both males and females are 
mstructed in manual labors, in singing 
hymns, and playing on the ornm. In 
1/91, a second one was established in 
Edioburgb, in which the making of bas- 
kets and ropes is the jprincijNd occupation. 
Similar institutions have since amen in 
other places ; one at London, in 1800 ; also 
at Dublin, Bristol and Norwich.->-In Ger- 
many, the first public institution for the 
blind was established by the king of Prus- 
sia at Berlin, in 1806, when HaQy passed 
through this ci^. Zeune was appointed 
director of it He invented many instru- 
ments more simple than those which had 
formerly been used, and which answered 
the puipose veiy welL Among other 
things, he brou^t to great perfection 
maps and globes, destmed for the use of 
the blind ; which, in many parts of Eu- 
rope, are used for the instruction of others 
also, since they present, by means of 
elevations and depressions of the sur- 
face, proportional elevations and pictures, 
which strike the mind forcibly. In arith- 
metic, he directed his attention almost 
exclusively to mental calculations. The 
first institutions for the blind in Germany, 
after that in Berlin, were established m 
Vienna and Praoue, both in 1808, and, in 
Che same year, that in Amsterdam, found- 
ed by free-masons. In 1809, the institu- 
tion m Dresden sprang up-Hi branch of 
that in Berlin. In 1810, the institudon 
in Zurich was founded by the auxiliary 
socie^. In 1811, a similar establishment 
was instituted in Copenhagen, after the 
plan of professor Brorson, by die soeUiy 
of Ae cAotn, as it is called, (Verein der 
KetU). After the great war for liberty, 
firom 1813 to 15, when the Egyptian oph- 
thalmia raged so dreadfiilly among the 
European armies^ several mstitutions for 
blind soldiers were estid>liBhed, on Zeune's 
plan, in Prussia. Thev object was to 
instruct soldiers who had become blind, 
and unable to exercise their former busi- 
ness, in useful labors. These schools 
were, at first, intended to continue only till 
all the soldiers received in them had 
thoroughly learned some trade: two of 
them, however, those at Breslau and K6- 
nigsberig, have been put upon a perma^ 
bent footing. The institution for the 
JMJ04 in Peii?BM9> which was establu^ 



by Hafly, but was never in a veiy pros- 
perous state, seems to have declined 
gready, after its founder^s return to 
France, in 1816. The name of its present 
director is Martin PilazkL Whether the 
institudon projected at Barcelona, in 
1820, has been established, or whether it 
survived the political storms of that year, 
or the yellow fever of the succeeding, 
we do not know. Institutions for the 
blind are confined ahnost entirely to Eu- 
rope, and they appear to be peculiar to 
Germany, Switzenand, Holland, Den- 
niaik, France, England and Russia. Fa- 
ther Charlevoix, indeed, says, that, in Ja- 
pan, the records of the empire are com* 
mitted to the memory of the blind ; and 
Golovnun estimates theur number in the 
gigantic city of Jeddo, alone, at 36,000 ; 
but neither of them mentions that there 
is any institution established for them. 
The director of the institution in Vienna, 
F. W. Klein, has published a ^d Liehr^ 
buck zum UnkmchU der Bhnden, &c. 
tim ^ zu h&rgerlicher Brauchbarkeit zu 
hOden (Elementary Work for the Insu-uc- 
tion of the Blind, &C., to render them 
useftil Citizens)^— The first, and, as yet, 
the only institution of the kind in Ameri- 
ca, was commenced in Boston, in the 
year 1829. In the beginning of that yeai^ 
an act of incorporation v^as granted, by 
the legislature or Massachusetts, to several 

Sintiemen, authorizmg them to establish 
e New England Asylum for the Blind^ 
for the purpose of educating blind pert 
sons. This institution will go into opera- 
tion as soon as the necessary funds shall 
be obtained. 

Bliivds, in operations agamst fortresses ; 
the name of all preparations which tend to 
intercept the view of the enemy. There 
are several species :-^l, A fiiscme placed 
across the embrasures, to prevent the 
enemy firom observing what passes near 
the cannon.—^. Blinds before port-holes 
are shuttere made of strong planks, which 
are placed before the port-noles, as soon 
as the ffuns are dischar^, to obstruct the 
enemy^ view. — 3. Sinj^e and double 
blinds. The former consist of three strong, 
perpendicular posts, 5 foet in height, b^ 
tween which are planks covered with 
iron plates cm the outside, and thus made 
shot-proof This screen is fiirnished vrith 
rollers, to enable the laborers in the 
trenches to push it before them. The latter 
conast of large wooden chests, on four 
block-wheels, which are filled with earth, 
or bass of sand, and serve likewise in the 
trenches, &C., to cover the soldiere firom 
the fire of the enemy^— 4 Another kind 



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196 



BLINDS— BLOCKS. 



of bfinds used to protect the workmen in 
the trenches, are the chandeliers. Two 
sauare beams of timber are placed paral- 
lel and at a distance of six feet, on the 
ffround, and fiustened by two cross beams. 
Upon the ends, perpendicular posts are 
erected, and the interval is filled up with 
fascines, at least to a height of five feet — 
5. Blind is also the name given to cov- 
erings placed over the most exposed 
parts in tlie saps or the fortress. These 
are made of beams, over which hurdles 
or fescines are spread, that finally receive 
a sufficiently thick layer of earth as a 
cover. 

Buster; a topical appfication, which, 
when applied to the skm, raises the cuti- 
cle in tbe form of a vesicle, filled with 
serous fluid. The powder of tiie earUhor 
ris, or Spanish fiy, operates with most 
certainty and expedition, and is now in- 
variably used for this purpose. Morbid 
action may often be removed fiiom tbe 
system by inducing an action of a differ- 
ent kind in the same or a neighboring 
part ; hence the utility of blisters in lo- 
cal inflammation and spasmodic action. 
£xciting one pain often relieves another ; 
hence the use of blisters in tooth-ache, and 
some other painfiil affections. Lastly, blis- 
ters communicate a stimulus to the whole 
system, and raise the vi^or of the circula- 
tion ; hence, in part, their utility in fevers 
of the typhoid kmd, though, in such cases, 
they are used with still more advantage 
to obviate or remove local inflammation. 

Block, Blarcus Elieser; a naturalist 
of Jewi^ descent, bom at Anspach, 
in 1723, of poor parents. In the 19th 
year of his age, he understood neither Ger- 
man nor Latin, nor had he, with the ex- 
ception of some rabbinical writings^ read 
any thing. Nevertheless, he becune tu- 
tor in the house of a Jewish surgeon in 
Hamburg. Here he learned Uerman 
and Latin, and, besides, acquired some 
knowledge of anatomy. His principal 
work is the MUtavesckichU der IHsehe 
(Natural History of Fishes), fbl., 1785— 
1799, which is adorned wnh many col- 
ored plates. He enioyed a weU-deaerved 
reputation, and died in 1799. 

jBlockade is the interception by one 
belligerent of commonication with a place 
occupied by another. National sovereign- 
tv confera the right of declaring war, and 
the right which nations at war have of 
destroying or capturing each other's sub- 
jects or goodS| imposes on neutral nations 
the obligation not to interfere with the 
exercise of this riffht within the rules and 
limits prescribed by the kw of nations. 



In order to render the communication 
with a place unlawfiil to a neutral, a 
blockading or besieging force must be 
actually present, investmg it, and suf- 
ficiently powerfiil to render a communi* 
cation with it dangerous to a neutral, and 
expose him to seizure by the blockading 
or besieeing force. A declaration of 
aege or blockade is an act of sovereign- 
ty, hut does not require, in all cases, a di- 
rect declaration by the sovereign authori- 
ty of the besieging belligerent; for its 
officera may be invested, either expressly, 
or by implication, with authority to insti- 
tute such siege or blockade. It must, 
however, in order to be lawful and obli- 
gatory on neutrals, be declared, or sanc- 
tioned, either expressly, or by implication, 
by the sovereign power. It must also be 
declared or made public, so that neutrals 
may have notice of iL If a blockade is 
instituted by a sufficient authority, and 
maintained by a sufficient force, a neu- 
tral is so far affocted by it, that, if he at- 
tempts to trade with the place invested, 
either by carrying goods to it or bringing 
them away, the property so attempted to 
be carried to, or from the place, is liable 
to be seized by the invesnnff party, and, 
in case of being seized, is foneited. 

Blockhouse, in foitification; a house 
made of beams, ioined together crosswise, 
and often doubled, with a covering and 
loop-boles, large enough for 25 — 100 men. 
In addition to this, it is commonfV cover- 
ed vritii earth, to render it entirely bomb 
and fire-proof. It is usually sunk several 
feet into the ground. Some forts of this 
kind contain two stories; and they are 
often fitted up to receive cannon. Block- 
houses are generally built m the form of 
a square or a cross. Their use is to afford 
a feeble garrison of an important places 
which is very much exposed, an oppor- 
tunity of holding out against the cannon- 
ade and assault of the enemy till they are 
relieved. They also serve for bomb-proof 
guard-houses, and places of last resort, iu 
tbe interior of intrenchments, and in the 
covered passages of fortresses, where the 
cannon are stationed. 

Blocks are pieces of wood in which 
sheaves or pulleys are pbiced, for tiie pur- 
pose of fonning tackle, purchases, &C., in 
various operations in naval tactics and 
architectural constructien& The me- 
chanical power is described hi the article 
PuUey. (q. v.) Blocks are single, double, 
treble, and fourfold^ according as the 
number of sheaves is one, two, three or 
four. The sheaves are grooved to re- 
ceive the rope, and have in their centre a 



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BLOCKS— BLOMFIELD. 



lar 



fmsB huh, or trian^tdar piece of braaa, to 
receive the vm on which they rerolve. 
The aides of the block are caUed chuks. 
A nmmng block is attached to the ofoiecf 
lo be moved ; a Handing block is fixed to 
some permanent support* Blocks also 
receive different denominations fit>m their 
8hape» purpoM and mode of application, 
which cannot well be explained Withont 
the use of figures. No less than 200 dif- 
ferent sorts and sizes are made at Ports* 
mouth, England, for the royBl navy, be- 
sides which there are various sorts used 
only in the merchant-ships. The ma- 
ehinery for supplying the royal navy with 
blocks m the mventicm of Mr. Brunei, an 
American artist. It enables 4 men, in a 
given time, to complete the aheDs of as 
many blocks as 50 men could do by the 
old method. 

Bloemart, sometimes also Blom, Abra« 
ham, a Dutch painter, bom at Gorcum, 
m 1565, died at Utrecht, in 1647. His 
paintings are reproached with various 
mults, yet he is distinguished by the bril- 
liancy of his colorinff and the richness of 
his invention. In the representation of 
tiie ckiartjf oscuro, he may be called great. 
He painted all sorts of objects; but his 
landscapes are the most esteemed. He 
had four sons, of whom the voungest, 
Cornelius, is the most distinguished. He 
was bom at Utrecht, in 1603, and died at 
Rome, m 1660. He was an engraver, and 
his engravings are distinguished for puri- 
Dce and softness. He was the 



founder of A new school, from which pro- 
ceeded Baudot, PoiUy, Chasteau, Speier, 
Roullet, &c. 

Blois (anciently, BEeMS, and Castrum 
BUsmse) ; a city of Prance, and capital of 
lioir-ana-Cher ; 36 miles S. W. Orleans ; 
Ion. I*' 20^ E. ; kit. 47^ 35^ N. ; pop., 13,054. 
Before the revolution, it was a bishop's 
see, the seat of a lieutenant-general, a 
grand bailiwick, and capital of the Blai-* 
sois, once the aboide of the kings of France, 
B. has been several times conspicuous in 
French hfatory. There are several foun-r 
taim in different parts of the town, sup* 
plied by an aqueduct, supposed to have 
been erected by the Romans. * 

BLOMf liXD, Charles James ; doctor of 
philology, bom at Bury St. Edmund's, in 
Suffdk, in 1786. In 1804, he entered 
Trinity college, Cambridge, where he 
^tinguished himself, not only in the 
usual examinations, but also in the public 
disputations. I'he university, therefore, 
granted him, in 1806, one of the scholar- 
ships, founded by lord Craven — a high 
academical honoc; la 1806, when he 



received the bachelor's degree, he was 
declared third wrangUr, and obtained the 
first medal for a prize poem. Not long 
after, he published a new edition of the 
PrwM^eus of i^ischylus, and, in 1809, 
was chosen feOow of his coUege. His 
literary reputation soon spread; and, in 
1810, lord Bristol conferred on him the 
living of Quarrington, in lincolnsbire. 
Lord Spencer, one of the first patrons of 
literature in England, also voluntarily 
presented him witii another at Dunto«. 
There he remained seven years, during 
vrhich time he published emtions of sev- 
eral of the plays of JBschylus, amonff 
them the Promelheu9 (which he had 
printed once before^ the Seven hejhre 
ThebeSj the Persa and ,^lgamemnon; also 
a new edition of Callimachus, and, after- 
wards, in connexion with T. Rennel, the 
Musa Canlabrigienses. In 1812, he edited, 
with professor Monk, the Posthumous 
Tracts of Person. He likewise published, 
in 1814, the Advenaria Por$tmL These 
works ^ned hun such a reputation, that 
lord Bristol confened on him the livings 
of Great and Little Chesterfbrd, in Essex, 
on which account, with the permission of 
his patrons, he exchanged his cure at Dun-^ 
ton for that of Tuddenham, in Suffolk, 
To the fame which his philological and 
theological studies procured him, he was 
also indebted, in 1819, for the office of 
chaplain to the bishop of London — a 
choice whioh always falls on a man of 
acknowledged ability, it being his duty to 
examine the can^Qdates, previously to their 
ordination in this diocese. Places of this 
sort generally Imd to hi^ promotions in 
the church, and B. soon after received 
the living of St Botolph's. Since that 
time, he has lived in Loadon, visits in the 
firat circles, and supports an establiabment 
suitable to his income, which is safd to 
amount to £8000. Among his latest liter- 
ary labors, the continuation of his editioi) 
QtMBchfhu is the most important, 

Blomfield, Edward Valentine, brother 
of the former, bom in 1788, studied in 
Caius college, at Cambridge, and excited 
the highest expectationa Among several 
prizes which he received, we rnay men* 
tion the medal assigned him, in 1809, for 
his beautiful ode, In Desidenum Pononi, 
In 1812, a fellowship in Emmanuel coU 
lege was conferred on him. In 1813, he 
visited Germany, where he acquired a 
good knowledge of the German language, 
and became acquainted with Wolf in Ber- 
lin, and Schneider in Bresku. After his 
return, he wrote in the Ali»«tiifi crUicum^ 
0r Cambridge Ckiasical Researches (Pt 2)| 



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136 



BLOMFIELD-BLOOD. 



remaiicB on Gemmn literatare, which 
were received witii approbation. The 
imiveraity of Cambridge appointed him 
one of the preacheis at Sl Manr's church. 
He began a translation of Schneider's 
CrieckUeh'deuUches Lexicon, but did not 
live to finish iL Matthiee'a GneckiBche 
GrammaHk^ howerer, he translated com- 
pletely. His translation was published by 
his brother, and eveiy where well receiv- 
ed. He was in Switzerland, in 1816, with 
lys pupil, a young nobleman, and« in his 
haste to return to Cambridge, on hearing 
that he was appointed proctor for the fol- 
lowing year, the fiitigue of rapid travellinff 
occasioned a sickness, of which he died 
in October, 1816. 

Blondel ; a confidential servant and in^ 
structer in music of ilichard Coeiur de Lion 
of England, about the year 1 190. While 
his master vras tlie prisoner of the duke of 
Austria, B. went through Palestine, and 
all parts of Germany, in search of him. 
He underetood, it is said, that a prisoner 
of rank was confined in Lowenstein cas- 
tle, and hastened thither. Placing him- 
self under a grated tower, he be^an to 
sing one of Sie French lays which he 
had formerly composed tor Richard. 
Scarcely had he finished the first stanza, 
when a voice firom the dungeon of the 
tower responded. Thus he discovered 
his king, deUvered him, and gained the 
name of the JwU^ BlondeL Gr^try's 
fine opera, Richard Cceur de Lion, is 
fi>unded on this anecdote. 

B1.00D, Thomas (commonly called edo-' 
nd Blood ), was a disbanded officer of Oli- 
ver Cromwell. He took part in the revolu- 
tion in various ways, and made an attempt 
to steal the crovni and regalia from the 
Tower, in which he almost succeeded. 
Being, however, taken, he confessed his 
purpose, without showing the least fear 
of death. Charies U, from idle curiosity, 
went to see him, and B. persuaded the 
monarch to pardon him. Charletf even 
bestowed an estate vrith £500 a vear upon 
him, whilst poor Edwards, the keeper of 
the jewel-office, who valiantly defended 
the crown, and was wounded, lived for- 
gotten. 

Blood is the red fluid contained in the 
blood-vesseb (q. v.) of animal bodies. It 
is found in the mamraaUa, in birds, in 
reptiles and in fishes. In the last two 
classes of animals, the temperature of the 
blood is much lower than in the former, 
for which reason they are distinguished 
by the name coldrbiooded, while the others 
are termed uNmn-Uooittf animals. Insects 
and worms, instead of red blood, have a 



juice of a whitish color, which is eaDed 
wldie hlood. In the blood, two different 
subrtances are contiuned, which are sepa- 
rated by coagulation-— the Aenim, a fiuid 
like the white of an egg, and a thick mat- 
ter, to which the red colw properiy be- 
longs, which is much heavier than the 
former, and is called the coagulum* 
The last may be divided again into two 
difierent parts — into the cruor, or that 
part of the blood which is intrinacatly 
red, and coagulable, and Ivnmk orfihrine, to 
which the coagulation of tne blood must 
be ascribed. The fhrinty in young ani- 
mals, is much whiter than in older and 
stron^r ones. The blood of the latter 
contains much more azote than that of 
the former. If the nourishment of ani- 
mals is changed, we also find an altera- 
tion in the constituent parts of their bkxxL 
It is also changed bv diseasea In ani- 
mals that are hunted to death, or killed 
bv lightning, the blood does not coagulate. 
The blood of birds is more hij^hfy col- 
ored, and warmer, than that of viviparous 
animals, and coagulates more easily in the 
air. That of reptiles and fishes coagulates 
with difficulty. Aided by magnifying 
glasses of a strong power, one may ob- 
serve, in examining the blood of the living 
animal, or in blood which is newly drawn, 
that it consists, especially the cruor, of 
little globular bubbles, iherlohuUs of the 
blood, as they are called, the diameter of 
which amounts to about the three hun- 
dredth part of a line. In blood that has 
been drawn some time, aldiough this time 
may be very short, they are not to be dis- 
covered. They are the effect of the life 
that pervades the blood. The more robust 
and nealthy an animal is, the more glob- 
ules are perceived. They show, as it 
were, the transition fix)m the formless 
liquid to the original form of the first 
organized matter. The blood is of the 
greatest importance to the life of an ani- 
mal, and may be considered as the source 
of Ufe. As bng as the body is living, 
the blood is in perpetual motion. When 
it is taken out of the body, a remarkable 
change soon follows : it be^ns to coagu- 
late, and then undergoes, first an acetous, 
and, after a few days, a putrid fermenta- 
tion. All the blood takes its origin fix>m 
the chyle, and deposits, by degrees, the 
nourishing panicles requisite to the pres- 
ervation and growth of the body, by a 
multitude of vessels adapted thereto. This 
is done while it is driven fi^m the heart 
into the remotest parts of the body, and 
from thence back. The circulation of the 
blood is, as it were, the principle and first 



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BL009— BLOOD-VESSELS. 



Idd 



CQDidiiiQaoflife. With it, except in cases 
oT faintiDgi euiSbcatioiiy &c^ me ceases. 
The hearty the centre of the circulation 
of the blood, has a two-fold motiop, of 
contraction and dilatation, which constant- 
ly alternate. With the heart two kinds of 
Teasels are connected — ^the arteries and the 
veina {See Mood-Vesads.) The circula- 
tion of the blood proceeds with an aston- 
ishing ra|»idity : did it flow at an equal 
rate in a straight line, it would run, in the 
amice of one minute, through 149 foeU 
This swifhiess, however, exists only in 
the larger vessels near the heart ; the far- 
ther the blood recedes from the heart, tlie 
slower its motion becomes. In a grown- 
up person, in good health, we may reek- 
cm the mass of blood at 24 — 30 pounds. 
Blood- Vessels are the tubes or vessels 
m which the blood curculatea. They are 
divided into two classes, — arteries and 
veins, — ^which have two points of union 
or connexion — the first in the heart, from 
which they both originate, and the other 
in the mmute vessels or net-work, in 
which they terminate. The arteries arise 
from the heart, and convey the blood to 
all parts of the body ; the veins return it 
to the heart. The arteries distribute 
throughout the body a pure, red blood, 
for the purposes of nourishment ; while 
the veins return to the heart a dark-col- 
ored blood, more or less loaded with im- 
purities, and deprived of some of its valu- 
able properties. But this is not returned 
again to the body in the same state. For 
the heart is vrisely divided into two por- 
tions or sides, a right and left, one of 
which receives the impure blood from 
the veins, and sends it to the lungs to be 
defecated and freshly supplied with oxy- 
gen or vital air, while the other receives 
the pure red blood from the lungs, and 
circulates it anew tbrouffh the arteries. 
The arteries arise from me left ventricle 
of the heart by one large trunk, nearly an 
inch in diameter, which is gradually sub- 
divided into smaller OQes, as it proceeds 
towards the Umbs, till they terminate, at 
last, in vessels so small as to be almost 
iijviable, and in a fine net-work of cells, 
extending through the whole body, in 
which tlie blood is poured out, and nutri- 
tion or the increase of the body takes 
place, and from which the residue is 
taken up 1^ the small veins, to be re- 
turned to the heart. The arteries and 
veins are widely different in their struct^ 
ure, as well as their use& The former 
are composed of^very strong, firm, elastic 
coats or membranes, wliich are four in 
number. The external covering and the 



mtemai lin^g of ^e arteries, although 
belonging to difiSsrent classes of mem- 
branes, are both very thin and soft The 
second coat is very thick, tough and elas- 
tic, being that which chiefly gives their 
pecuhar appearance to the arteries. The 
third is formed of fibres, apparently mus- 
cular, arranged in circular rings around 
the tube of the vessels. It is well known 
that the pulse of the heart is felt in the 
arteries alone, although, in the bleecfing 
of a vein, we sometimes see the blood 
start as if in unison with the beating of 
tlie heart The pulse is produced by the 
wave or stream of blood, which is driven 
by the heart through the arteries, dis- 
tending and slightly elevating them, after 
which they msumuy contract fix>m their 
elasticity, and thus force the blood into 
the smaller vessels. The pulse varies in 
its character with the general state of the 
health. (See Pulse,) When arteries are 
cut or wounded, the firmness of their 
coats prevents tlieir closing, and hence 
arises the fetal nature of wounds of large 
vessels, which will remain open till they 
are tied up, or till death is produced. — 
The veins commence in small capillary 
tubes in eveiy part of the body, and, by 
their gradual union, form large trunks, 
till they at last terminate in two (one 
ascending fiiom the lower parts of^the 
body, the other descending mm the head 
and arms], which pour their contents into 
the heart. Their structure is much less 
firm than that of the arteries. They 
are very thin and soft, consisting of only 
two thm coats or membranea The inner, 
or lining membrane^ is finequently doubled 
into folds, forming valves, which neariy 
close tlie passage in the veins, and thus 
give veiy matenal support to the blood 
as it is moving up in them towards the 
heart These valves are not found in the 
veins of the bowels, the lungs or the 
head. The number of the veins is much 
greater than that of the arteries, an artery 
being often accompanied by two veins. 
They difter also in this, that, while the 
arteries are deeply seated in the flesh, to 
guaixl them from injury, the veins are 
very firequently superficial, and covered 
only by the skin* Tlie veins, it is well 
known, are the vessels commonly opened 
in blood-letting, although, in cases which 
render ft necessary, a small artery is 
sometimes divided-^There are two por- 
tions of tlie venous system, which do not 
coirespond exactly with our general de- 
scription ; these are the veins of the bow- 
els and of the lungs. The former circu- 
late theur blood through the liver before 



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140 



BLOOD-VGSSELS^BLOWPIPE. 



it returns to die heart, and the latter, the 
pulmonary Teins, convey red blood fiom 
the lungs to the heart (For an account 
of the circulation of the blood, see Ifearf.) 
It should also be mentioned, that the 
]arge vein, which bdnffs back the blood' 
fiom the lower part or the body, receives 
firom the lymphatic and lacteal vessels 
the chyle m>m the bowels, which sup- 
plies the waste of the blood and nourishes 
the body, and the serous and other watery 
fluids vidiich are taken up by the absorb- 
ents in all parts itf the body. 

Bloodhound ; • variety of the com- 
mon dog, called C. aagax by LinnsBUs, 
ehien cawwU by Buffon, remarkable for 
the perfection of its sense of smelL Ow- 
ing to this circumstance, these hounds 
were formerly much employed in pursu- 
ing criminals escaped fiom justice, or in 
tracing out robbers or enemies, whose 
course was inevitably discovered, when 
once the bloodhound was placed upon 
their trail In ihe border country of 
Scotland, they were formerly much em- 
ployed for such uses, but at present the 
race has become almost fbr^tten. In 
the countries of South America, the 
Spaniards employed fierce dogs to aid 
them in conquering the Indians, but it is 
not certain that the dogs, trained by them 
to this cruel ^business, belonged to the 
present variety. All the varieties of 
hound, however, have much sagacity, 
and most of the larger and stronger 
breeds have great acuteness of scent, and 
might, without much difficulty, be trained 
to aet as bloodhounds. 

Bloom FIELD, Robert, an English poet, 
bom at Honin^on, in 1766, the son of a 
tailor, learned to read at the village 
school, end, in 1781, was sent to learn 
the trade of aehoemdcerwith his brother 
in London. The visiting of several places 
of worship, of a debating society, of 
Covent garden theatre, and the reading 
of sund^ books, called forth his Acuities, 
and he became, almost unconsciously, a 
poet. Hearing him one day repeat a 
song which he had composed, his aston- 
ished brother prevailed on him to offer it 
to the London Magazine, and it was ac- 
cepted. The poem was called the Milk 
Maid. A second, the Sailor's Return, 
likewise found a plaCe in that journal. 
Thomson's Seasons, the Paradise Lost, 
and other works of this kind, now be« 
came the subjects of his constant study. 
In the country, where he resided for a 
short time, in 1786, he first conceived 
the idea of his poem, the Farmer's Boy, 
which is characterized by a spirit of rural 



simp1k»ty and innocence. It was written, 
under the most unfiivorable circnnntan- 
ces, by a journeyman shoemaker in a 
f^neL It was firot shown to Oapel Loflly 
m 1798, who was so much pleased with 
it, that, in conjunction with his fiiend 
Hill, he had it printed in 1800. It de- 
rives its principal value fix>m its strict 
adherence to truth and nature. The 
writer, in fiict, has drawn his own por- 
trait in the Fanner's Boy, and descnfaed 
the scenes and events winch he actually 
wimeased. Hence there is a degree of 
spirit and originality in the poem, which 
stamps it with the impress of genius, and 
renders it veiy pleasmg. The versifica- 
tion is uncommonly smooth and correct. 
B. also wrote a volume entitled Wild 
Flowers, containing a collection of poeti- 
cal tales, which was well received, and 
was not unworthy of his reputation. His 
latest production was Hazelwood Hall, a 
village drama, which appeared shortlv 
before his decease, a work of not much 
merit B. was patronised by the duke of 
Graflon, who bestowed on him a small 
annuity, and made him an under-sealer 
in the seal-office. This situation he was 
forced to resiffri on account of ill health. 
He then wonred again at his trade, as a 
shoemaker, and employed himself in con* 
Btructing JEohan harps. Engaging in the 
book trnde, he became a bankrupt, and, in 
the latter part of his life, was afilicted 
with violent head-aches, and became 
nearly blind. He was graduallv reduced 
to such a state of nervous irritability, that 
apprehensions were entertained of his 
becoming insane. These fears were ter- 
minated by his death, which took place 
in August, 1823. 

Blowino-Machiiies ; the hunger instru- 
ments or contrivances fer producing a 
strong and continued cuirent of air, such 
OS is necessary in smelting-houses, in large 
smitheries, &c. (See BHhtPa.) 

Blowpipe is me name applied to an 
instrument, by means of whicn the fiame 
of a candle or lamp is made to produce 
an intense heat, capable of being applied 
to a variety of useful purposes. Its most 
simple form is that of a tapering tube, 
about eight hiches in length, and curved 
neariy at right angles, within two inches 
of its smaller extremity. At its larger 
end, it is nearly a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, and at the smaller, only large 
enough to admit a common-sized pin. It 
is macle of brass or white iron. In usmg 
it, the flame of a lamp or candle is turned 
aside fix>m its vertical to a horizontal dit 
rection, by a stream of air impelled upon 



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BLOWPIPE— BLUCHER. 



141 



h, either fiom the hin^ or from a double 
bellowB, The flame, m its new directioih 
aasumee a conical simpe, and consists of 
two parts, visible by dieir different colors ; 
the outer beinff reddish-brown, and the 
inner blue. The heat at the apex of the 
inner cone is the most intense, and is 
equid to that produced in the best fur- 
naces. It is employed by the jeweller 
and goldsmith in the operation of solder- 
ing, and by other artists who fiibricate 
small objects in metal ; by the glass- 
blower in makinff thermometers, barome- 
ters and other ^uiss instruments ; by the 
enameller, and, mdeed, wherever it is re- 
quued to subject a small body to a strong 
heat — The conunon blowpipe has under- 
gone a yariety of improyements in the 
hands of the chemist, to whose researches 
it has proyed an excellent auxiliaiy. 
These consist, .principally, in providing 
its stem with a bowl, or enlargement, 
where the moisture of the breath may be 
condensed and detained ; in fitting the 
smaller end so as to receive a variety of 
little caps, or hollow cones, with orifices 
of different diameters, so as to be changed 
according as a flame is required more or 
less strong ; and in rendering the instru- 
ment more portable, by constructing it of 
several pieces, capable of being taken 
apart and packed up in the space of a 
pencil-case. With a part, or with the 
whole of these improvements, it is used 
by the chemist to make an examination 
of any doubtful mineral substance, artifi- 
cial alloy, or pharmaceutical preparation* 
This he is capable of conducting (with 
the aid of a charcoal support, and, occa- 
nonally, a little borax) ma moment's 
time, and with the loss of the smallest 
imaginable quantity of the substance. To 
the analytical chemist its use is indis- 
pensable for enabling him to discover the 
principal Ingredients in a substance, pre- 
vious to his subsequent operations for as- 
certaining their relative proportion. (For 
an account of the blowpipe in wnich 
oxygen and hydrogen gases ara em- 
ployed, see Compound Bhwpipe,) 

Blucher, Leorecht von, of^ the fiunily 
of Grossen-Rensow, in Mecklenburg, 

Erince of Wahlsttidt, field-marshal of the 
ing of Prussia, and knight of almost all 
the difiltiniruished military orders of Eu- 
rope, was bom at Rostock, Dec. 16, 1742. 
When he was 14 years of a^je, his fiither, 
a captain of hone in the service of Hesse- 
Cassel, sent him to the island of Rtigen. 
Here the si^ht of some Swedish hussars 
excited in* him the desiro of becoming a 
soldier. His parents and relations in vain 



attempted to dissuade him ficom this step ; 
he took service in a Swedish regiment of 
hussars in the capacity of a cornet His 
first campaign was against the Prupsians, 
and he was taken prisoner by the same 
regiment of hussars, which he afterwards 
commanded with so mueh honor. The 
commander of this regiment, colonel von 
BelUng^ induced him to enter into tho 
Prussian service. An exchange was 
agreed upon with the Swedes, and B. 
was made lieutenant in Belling^ regi- 
ment Discontented at tba promotion of 
other officers over his head, he left the 
army, devoted himself to agriculture, and, 
by industry and prudence, acquired an 
estate. After the death of Frederic II, 
he became a major in his former rai- 
ment, which he commanded with dis* 
tinction on the Rhine, in 1793 and 1794. 
Orchies, Luxemburg, Frankenstein, Op- 
penheim (Jan. 16, 1794), Kirweiler and 
Edesheim in the Palatinate, bear wimess 
to his achievements. After the batde of 
Leystadt, Sept 18, 1794, which added 
greatly to his reputation, he was appoint-* 
ed major-general of the army of observa- 
tion stationed on the Lower Rhine. la 
1802, in the name of the king of Prussia, 
he took possession of Erfurt and Muehl- 
hausen. Oct 14, 1806, he fought at the 
battle of Auerst&dt He then, with the 
greater part of the cavalry, followed the 
retreat of the prince of Hohenlohe to 
Pomerania. His squadron, moving on 
the left of the main army, became sepa- 
rated from it so far that a junction was 
possible only by means of forced marches, 
both in the day time and at night The 
latter, K thought himself not authorized 
to venture upon, and the prince of Ho- 
henlohe was forced to surrender at Prenz- 
lau. B., cut off from Stettin by this ac- 
cident, threw himself into Mecklenburg, 
where he joined, at Dambeck, the corps 
of the duke of Weimar, commanded by 
prince William of Brunswick-Oels. AU 
the troops, however, were too much &- 
tigued to undertake any enterprise. Hav- 
ing the grand-duke of Berg on his lefl 
flank, the prince of Ponte-corvo in his 
front, and marshal Soult on his right, B. 
was obliged to take post behind the 
Trave, in order to draw off the three 
great divisions of the French forces fix>m 
me Oder as long as possible. With this 
view, he entered into the territory of the 
free city of Lfibeck. This city was soon 
stormed by the overwhelming power of 
the French. Although B^ with some 
troops, escaped out of the ci^, yet, bein^f 
deprived of all means of derending hiok* 



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1^ 



BLUCHfX. 



ael^ or continuing his flight, he 
obliged to suirender at RaUuiu, on the 
6th of November. This, however, he 
would not do, until pennission had been 
granted him to add the following clause 
to -the instrument, that '^the capitulation 
was offered to him by the prince of Ponte- 
corvo, and that he accepted it only from 
want of ammunition, ptrovisions and for- 
age." B. was now a prisoner of war ; but 
he was soon exchanged for the French 
general Victor, and, immediately after his 
arrival at Kdnigsberg, placed at the head 
of a corps, and sent oy water to Swedish 
Pomerania, to share in the defence of 
Stralsund, and to assist the efforts of the 
Swedes. Afler the peace of Tilsit, he 
labored in the department of war at K6- 
nigsberg and Berlin. He then received 
the chief military command in Pomera- 
nia, but, at the mstigation of Napoleon, 
was afterwards, with several other dis- 
tinguished men, dismissed from the ser- 
vice. In tiie campaign of 1812, when 
the Prussians assisted the French, he 
took no part ; but no sooner did Prusna 
rise against her oppressors, than B., al- 
ready 70 years old, en jpiped in the cause 
with all lus former activity. He was ap- 
pointed commander in chief of the Prus- 
sians and the Rusnan corps under general 
Winzingerode, which, at a later f^riod, 
was separated from him. His heroism in 
the battle of Lditzen (May 2, 1813) was 
rewarded by the emperor Alexander with 
the order of St George. The battles of 
Bautzen and Haynau, those on the Katz- 
bach (see WahUktdt) and at Leipsic, added 
to his gloiy. On the Katzbach, B. de- 
feated the armv of marshal Macdcmald, 
and delivered all Silesia. His, army now 
received the name of the SiUsian, Napo- 
leon himself endeavored in vain to check 
the old general of husan, as he called 
him. Oct 3, B. crossed the Elbe at 
Wartenburg. This bold step compelled 
the great Bohemian army under Schwart- 
zenoerg, and the northern army under 
the crown-prince of Sweden, to act with 
more spirit The great battle of Leipsic 
approached. Oct 16, he sained a sig- 
nal advantage over marshal Marmont, at 
Mdckem, forcing his wav as far as the 
suburbs of Leipsic On the 18th, in con- 
nexion with the crown-piince of Sweden, 
he contributed greatly to the defeat of 
the enemy, and, on the 19tii, his troops 
made the first assault upon Leipsic. His 
promptitude and peculiar manner of at- 
tacking had already, in the beginning of 
the campaign, procured him from the 
RuiwianB the name of marMl Ibrward. 



From that time it became his name of 
honor throu|^out the whole German ter- 
ritory. Jan. 1, 1814, with the Siiesian 
army, which now consisted of two Prus- 
sian, two Russian, one Hessian and one 
mixed corps, he crossed the Rhine at 
Kaub, tooK possession of Nancy on the 
17th, gained, Feb. 1, the battie of La Ro- 
thi^re, and pushed forward towards Paris. 
His detached corps were, however, check- 
ed by Napoleon ; yet B., though with a 
great loss, effedea his retreat towavda 
Chalons. He then crossed theAisne at 
Soissons, joined the northern army, ob- 
tained, March 9, a victory over Napoleon 
at Laon, and, in coimexion with Schwart- 
jsenberff, at the close of the month, pressed 
forward to Paris. The day of Montmar- 
tre crowned this campaign, and, March 
31, B. entered the capital of France. His 
king, in remembrance of the victory 
which he had gained near Wahlstadt, 
made him prince of Wahlstadt, with a 
suitable income. In England, whither 
he foUowed the allied monarchs, in June 
of the same year, he was received by the 
people with enthusiasm. The university 
of Oxford conferred on him the decree 
of doctor of laws. He afterwards hved 
on his estates in Silesia till 1815, when 
the chief command was again committed 
to him, and he led his army into the 
Netherlands. June 15, Napoleon threw 
himself upon him, and B^ on the 16thy 
was defeated at Ugnv. In this engage- 
ment! his horse was killed, and he was 
thrown under his body. After this un- 
fortunate, yet honorable day, the true 
greatness of the field-marshal and his 
army became apparent In the batde of 
the 18th, B. amved, at the most decisnve 
moment, upon the ground, and, takins 
Napoleon in the rear and fiank, gained, 
in union with Wellington, the great vic- 
tory of Belle Alliance^ or Waterloo, (q. v.] 
He refused the proffered armistice, ana 
forced Paris to surrender ; opposing, with 
energy, on this second conquest of the 
capiud, the ^rstem of foibearance prac- 
tised on the fermer occasion. As he was 
already a knight of all the military orders 
of Europe, the king of Prusaa, to reward 
his new services, created a new order 
expressly for him. After the peace of 
Paris, the prince retired to his estates. 
Aug. 26, 1819, the anniversary of the bat- 
tie on the Katzbach, the hero received at 
Rostock, his native place, an honor which 
is seldom bestowed in Germany. The 
whole body of his countrymen, the in- 
habitants of Mecklenburg, united to erect 
a monument commemorating his glory. 



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BLUCHEII--BLUEBIRD. 



143 



executed b^rBchadow in Beriin. B. died, 
after a ehort illnesB, at his estate of Krib- 
lowitz, in Sileaia, Sept 152, 1819, aged 
almoat 77 yean. June 18, 1826, a statue 
of bronze was erected to him, m Berlin, 
12 feet in height, modelled hj Ranch, 
and cast by Le Quine and Reisinger. — 
B. was not so eminent for military sci- 
ence as for abiliw in action. He himself 
often acknowledged this, when he was 
praising the merits of Gneiaenau, to whose 
assistance he was creatlv indebted. In 
battle, however, he had the eye of a fid- 
con. His simplicity, good-nature and 
bravery endeared him to his soldiers, 
who loved him like a &ther. His ad- 
dresses and proclamations are distin- 
gjuished for their brevity, precision and 
simplicity, forming a striking contrast to 
the hi|^-soundinff French proclamations 
of the time. (See Bluuka^s L^k/snabtr 
MchreOnmg (Bliicher's life), by Vomhagen 
von Ense, Berlin, 1827.) 
Bi.UE. (See Color.) 
Blue, Pnuiian ; a coloring matter, of a 
pure daik-blue color, a doll firacture, ino* 
doroiis and insipid, insoluUe in water, 
spirits of wine or ether ; it is soluMe only 
l^ the action of corrosive alkalies. The 
discovery of this color was accidentally 
made, in 1704, bv Dieebach, a manufac- 
turer of colon, who, with the intention of 
precipitatmg the coloring matter fit>m 
cochmeal, with' which alum and vitriol of 
iron were dissolved, procured some alkaU 
firom the laboratory of DippeL This al- 
kali, which Dippel had been heating with 
some animal matter, produced a beautifUl 
blue precipitate. Dippel, discovering that 
the alkali had acquired this power of 
forming a blue precipitate of iron on ac- 
count of its mixture with animal oil, soon 
learned to prepare it in a more simple 
way, since all animal substances, and 
even all vegetables, which contain much 
azote, will give the same result. It is, 
however, necessaiy, that tf 1 the materials 
should be perfectly pure, since thepurifi- 
cation would be too expensive. The ad- 
dition of alum gives to this blue more 
body and a brighter color. This blue 
substance is a prussiate of uon (52 parts 
red oxyde of iron, and 48 of prussic acid). 
The alumina added amounts to from 20 to 
80 per cent ; but the sreater the quantity, 
the poorer is the quahty of the blue. 

BLUEBiKn {t^via $iaU$^ Wils. ; saxieo- 
la «uift9, Bonaparte). .This beautiful little 
bird is one of the eaiiiest messengen of 
spring, and is occasionally seen as eariy 
as the month of February, in mild sea- 
The middle of March is the ordi- 



naiy time of mating, when the male blue- 
bird is observed to be extremely devoted 
to the female, and shows the ardor of his 
attachment by every attention in his pow- 
er, by the rapturous animation of his song, 
and the angiy jealousy with which he re- 
pels the approaches of a rival The nest 
of the former jear is then repaired, and 
the female begins to lay her eggs, usually 
five, sometimes six, of a pale-mue color. 
Two or three broods ars raised in a sea« 
son, the younsest of which are taken care 
of by the mate, while the mother is still 
attending to the nesL The principal food 
of this species is insects, especiaUv large 
beetles, and other hard- wing or coleopte- 
rous bugs, to be found about dead or rot- 
ting trees: berries, persnnmon, and the 
seeds of various plants, are also discovered 
in their stomachs. Laive and numerous 
tape-worms infest their bowels, and they 
are also exceedingly annoyed by vermin 
externally. Wilson says, that, in this re- 
spect, they are more plagued than any 
other bird, except the woodcock. The 
spring and summer song of the bluebijrd 
is a soft and often-repeated wart)le : in 
the month of October, his song changes 
to a smffle plaintive note. About the 
middle of November, the bluebirds disap- 
pear, though, occasionally, one or two 
may be seen during the winter, in mild 
weather. The raannen of this species 
are so oentle, and they render so much 
service oy the destruction of insects, that 
they are always regarded with fcvor by 
the former. The male bluebird is six 
inches and three quarten long, with very 
full and htoad wines. All the upper 
parts are of a rich sky-blue, with purple 
reflections: the bill and legs are black. 
The female is easily known by the duller 
cast of the plumage on the back, and by 
the red on the breast not descending so 
low as in the male, and being much 
fainter. The bluebird inhabits the whole 
of the U. States, also Mexico, Brazil, Gui- 
ana and ^e Bahama islands.— Wilson 
states that ** nothing is more common, in 
Pennsylvania, than to see large flocks of 
these birds, in the spring and fall, passing 
at connderable heights in the air, fiom 
the south in the former, and from the 
north in the latter season. I have seen, 
in tlie month of October, about an hour 
after sunrise. 10 or 15 of them descend 
ftK)m a great height, and settle on the top 
of a tiffl, detached tree, appearing, fit)m 
their rilence and sedateness, to be stran- 
gen and fhtigued. After a pause of a few 
minutes, they began to dress and arrange 
theur plumage, and continued so employ- 



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144 



BLUEBIRD-BOA. 



ed for 10 or 15 minutes more ; then, on a 
few warning notes being given, perhaps 
by the leader of the party, the whole re- 
mounted to a vast heignt, steering in a 
direct line for the south-west." 

Blue Ridge ; one of the mnges of the 
Alleghany or Appalachian mountains, 
which extends from the river Hudson to 
Georgia, and intersects tlie state of Vir- 
ginia from N. £. to S. W., dividing it into 
two parts, nearly equal. The great lime- 
stone valley extends along the N. W. 
side of this range. The most elevated 
summits of the Blue Ridge are the 
peaks of Otter, in Bedford county, Vir- 
ginia. 

Blue-Stocking ; a pedantic female ; 
one who sacrifices the characteristic ex- 
cellences of her sex to learning. The 
origin of this name, in England, is thus 
given by Boswell, in his Life of Johnson : 
"About this time (1780), it was much the 
fashion for several ladies to have evening 
assemblies, where the fair sex might par- 
ticipate in conversation with literary and 
ingenious men, animated with a desire to 
please. These societies were denomi- 
nated hlue-stocking dvbs^ the origin of 
which name was as follows: — One of the 
most eminent members of these societies 
was Mr. Stillingfleet, who always wore 
blue stockings. Such was the excellence 
of his conversation, that his absence was 
felt as a great loss, and it used to be said, 
^We can do nothing without the blue 
stockings ;' and thus, by degrees, the title 
was established."— In Germany, blue- 
stodiinff {blau-sirumpfe) signifies a traitor, 
a slanderer, an infamous lover, &c., and 
the term, in that countiy, is said to be de- 
rived from the blue stockings formerly 
worn by procurers. 

Blumauer, Aloysius, a poet, and femous 
parodist, bom at Steyr, m Austria, above tlie 
Ens, in 1755, studied in his native city, en- 
tered (1772) into the order of the Jesuits in 
Vienna, hved there privately, after the abo- 
lition of his order, till he was appointed 
censor, which place he resigned in 1793, 
and took the establishment of the booksel- 
ler Graeffer, in which he had been concern- 
ed since 1786. He died in 1798. By his 
iEneid travestied, he distinguished hunself 
as a burlesque poet It is a poetical farce, 
rich in burlesque wit and droll contrasts. 
These qualities are also to be found in 
several others of his numerous poems. 
Some of them are full of animation, and 
are written in a pure, manly style. At 
times, his wit is vulgar, his language in- 
correct and prosaic A collection of his 
works appeauned at Leipac, 1801—3, 8 vols. 



Blumsnbacr, John Frederic, doctor. 
This profound naturalist is, at present, 
one of the first ornaments of the univer- 
sity at Gottingen, where he has lectured, 
for 50 years, with unabated industry, on 
natural history, phymology, osteology, 
comparative anatomy, pathology, and 3ie 
history of medical literature, to very nu- 
merous audiences. He has written on 
almost all these sciences with acuteness, 
method and precision. His worics bear 
the stamp or his peculiar genius, and 
some of them have been several times 
published. His masterly, but, at present, 
somewhat antiquated &ndbuch der Jsta^ 
tutgetchichtt (Compendium of Natural 
History) was published, in 1825, for the 
11 th time. Of his Handbuch der Pkysio- 
logit (Compendium of Physiology) tnere 
is an Enghsh translation, the second edi- 
tion of which (1818) is also remarkable 
for being the first book ever printed by 
mechanical power. — ^B. was bom at Go- 
tha. May 11, 1752 ; studied in Jena and 
Gottingen, where he received his degree 
of doctor of medicine. Sept 19, 1775. In 
1776, he was appointed director of the 
cabinet of natunJ curiosities belonging to 
the university, and professor extraordma- 
ry of medicine, and, in 1778, ordinary 
professor of the same. In 1783, he un- 
dertook a literary journey to Switzerland, 
and, at a later period, one to England, 
where the attentions of the celebrated sir 
Joseph Banks were particularly servifeea* 
ble to him. He possesses an excellent 
collection of books and engravings illus- 
trating natural history, and numerous spe- 
cimens of natural curiositieSi The collec- 
tion of skulls is not, perhaps, quailed in 
the world. On this collection is founded 
his CoUeciio Craniorun dkers. ^erU, if- 
lu8tr.j with engravings, of which six 
numbers (Gottingen, 1790—1820) have 
appeared. Schnader called a newly-dis- 
covered species of plants afler his name, 
Blim&nhackia instgnis. The 50th anni- 
versaiy of his professorship in the univer- 
sity of Gottingen was celebrated Feb. 26, 
1826. 

Boa ; the name of a genus of reptiles 
belonging to Cuvier*s tribe of serptnis 
proper ; having the tympanic bone or 
pedicle of the lower jaw movable, which 
is itself almost always suspended to an- 
other bone analogous to the mastoid, at- 
tached to the skull by muscles and liga- 
ments, which contribute to its mobihty. 
The branches of this jaw are not united, 
and those of the upper jaw are attached 
to the intermaxillary bone only by Hga- 
ments, so that these animals can dilate 



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BOA. 



145 



the mouth sufficiently to swallow bodies 
lareer thap. themselves. Their palatic 
arches partake of this mobility. In the 
species of this tribe DOt possessed of ven^ 
om, the branches of the upper and lower 
jaw, throughout their entue length, as 
well as the palate bones, are armed with 
pointed, recurved, solid and permanent 
teeth, forming four nearly equal rows 
above, and twp below. — The ^nus boa 
comprises all those serpents which, in ad- 
dition to the preceding characters, have 
the scuta on the under part of the tail sin- 
gle ; a hook on each side of the vent; the 
tail prehensile ; the body compressed and 
largest in the middle, and with small 
scales, at least on the posterior part of the 
head. — The species properly belonging 
to this genus are among the largest of 
the serpent tribe, some of them, when 
full grown, being 30 and even 40 feet 
long. Though destitute of fangs and ven- 
om, nature has endowed them with a de- 
See of muscular power which renders 
em terrible. Happily, they are not com- 
mon in situa^ons much frequented by 
mankind, but are chiefly found in the 
vast marshy regions of Guiana, and other 
hot parts of the American continents Al- 
though sufficiently active when fasting 
or hungry, they hecome very sluggish 
and inert after having gorged their prey, 
at which time they are most easily de- 
stroyed. In order to obtain their food, the 
hoa of largest size attach themselves to 
the trunk or branches of a tree, in a situa- 
tion likelv to be visited by quadrupeds 
lor the sake of pasture or water. There 
the serpent swings about in the air, as if 
a branch or pendent of the tree, until 
some luckless animal approaches; tlien, 
suddenly relinquishing its position, swifl 
as lightning he seizes the victim, and coils 
his body spirally round its throat and chest, 
until, alter a few ineffectual cries and strug- 

fles, the animal is suffix^ated, and expires. 
Q producing this effect, the serpent does 
not merely wreathe itself around its prey, 
but places fold over fold, as if desirous of 
adding as much weight as possible to the 
muscular effi)rt: these folds are then 
gradually tightened vrith enormous force, 
and speedily induce death. The animals 
thus destroyed by the larger 6ocb are deer, 
dogs, and even bullocks. The prey is 
then prepared for beins swallowed, which 
the creature accomplisnea b^ pushing the 
limbs into the most convement position, 
and then covering the sur&ce with a glu- 
tinous saliva. The reptile commences 
the act of deglutition by taking the muz- 
zle of the prey into its mouth, which is 

VOL. II. 13 



capable of vast extension ; and, by a soe- 
cesKon of wonderfUl muscular contract 
tions, the rest of the body is gradually 
drawn in, -with a steady and regular 
motion. As the mass advances in the 
gullet, the parts , through which it has 
passed resume their former dimensions, 
though its immediate situation is always 
betrayed by external protuberance. — As 
already mentioned, the species of boa are 
peculiar to the hot parts of South Ameri- 
ca, though nothine is more common than 
the error of confounding the great ser- 
pents of India, Africa, &c., with the 
proper hocu According to the researches 
of Cuvief, all the boa, at present well de- 
termined, are natives of^ the new conti- 
nent The great serpents of the old con- 
tinent belong to the genus python {D&udX 
and will be treated of under that title. It 
is nevertheless true, that PUny has spoken 
of the huge serpents of India, and after- 
wards of large serpents of Italy, which 
were called (kmb, thus named from the cir- 
cumstance of their being at first fed with 
cow's milk. — ^Among the most celebrated 
species is the boa corutridor (L.), distin* 
guished by a large chain, formed alter* 
nately of large, blackish, irregular hexag- 
onal spots, witJi pale, oval spots, notch- 
ed at their two extremities, along the 
back. This is the largest species, and is 
usually confounded, by casual observers, 
with the python Tigris of the old world. 
The B, cenchris (L.), and the B. scytalty et 
musina (L.), attain to nearly an equal size 
with the constrictor (from 20 to 30 feet 
long), and are all natives of the torrid and 
marshy regions of America. The other spe- 
cies are of smaller size, and some do not 
much exceed that of the largest common 
snakes. We cannot reflect upon the natural 
history of these great reptiles, witiiout be- 
ing struck with their pecuhar adaptation to 
the situations in which the^ are oommoiK' 
ly most abundant In regions bordering 
on great rivers, which, iSe the Oriaoco, 
&C., annually inundate vast tracts of coun- 
try, these serpents Uve securely among 
the trees with which the soil is covered, 
and are capable of enduring very pr^ 
tracted hunger without much apparent 
suffering or diminution of vigor. Nox- 
ious as such districts are to human life, 
they teem with a gigantic and luxuriant 
vegetation, and are the fiivorite haunts of 
numerous animals, preyed upon, and, to a 
certain degree, restncted in their increase, 
by the boa. As their prey come within 
their reach,^they requue no deadly appa- 
ratus of poison to produce their destruc- 
tioD, amce nature has endowed them with 



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146 



BOA— BOCCACCIO. 



muscular strength suipenngthatof ahnost 
ereiy other creature, in proportion to their 
size. Once fidrly involved m the crushing 
folds of the constridm-f the strength of the 
strongest man would not prove of the 
slightest avail ; indeed, from tlie ease with 
wmch larger and more powerful crea- 
turoe are put to death by these serpents, 
it is evident that any number of unarmed 
jnen would act very unwisely to provoke 
a combat with enemies endowed with 
powers of such dreadful energy. 

BoADicEA ; queen of thelceni, in Brit- 
ain, during the reign of Nero. Having 
bec^ treated in the most ignominious 
manner by the Romans, she headed a 
general insurrection of tlie Britons, at- 
tacked the Roman settlements, reduced 
London to ashes, and put to the sword all 
strangers, to the number of 70,000. Sue- 
tdnius, the Roman general, defeated her 
in a decistve battle, and B., rather than 
611 into the hands of her enemies, put an 
end to her own life by poison. 

Boat ; properly, a vessel propelled by 
oars. In a more extensive sense, the word 
is applied to other small vessels, which 
difibr in construction and name, according 
to the services in which they are em- 
ployed. Thus they are light or stronsr, 
sharp or flat-bottomed, open or decked, 
&c., according as they are intended for 
swiflness or burden, deep or shallow wa- 
ter, &c — ^The barge is a long, lieht, nar- 
row boat, employed in haii)ors, but unfit 
for sea.— The Umg-boat is the lai^t boat 
belonging to a ship, generally furnished 
with sails, and is emploved for cruising 
short distances, bringing heavy articles on 
board, &c^— The Umnen is more flat-bot- 
tomed than the long-boat, which it has 
generally supersede(L— The pinnace re- 
sembles a bar^, but is smaller.— The 
CMUers of a ship are broader and deeper 
than the barge or pinnace, and are em- 
liloyed in carrying hght articles, passen- 
^e^&c on board. — Yawls are used for 
similar purposes, and are smaUer than 
cutters. — ^A gig is a long, narrow boat, 
used for expecudon, and rowed with six 
or eight oars.— The joUy-boai is smaller 
than a yawl, and is used for going on 
afaorb* — ^A merchant-ship seldom has more 
than two boats, a long-boat and a yawL — 
A uherry is a light, sharp boat, used in a 
river or harbor, for transporting nessen- 
gera.— A puni is a flat-Dottomea boat, 
chiefly used for one person to go on shore 
.fimm small vessels.— A ikiff is a small 
boat, like a yawl, used for passmg rivers. 
— A MoBti is a flat-bottomed boat, used in 
the West Indies for eanymg hogsheads 



from the shore to ships in the roads. — A 
fducca is a large passage-boat, used in 
the Mediterranean, with fh>m 10 to 16 
banks of oars. — Seow is an American 
word, signifying a large, flat-bottomed, 
heavy boiat, abmit 90 teet lonff, and 12 
vride. In some parts of the IL. States, it 
is called a gondoku (See Canoe^ OaSley^ 
&c.) 

Boccaccio, Giovanni, whose name 
alone, as Mazzuchelli justly says, is equiv- 
alent to a thousand encomiums, was the 
son of a Florentine merchant His fhmily 
came, originally, from Certaldo, a village 
in Tuscany; whence he gives himself 
the appellation da Certaldo, He was the 
offspring of an illicit connexion which his 
fother formed, while on a visit of busi- 
ness, at Paris, and was bom in that city, 
1313. He eariy removed to Florence, 
where he bej;an his studies, and, even in 
childhood, discovered a decided fondness 
for poetry. In his 10th vear, his father 

Eut nim under the care of'^a merchant, to 
e educated in his business. With him 
he returned to Paris, and remained there 
six vears, without acquiring any fondness 
for his profession. His residence of eight 
years at Naples viras eoually inefiectual 
to this punxMe. Insteaa of attending to 
trade, he formed the closest intimacy with 
several learned men of Florence and 
. Naples, who had been drawn thither by 
that patron of the arts, king Robert There 
is nothing to prove that he shared in the 
fevor of the prince ; but he enjoyed the 
particular affection of a natural dau^htef 
of his, for whom he composed many pieces 
in prose and verse, and to whom he often 
pays homage under the name of Fiam* 
metta. Placed in fortunate circumstances, 
with a lively and cheerfol disposition, of 
a soft and pleasing address, the fiivored 
lover of a king's daughter, he regarded 
with more aversion than ever the sta- 
tion for which he had been intended. 
The fondness of the princess for poetry ; 
his own intimacy with scientific and tite- 
rary men ; the tomb of Virffil, near Naples, 
which he used to visit in nis walks ; the 
presence of Petrarch, who was received 
with the highest dlsdncuon at the court 
of Naples, and who went from that city 
to Rome, to be crowned with the poetic 
laurel ; the indmacy which had arisen be- 
tween the two poets ; — all operated power- 
fbUy on R, to strengthen and fix his 
natural inclination for poetry and litera- 
ture. After living two years at Florence 
with his fitther, he returned to Napleau 
where he viras very gracioudly received 
by die queen Joanna. It is thought that 



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BOCCACCIO. 



147 



h w» DO kn to gnti^r the voung queeo^ 
than his Fiammetta, that he wrote his 
Dteamenmf wluch has raised him to the 
rank of the fint ItaUan prose-writer. On 
the death of his jfiuher, becoming master 
of his own inclinations, he settled at 
Florence, where his first woric was a de- 
scription of thcpkigue, which forms the 
opening of the Deeammm, He after- 
wants wrote the life of Dante. He was 
chosen to inform Petrarch, at Padua, of 
his recall firom exile, and the restoration 
of tlie properly bek>np^g to his fiither, 
who had died during his absence. The 
friendship of these two men of genius 
continued for life. When B., some years 
aflen had exhausted his fortune in the 
purchase of cosdy books, and in expen- 
sive pleasures, he found in Petrarch the 
most generous assistance : the wise coun- 
sels of his fiiend wera now as beneficial 
to his morals as they had been to his 
writings ; in fact, to bun he was indebted 
for the change which took place in his 
character. A dying Carthusian had per- 
suaded him to renounce all the pleas- 
ures of the world: Petrarch softened his 
determination, and brought him back to 
that proper ooedium i^ch maiks the 
truly wise man. New troubles in Flor- 
ence induced him to retire to Certaldo, 
where he owaed a small estate. There 
he prosecuted his labors in tranquillity. 
He now composed several historical 
works in Latin. Among these is the 
first modem work which contains, in a 
collected form, the mythological notices, 
which are scattered in the writings of the 
ancients. He was well Teroed in Greek, 
and had, at his own expense, brought 
Leontius Pilatus of Thessalonica fiom 
Venice to Ftorence, and maintained bun 
three yeais at his boose, in order to learn 
Greek of him, and to have his assistance 
in explaining the poems of Homer, and 
translating them into Latin. He was the 
first who procured copies of the Iliad 
and Odyssey from Greece, at his own 
expense, and spared neitlier cost nor 
trouble to obtain eood Greek and Latin 
manuscriptsL At Sie same time, he used 
all his influence to excite his contem- 
poraries to learn the Greek language, 
and substitute the study of the ancients 
for that of the scholastic philosophy. 
The reputation which he bad gamed 
twice procured for him important mis- 
sions to pope UrtMui V. Having fulfilled 
these, he returned to Certaldo^ and re- 
anmed his studies. Here he was attadced 
by a severe and lingering disorder, which 
ftielljr left him in a state of debility as 



painfiil as the disease itself. Upon his 
recovery, he was charged with adifficcdt, 
but very flatterin(|[ trust Dante had al« 
ways been the object of his highest ad- 
miration. The Florentines, who had 
once persecuted and banished that illus- 
trious poet, but now did justice to his 
merits, had resolved, by way of atone* 
ment to his memoiv, to estabush a public 
professorship for the illustmtion of his 
poems, whieh were eveiy day beicoming 
more obscure, as the distance of the time 
when they were written became greater. 
This new profevorsbip was conferred 
upon B., who devoted himself to it with 
so much ardor, that his heal& could never 
be firmly reestablished. This received a 
further shock from the death of his in- 
structor and dearest friend Petraroh. He 
survived him not much more than ayear, 
and died at Certaldo, Dec. 21, 1375. On 
his tomb was placed this inscription, com- 
posed by himself: 

Hac aob mole jaeent cineres ac cwsa Joannif^ 
Mens sedet aute Deum mentis oniata labonim, 
Monalis vitie. Genitor Bocchaccius ilH, 
Patria Certaldami sakUiun fuit alma poesii. 

— ^B. af^ars, in all his works, to be a poet 
of the richest invention, the most Hvely 
imagination, andthetenderest and warm- 
est feeling. In prose, he is a perfect 
master of composition. His i>ec(tm«ron, 
which contiJns a collection of a hundred 
tales, partly borrowed from the Proven^ 
poets, is the worit on which his fiuiae 
chiefly rails. In this he painted, as it 
were, on one vast canvas, men of all 
ranks, characters and ages^ and incidents 
of eveiy kind, the most extravagant and 
comical, as well as the most touching and 
tra^c; and improved the Italian lan- 
ffuage to a degree of excellence never 
before attained. Of his other worics, we 
will mention only the following : La 3Vr 
seidCy the first attempt towards an Italiaii 
epic, and written in oUaoa rima, of which 
B. is considered the inventor; Amorosa 
Fmone, a long poem in terza rtma (the 
initial letters of which form two sonnets 
and a canzonet, in pruse of the princess 
Maria, his mistress, whom he here ven- 
tures to address by her proper name] ; Jl 
FUoHnUo, a romantic poem m ottaoa rtma ; 
MmfaU FUtolano^ in the same measure ; 
Rime; (most of his sonnets, canzonets, 
and other amatory poems, he consigned 
io the flames, after reading the Italian 
poems of Petraroh ; those which remaip 
appear to have been preserved against hiei 
vn&) ; 11 FUoeopOf owero anwrosa FaHcOf a 
hunting romance; L*amoro$a FiammuA^ 
tOf a chamung tale ; VUrbano (thought 



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B0Ca\CCIO— BOCHICA. 



by some to be spurious) ; I2Amdo ossia 
NixMU d^Amdo^ a' mixed composition, 
partly in prose, and partly in verse; U 
Corhaeeio, ossia Laberinto (PAmore, a pun- 
gent satire against a lady who had of- 
fended him ; and, finally, OrigiiUy vita e 
Coshmi di Dante Mtgkuriy a work inter- 
esting for the characteristic traits which 
it records; and his Commenio sopra la 
Commedia di Damtty which, however, is 
carried no farther than the 17th canto of 
Dante's Hell. His Latin works are, Dt 
Qenealogia Deorum^ Ubri xv; De Mon- 
Hum, Lacuum, Sylvarum, Fluvwrum^ Stag- 
norum et Marium Nbmimbus Liber ; lie 
Casibus Virorum et Feminarum iUustriuv^ 
Libri iv; De daris Mulieribus ; and Ec- 
logcR, — A new critical edition of the De- 
cameron, with a historical literary com« 
roentary, and the life of B., was published 
at Paris, 1823, in 5 vols. — In the ducal 
library at Florence, among the manu- 
scripts collected by the celebrated Mag- 
llabecchi, prof Ciampi lately discovered 
a memorandum-book of B., containing a 
record of his studies, and some curious 
circumstances relating to himself and a 
number of his distinguished contempora- 
ries. It has been published. 

BoccAO£, Marie Anne du, a celebrated 
French poetess, member of the acade- 
mies of Rome, Bologna, Padua, Lyons 
and Rouen, was bom in Rouen, 1710, 
died 1802. She was educated in Paris, 
in a nunnery, where she discovered a 
love of poetiy. She became the wife of 
a receiver of taxes in Dieppe, who died 
BOOB after the marriage, leaving her a 
youthful widow. She concealed her tal- 
ents, however, till the charms of youth 
were past, and first published her pro- 
ductions in 1746. The first was a poem 
on the mutual influence of the fine arts and 
sciences. This gained the prize fi^m the 
academy of Rouen. She next attempted 
an imitation of Paradise Lost, in six can- 
tos ; then, of the Death of Abel ; next, a 
tragedy, the Amazons ; and a poem in 
10 cantos, called the Columbiad, Madame 
du Boccage was praised by her contem- 
poraries with an extravagance, for which 
only her sex and the charms of her per- 
son can accoimL Forma Venus, arte 
Minerva, was the motto of her admireiB, 
amonff whom were Voltaire, Fontenelle, 
and Clairaut She was always surrounded 
by distinguished men, and extolled in a 
multitude of poems, which, if collected, 
would fill several volumes. There is a 
great deal of entertaining matter in the 
letters which she wrote on her travels in 
England and Holland, and in which one 



may plainly see the imfn^esBion she made 
upon her contemporaries. Her works 
have been translated into English, Span- 
ish, German and Italian. 

BoccHERiifi, Luigi, a celebrated com- 
poser of instrumental mumc, was bom in 
1740, at Lucca, and received from the 
abbot Vanucci, music-master of the arch- 
bishop, his first insdruction in music and 
on the violoncello. He fijrther improved 
himself in the art at Rome, and aftenvards 
went, with Filippo Manfi-edi, his friend 
and countryman, to Spain, where he was 
loaded with honors and presents, by the 
king, and was appointed by the academy 
to furnish nine pieces of his composition 
annually, which he continued to do till 
his death, in 1805. The king of fmssia, 
Frederic William II, who was a great 
lover of the violoncello, and admired B.'s 
compositions, settled upon him' a consid- 
erable pension, on condition of his send- 
ing him yearly some of his quartets and 
quintets. The compositions which B. 
has published himself consist of sympho- 
nies, sextets, quintets, quatuors, trios, du- 
ets and sonatas for the violin, violoncello 
and piano-forte. He never composed any 
thing for the theatre, and of church com- 
positions we find but one, his Slabat Ma- 
ter, The adagios of B. excited the admi- 
ration of the coimoisseurs, and the despair 
of the composers of his time. He may 
be regarded as the precursor of Haydn, as 
he was the first who wrote instmmental 
quartets, of which all the parts are obli- 
goto, and determined the tme character 
of this species of music. His melodies 
are more highly esteemed in France and 
Spain than in Germany. 

BoccHETTA ; a narrow pass of the Apen- 
nines, leading from Lombardy to Genoa. 
It is defended by three fortifications. In 
the Austrian war of succession (1746 and 
1747), and in the French war, towards 
the end of the 18th century, it was the 
scene of several important events. 

BocHicA was the founder of the Indian 
empire of Cundinamarca. The inhabit- 
ants of the valley of Bogota had a tradi- 
tion, at the period of die Spanish con- 
quest, that, in remote times, their ancestors, 
the Muisca Indians, lived without agricul- 
ture, laws or religion. At length there 
appeared among them a venerable old 
man, of foreign aspect, dress and maimers, 
who taught them the arts of life, and re- 
claimed mem from their savage condition. 
He was known by three names — Bochi- 
ca, JSTemqueteba and Zuke, Accompany- 
ing him was a. beautifijl female, named 
Chia, who, unlike the wife of Manco €&• 



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BOCmCA-^BODIN. 



1« 



■My prided henalf in thwafting her hus- 
Mod^ beneficent purposes. Making the 
rirer of Bogoti to oveifiow by magic, she 
deluged the whole valley, and reduced 
the inhabitants to the necessity of fleeing 
to the mountains for safety. Hereupon 
Bochica expelled the malevolent Chia 
firom the eaith, and she became the moon. 
Then, tearing asunder the rocks of Te- 

auendama, he gave the waters an exit by 
lese celebrated fiills, and fiieed the valley 
of Bogota from inundation. Introducing 
the worship of the sun, and persuadinff the 
inhabitants to cultivate the soil, he laid the 
foundations of a state, which held the same 
rank, in this part of America, which Peru 
did ftrther to the south. The institutions 
of this people very strikingly resembled 
those or the incas, and mrhaps had a 
coi|imon origin ; but, at the time of the 
conouest of South America, they consti- 
tuted a distinct people, and possessed a dis^ 
tinct religion. (See Bo^ti^ CStntUnamarea, 
Mxdaca ; Compagnom, America, xix, 107). 
BocKH, Auffustus, one of the greatest 

Philologists of our times, was bom at 
Jarlsruhe, 1785, studied at Halle, and, in 
Idll, became professor of classical litera* 
ture at Berlin. Two works will immor- 
talize the name of B. with the students 
of ancient literature ; first, his edition of 
Pindar, which he announced to the pub- 
lic by his Sptdmen EmeniaJli<mum in i'ui- 
^ioHCariiitna (1810), and by 0&9enNiKone« 
Critica in Pindaric Prim^ Olymp^ Carm, 
(1811; the larffe Leipsic edition, 1811 — 
1821, is in 3 vols., 4to.). A new arrange- 
ment of the Pindaric measures is here 
proposed, founded on deep and extensive 
researches into the music of the Greeks. 
Even those who entirely reject the hy- 
potheses of this philologist cannot but 
acknowledge his erudition, and admire 
his acuteness. The other work, to which 
we have alluded, is on the Political Econ- 
omy of the Athenians (4 books, Berlin, 
1817, 2 vols.). No woriL has hitherto 
appeared in Germany, which throws so 
much light on the political life and public 
administration of any ancient people, as 
this of B. It has fiinushed new means 
fi>r illustrating the Attic oratora and histo- 
rians. B. has added to this work 21 in- 
scriptions. Of IflM years, he has been 
busily engaged in preparing a vroik under 
the patronage of the Beriin academy of 
science, of vvhich he is a member, called 
Corpus hucripUonum Gnecarum, of which 
the fiist volume appeared, in 1825, at Ber- 
lin, in fi>lio. The smaller writings of this 
author relate chiefl v to Plato (of whose 
woriu he promised, some time siace, to 
13* 



give a new edition), and to the Platomc 
philosophers. 

Bode, John Elert, an astronomer, bom 
at Hamburg, 1747, early discovered m 
inclination for mathematical science, in 
which his &ther, and, afterwards, the 
famous J. G. BiJisch, instructed him. He 
gave the fii^st public proof of his knowlt 
edge by a short work on the solar ecHpse 
of Aug. 5, 1766. The approbation which 
this received encouraged him to greater 
labors, and in 1768 appeared his Intnn 
duction to the Knowledge of the Starry 
Heavens (9th ed. 1822) ; a fiuniliar trea-r 
rise on astronomy, which has done much 
for the extension of correct views upoii 
the subject, and continues to do so, as it 
has kept pace, in its successive editions, 
with the progress of the science. In 
1772, the Berlm academy chose him their 
ostronomer, and, ten years afterwards, he 
was made a manber of that institution. 
His best works are his Astronomical Al-r 
manac (commencing 1774)— a work indi»r 
pensable to eveiy astronomer ; and his , 
large Celestial Atlas (H!mmd$aU(u\ ii| 
20 sheets, in which the industrious editor 
has given a catalogue of 17,240 stars 
(12,000 more than in any former charts), 
B. was released in 1825, at his own wish, 
irom his duties in the academy of sciencci 
and the observatory in Berlin. His place 
was filled by professor Cncke, foimerly 
astronomer at Gotha. 

BoniN, Jean, a political writer of the 
16th century, was bora in 1530 or 1529, 
at Angers ; studied law at Toulouse ; de^ 
livered lectures on jurispradence there, 
and afterwaids went to Paris and practise 
ed. Being unauccessfial in his profession, 
he turned his talents to literary labora; 
was invited by Henrv III to his court ; 
and afterwards traveUed vrith the kmg's 
brother Francis, duke of Alencon and 
Anjou, to Ffamders and England, where 
he had the gratification or hearing lec^r 
tures, in Cambridge, on his work Ve k( 
RipubKque (originallv written in French^ 
but afterwards translated, by B. himself 
into Latm). When the duke died, he 
went to Laon, married there, obtamed f| 
judicial office, and was sent, by the third 
estate in Vermandois^ 1576, as deputy, to 
the estates of Blois^ Here he defended 
the riffhts of the people, and the liberty or 
conscience. His conduct made him many 
enemies at court He also prevailed on 
the city of Laon to declare itself for the 
league, m 1589, representing to the people, 
that the rising of so many tovnis and |Mir-r 
liaments, in favor of the duke of Guise, 
lyas not a rebdlion,but rather a powerfiii 



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BODIN->BODONI. 



political resolution. He afterwards, how- 
ever, submitted to Hemy IV. He died, 
1596, at Laon, of the plague. His great 
work is that entitled De la Ripubliquey in 
which he gave the first complete essay 
towanis a scientific treatise on politics, 
and, guided by bis own experience, sought 
to strike out a middle course between the 
advocates of monarchy and democrac]^. 
His Dhnonomame, and hid Tfuatrum Uni' 
versa JSTatura (Lvons, 1596), show how 
superstition and leaniing w^ere united in 
his character; but the charge of atlieism, 
which is munded particularly on a work 
entitled Hepiaplmneron^ proceeds firom the 
rehgious indinerence which was noticed 
in h'un by his contemporaries. 
Bodleian Library. (See Libraries.) 
BoDLET, mr Thomas; the founder of 
the Bodleian library at Oxford. He was 
bom at Exeter, in 1544, and educated 
partly at Geneva, whither his parents, who 
were Protestants, had retired in the reign 
of queen Mary. On the accession of 
Elizabeth, they returned home, and he 
completed his studies at Magdalen col- 
lege, Oxford. He afterwards became a 
fellow of Merton college, and read lectures 
on the Greek langua^ and philosophy. 
He went to the continent in 1576, and 
spent four years in travelling. He was 
afterwards employed in various embassies 
to Denmark, Germany, France and Hol- 
land. In 1597, he returned home, and 
dedicated the remainder of his life to the 
reestablishment and auffmentation of* the 
public library at Oxford. This he accom- 
plished, procuring books and manuscripts 
nimself^ both at home and abroad, at a 
great expenae, and, by his influence and 
persuasions, inducing tiis fiiends and ac- 
quaintance to assist in his undertaking. 
Sir Robert Ck>tton, sir Henry Savile, and 
Thomas Allen, the mathematician, were 
among the principal contributors on this 
occasion. The library was so much aug- 
mented, that sir Thomas B., who was 
knighted at the accession of James I, was 
induced to erect an additional structure 
for the reception of the increasing quan- 
tity of valuable books and manuscripts. 
He died in London, 1612, and was interred 
in the chapel of Merton college, in the 
university. He bequeathed neariy the 
whole of his property to the support and 
augmentation of the" library, which has 
been so much enriched by subsequent 
benefactions, that it is, at present, one of 
the most magnificent institutions of the 
kind in Europe. (See RdiquuB Bodki- 
airuB^ London, 1703.) 
BoDMSB, John Jacob ; a celebrated Ger- 



man poet and scholar, bom at Greifensee, 
near Zurich, July 19, 1698. Although 
he produced nothing remarkable of his 
ovm in poetry, he helped to open the way 
for the new German hterature in this de- 
partment. He was the antagonist of Gott- 
sched, in Leipsic, who aspired to be the 
literary dictator of the day, and had em- 
braced the French theory of taste, while 
B. inclined to the English. He has the 
honor of having had Klopstock and Wie- 
land among his scholars. B. was, ibr a 
longtime, professor of historjr in Switzer- 
land. He was a copious and indefati^ble 
writer, entertained many incorrect views, 
but was of service, as we have already 
said, to the German literature, which was 
then in a low and barbarous state. He 
died at Ztirioh, 1783. 

BoDONi, Giambatista, superintendent of 
the royal press at Parma, chief printer of 
his Catholic majesty, i^ember of several 
academies of Italy, knight of several high 
orders, was bom, 17&, at Saluzzo, in 
Piedmont, where his father owned a 
printing establishment. He began, while 
yet a boy, to employ himself in engraving 
on wood. His labors meeting with suc- 
cess, he went, in 1758, to Rome, and was 
made compositor for the press of the 
Propaganda, By the advice of the su- 
penntendent, he made himself acquainted 
with the Oriental languages, in order to 
qualify himself for the kmd of printing 
required in them. He thereby enabled 
himself to be of great service to tliis press 
by restoring and putting in place the 
types of several Oriental luphabets, which . 
had fallen into disorder. The infant don 
Ferdinand, about 1766, had, with a view 
of difiusing knowledge, established a print- 
ing-house in Parma, afler the model of 
those m Paris, Madrid and Turin. B. was 
placed at the head of this establishment, 
which he made the first of the kind m 
Europe, and gained the reputation of 
having far surpassed all the splendid and 
beautiful productions of his predecessors 
in the art. The beauty of his type, ink 
and paper, as well as the w^hole manage- 
ment of the technical part of the work, 
leaves nothing for us to vrish ; but the 
intrinsic value of his editions is seldom 
equal to their outward splendor. His 
Homer is a truly admirable and magnifi- 
cent work ; indeed, his Greek letters are 
the most perfect imitations that have been 
attempted, in modem times, of Greek 
manuscript. His splendid editions of 
Greek, Latin, Italian and French classics 
are highly prized. He died at Padua, 



tijgniv pn 

sS, isia 



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BQEHME— BOBOnA. 



151 



Botes. {BwBoi&MU.) 

BoEHME, or BoEHM, Jscob ; one of the 
most renowned mystics of modem times; 
bom, in 1575, at Altseidenberg, a village 
in Upper Lusatia, near G6rlitz ; was the 
son of poor peasants; remained to his 
10th year without instmction, and em- 
ployed in tending catde. The beautiful 
and sublime objects of nature kindled his 
imajrination, and inspired him with a 
(NTofound piety. Raised by contempla- 
tion above his circumstances, and undis- 
turbed by exterior influences, a strong 
sense of the spuritual, jmrticularly of the 
mysterious, was awakened in him, and 
he saw in all the workings of nature 
upon his mind a revelation of God, and 
even imagined hunself favored bv divine 
inspirations. The education which he 
received at school, though very imper- 
fect, consisting only of writing, spelling 
and readin|^ the Bible, supplied new food 
for the excited mind of the boy. He be- 
came afterwards a shoemaker; and this 
sedentary life seems to have strengthened 
his contemplative habits He was much 
interested m the disputes which prevailed 
on the subject of Oryptocalvmism in 
Saxony ; though he never took a personal 
part in sectarian controversies, and knew 
no higher delight than to elevate himself 
undisturbed, to the contemplation of the 
infinite. B. withdrew himself more and 
more from the world. If we take into 
view his retirement, his piety, his rich 
and lively ima^nation, his imperfect ed- 
ucation, bis philosophical desire fortmth, 
together with his abundance of ideas, and 
his delusion in considering many of those 
ideas as immediate communications of 
the Deity, we have the sources of his 
doctrine and his works. His writings 
are very unequal, but always display a 
profound feeling, and must be judged 
with indulgence for the causes just men- 
tioned. In 1594, B. became a master 
shoemaker in Gorlitz, married, and con- 
tinued a shoemaker during his hfe. Sev- 
eral visions and raptures, mat is, moments 
of strong enthusiasm, led him to take the 
pen. His first work appeared in 1616, 
and was called Aurora, It contains his 
revelations on God, man and nature. 
This gave rise to a prosecution against 
him; but he was acquitted, and called 

rn, from all sides, to contmue writing, 
did not, however, resume his pen 
until 1619. One of his most important 
works is. Description of the three Princi- 
ples of the Divine Being. His works 
contam profound and lofty ideas, min- 
^ed with many absurd and confused no- 



tions. He died, afler several prosecutions 
and acquittals, in 1624. Abraham von 
Frankenberg (who died in 165^), his bi- 
ographer and admirer, has also published 
and explained his writings. The first col- 
lection of them was made in Holland, in 
1675, by Henry Betke ; a more complete 
one, in 1682, by Gichtel (10 vols., Amster- 
dam! ; ^^'^ ^hom the followers of B., a 
religious sect highlv valued for their si- 
lent, virtuous and benevolent life, have 
received the name GichteUans. Another 
edition appeared in Amsterdam, in 1730, 
under the title Theologia revdata, 2 vols. 
4to.; the most compfete, in 6 vols. In 
England, also, B.'s writings have found 
many admirers. William Law published 
an English translation of them, 2 vols., 
4to. A sect, taking theur name fix)m B^ 
was likewise formed in England, and 
in 1697, Jane Leade, an enthusiastic fid- 
mirer of his, established a particular soci- 
ety for the explanation of his writings, 
under the name of the Pkiladelphists, It 
is said that such a society still exists. 
John Pordage, an English physician, is 
also Avell known as a commentator on B. 
B(EOTiA ; a country of ancient Greece, 
bounded N. by Phocis and the country 
of the Opuntian Locrians; E. by the 
Euripus, or strait of Euboea; S. by Attica 
and Memns ; and W. by the Alcyonian 
sea and Phocis ; but the boundaries were 
not always the same. In the north, it is 
mountainous and cold, and the air is 
pure and healthy, but the soil is less fer- 
tile than that of the other portion, which, 
however, is infested by unhealthy vapors. 
The mountainous part in the north was 
called, in earlier tunes, Aonia. Among 
its mountains are several remarkable in 
history and mythology: Helicon (now 
Sagara)y the mountain of the Sphinx, Uie 
TaumesBus, Libethms and Petrachus. — 
The chief occupation of the inhabitants 
was agriculture and the raising of catde. 
It was first occupied by Pelasgian tribes. 
In the time of Boeotus (son of Itonus and 
grandson of Amphictyon, from whom it 
is said to have derived its name), these 
were subject to the Hellenists. It was 
divided into small states, until Cadmus 
the Phoenician founded the government 
of Thebes. In later times, all Greece 
worBhipped the Hercules of Thebes. Af- 
ter the death of the Theban king Xanthus, 
most of the cities of B. formed a kind of 
republic, of which Thebes was the chief 
city. Epaminondas and Pelopidas raised 
Thebes, for a short time, to the rank of 
the most powerful states of Greece. In 
B. are several celebrated ancient battle* 



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BCSOnA-^BOERHAATE. 



fields, the fonner gloiy of which has be^ 
increased bv late events, namely, Platiea 
(now the village JTdUa), whete Pansanias 
and Aristides established the libemr of 
Greece by their victory over the 300,000 
Persians under Mardonius ; Leuctra (now 
the vilhffe PanqH)gia)y where Epanunon-. 
das chedced the ambitious Spartans ; Co- 
lonea, where the Spartan Agesilaus de- 
feated the Thebans ; andChsronea (now 
Capranu), where Philip founded the 
Macedonian greatness on the ruins of 
Grecian liberty. Near Tontwra, the birth- 
place of Cormna (q. v.), the best wine 
was produced; here, alM), cocks were 
bred, of remarkable size, beauty and 
courage, with which the Grecian cities, 
passionately fond of cock-fighting, were 
supplied. Refinement and cultivation of 
mind never made such progress in B. as 
in Attica. The Bceotians were vigorous, 
but slow and heavy. Several Thebans, 
however, were worthy disciples of Soc- 
rates, and Epaminondas distinguished 
himself as much in philosonhy as by his 
military talents. The people were par- 
ticularly fond of music, and excelled in. 
it. They had also some great poets and 
artists. Hesiod, Pindar, the poetess Co- 
rinna, and Plutarch, were Boeotians. 

BoERHAAVE, Hermann, one of the most 
celebrated physicians of the 18th century, 
was bom, Dec 13, 1668, at Woorhout, 
near Leyden, and received fit>m his &- 
ther a hberal education. Before he was 
11 years old, he was well acquainted 
with Latin and Greek. An obstinate ul- 
cer on his left thigh, which, for 7 years, 
resisted all medi(^ remedies, was the 
means of directing his thoughts and in- 
clinations to the study of medicine. In 
1682, he was sent to Leyden to study 
theology. Here he gave, at the age of 
20, the first public proof of his learning 
and eloquence. lie pronounced an aca- 
demic oration before Grono^dus, with 
whom he studied Greek, Qud probatuTj 
bene tnieUedam a Cicerone^ et conftUaJtam 
esse SenUntiam Epicwi de sumnio Bono 
(Leyden, 1690, 4to.) In this, B. attacked 
the doctrine of Spinoza with so much 
talent, that the city rewarded him with a 
gold medal. In 1689, he received the 
degree of doctor of philosophy, and main- 
tained an inaugural dissertation, De Dis- 
HneUone Mentis a Corpore (Leyden, 16^ 
He now commenced, at the age of 22, 
the study of medicine. Drelincourt was 
his first and only teacher. From him he 
recefved only a little instruction ; and it is 
worthy of notice, that B. learned by his 
own soKtary study a science on which 



he was afterwards to eteit to impoitsnt 
an influence. He first studied anatomy, 
but rather in the works then in viM^ue, of 
Vesale, Bartholin, d&c, than in tne dis- 
secting room. He was present, indeed, 
at most of the dissections of Nucfc, but 
still the want of a practical study of 
anatomv is evident in all his writings^ 
The innnence which he had in improving 
anatomy, notwithstanding the defect we 
have noticed, must be tr^ed to the close 
connesdon of this mechanical science 
with physiology and medicine. As, in 
these last, he made use of mechanical 
illustrations, his example induced the - 
anatomists to u)ply themselves to an ac- 
curate study of^ the forms of the organSi^ 
as may be noticed in all the anatomists 
of that time — Santorini, Morgacni, Val- 
salva, Winslow, Albinus, &c After this 
preliminary study, which, in ftct, is the 
groundwork of medical science, B. read 
all the weiks, ancient and modem, on 
medicine, in the order of time, proceed- 
ing fix>m his contemporaries to Hippocra- 
tes, with whose superior excellence and 
correct method he was forcibly struck in 
this course of reading. He also studied 
botany and chemistiy, and, although still 
]>reparing himself for the clerical profes- 
sion, was made, in 1693, doctor of^ medi- 
cine at Harderwick. His dissertation 
was De^ UtiliUUe explatwuhntm Hxcremai- 
torum tnJE^riSfUt Signorum. After his 
return to Leyden, some doubts being 
raised as to his orthodoxy, he finally de- 
termined to follow the profession of med- 
icine. In 1701, the umversitv of Leyden 
chose him, on the death of l)relincouit» 
to deliver lectures on the theory of medi- 
cine ; on which occasion, he pronounced 
his dissertation De cmimendando ^udio 
Htppocratico. In this, with an enthusi- 
asm excited by the study of Hippocrates, 
he demonstrates the correctness of tbe 
method pursued by that great man, and 
establishes its exclusive superiority: it 
had been well if he himself had never 
deviated fix)m it. B. now began to devel- 
ope those great and pccuhar exceUences, 
which make him a pattern to all who 
undertake the office of instruction. Pu- 
pils crowded from all quarters to hear 
him. In 1703, he delivered another dis- 
sertation, De Usu RaUocinii mechamci in 
Medieina, Leyden, 1703. In this, he be« 
gan to deviate fix>m the Hippocratic 
method, and to introduce the first prin- 
ciples of a defective system, to which his 
eminent talents gave afterwards exclusive 
currency. In 1709, the university of 
Leyden was at leng^ enabled to reward 



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BOERHAAVE— BOEXmUS. 



153 



him for his Bervioes, by appointiDg him 
professor of medicine and botany in Hot- 
ton's place. It is remarkable, that, on this 
occasion, he delivered a dissertation, ^ud 
rtmirgaUB MedicimB facUia tuseritur Sim- 
p&cUas^ which deserves to be placed by 
the side of those m which he recom- 
mends the study of Hippocratea In this 
dissertation, he is for carrying back the 
science to its original simplicity — ^to obser- 
vation and experience— quite contnuy to 
the spirit which guided his own system. 
The course of instruction, to which B. 
was now devoted, induced bim to pub- 
lish two works^ on which his fame still 
rests, viz. Inshtutiones Medicfz in Ustts 
annua Exercitationis domesHcos; and 
^korismi de cagnoscendia et curandiB 
Morbis in Usvm Doctrvna Mtdicinm, In 
the former, which is a model of compr^ 
hensive erudition and clear method, he 
unfolds his system in its full extent: in 
the latter, he undertakes the classification 
of diseases, and discourses separately on 
their causes, nature and treatment. The 
professorship of botany, which he also 
filled, contributed no less to his reputa- 
tion. He rendered essential services to 
botany by his two catalogues of plants in 
the ^rden of Leyden, the number of 
which he had very much increased. We 
are indebted to hun for the description 
and delineation of several new plants, 
and the introduction of some new spe- 
cies. In 1714, he was made rector of the 
university, and, at the close of his term of 
office, delivered an oration, De compor 
rondo ctrio in PhusicU, one of his best 

Sieces. At the end of this year, he took 
lidloo's place in the office of practical 
instruction, in which he was employed 
more than 10 years. Anticipating the 
great advantages of clinical institutions, 
and wishing to unite practice with theory, 
he opened an hospital, where he lectured 
to his pupils twice a week, on the history 
of the diseases before them, confining 
himself to the particular phenomena in 
each case presented to their observation. 
Busily occupied as he already was, the 
university conferred on him, at the death 
of Lemort, the professorship of chemistry, 
which science he had taught since 1703. 
On this occasion he delivered his disser- 
tation De Chtmia swa Errorea expur- 
gante. Although the relations wliich B. 
supposes to exist between chemistry and 
medicine are ill-founded, he deserves 
credit for rendering the science intelligi- 
ble and familiar in his excellent works on 
this subject His Elements of Chemistry 
i% perbapsy his finest production, and, 



notwithstan^g the entire revolution 
which has taken place in this branch of 
science, is still highly valuable. His ex- 
periments are remarkable for their accu- 
racy. The part which treats of organic 
bodies is exceedingly good for that pe- 
riod. So extensive a sphere of action 
gained for B. a fame that few learned 
men have exijoyed. People came from 
all parts of Europe to ask his advice. 
His property amounted, at his death, to 
2,000,000 florins — a very extraordhiary 
fortune for a man of his profession in 
Europe. Peter the Great visited him on 
his travels, and a Chiaese mandarin wrote 
to him with the address, " To Boerhaave, 
the celebrated phyacian in Europe." In 
1722, an attack or the gout, accompanied 
with a stroke of the apoplexy, obliged 
him to remit his active pursuits. New 
returns of his disorder, in 1727 and 1729, 
compelled him to resign the professorships 
of chemistry and botany, which he had 
held for 20 years. In 1730, he was again 
appointed rector, and, at the close of his 
term, delivered a celebrated address, De 
Htmdrty Medici ServihUey perhaps the best 
of all those essays, in which he represents 
the physician as the servant of^ nature, 
whose activity he is to awaken and di- 
rect In this he returned, in some meas- 
ure, to the principles of Hippocrates, 
from which, indeed, he had never depart- 
ed far in practice. In 1738, liis disorder 
returned with increased violence, and, 
afler a few months, put an end to lus life, 
at the age of 70. The city erected a 
monument to him in St Peter's church, 
with his &vorite motto upon it — SirnpUx 
sigiUumverL 

BoETHius, Anicius Manlius Torquatus 
Severinus, a man celebrated for his vir- 
tues, services, honors and tragical end^ 
was bom about 470 A. D., in Rome or 
Milan, of a rich, ancient and respectable 
family ; was educated in Rome, in a man- 
ner well calculated to develope his ex- 
traordinary abilities; aflerwaras went to 
Athens, which was still the centre of 
taste and science, and studied philosophy 
under Proclus and others. Returning to 
Rome, he was graciously received by 
Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, then 
roaster of Italy, loaded with marks of &- 
vorand esteem, and soon raised to the 
first offices iu the empire. He exerted 
the best influence on the administration 
of this monarch, so that the dominion of 
the Croths promoted the wel&re and hap- 
piness of the people who were subject to 
them. He was lon^ the oracle of his 
sovereign and the idol of the people. 



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BOETHIUS— BOGOTA. 



The iiigiiest honors were thought inade- 

2uate to reward hia virtues and servicea. 
(ut Theodorie, as he ^w old, became 
irritable, jealous, and distrustful of those 
about him. The Goths now indulged in 
all sorts of oppresnon and extortion, 
while B. exerted himself in vain to re- 
strain them. He had aheady made ma- 
ny enemies by his strict integrity and 
vigilant justice. These at last succeeded 
in prejudicing the king against him, and 
rendering him suspicious of fi. The op- 
position of B. to their unjust measures 
was constnfed into a rebellious temper, 
and he was even accused of a treasonable 
correspondence with the court of Con- 
stantinople. He was arrested, imprisoned 
and executed, A. D. 524 or 526.— While 
he was at the helm of state, he found rec- 
reation from his toilsome occupations in 
the study of the sciences, and devoted a 
part of his leisure to tiie construction of 
mathematical and musical instruments, 
some of which he sent to Clothaire, king 
of France. He was also much giv^n to 
the study of the old Greek philosophers 
and mathematicians, and wrote • Latin 
translations of several of them. His most 
celebrated work is that composed during 
his imprisonment. On the Consolations of 
Philosophy. It is written in prose and 
verse mtermixed. The elevation of 
tliougbt, the nobleness of feeling, the ease 
and distinctness of style, which it exhib- 
its, make this composition, short as it is, 
far superior to any other of the age. 
(Principal edition, Basil, 1570, folio. A 
modem one of some value appeared at 
Glasgow, 1751, 4to.) 

BoETTCHER, Johu Fredcric, the invent- 
or of tlie DiWen porcelain, bom Feb. 5, 
1682, at Schleiz, in the Voifftland, in his 
15th year went from Magdeburg, where 
he received his early education, to Berlin, 
as apprentice of an apothecary. There 
he devoted his nights to the art of making 
gold. His want of sleep rendered him so 
stupid, during the day, as to draw u[>on 
him many reproof, till, at last, he acquir- 
ed some consideration by showing little 
Eieces of gold, which he pretended to 
ave made. Oct 1, 1701, he changed, as 
it is said, in the presence of several wit- 
nesses, 18 pieces of silver into fine gold. 
As this was much talked o( the king de- 
sired to see him, and B., believing he was 
to be arrested as an adept (q. v.^ fled to 
Saxony. The king of Saxony gave him 
large su ms of money, which he wasted, still 
keeping his employer in suspense. His 
ini^esty finally became very impatient to 
fee the gold. B., therefore, in 1704, at- 



tempted to escape, but was overtaken, and^ 
with the assistance of one Tschimhausen, 
who had discovered a kind of porcelain, in- 
vented an improved composition of it, with 
which he hoped to appease the king, who 
spent immense sums m China ware. In 
1705, B. invented the Dresden porcelam, 
which has since become so famous. He 
made use of a clay found in the vicin- 
ity of Meissen. The king, upon this, 
made him a baron of the empire and dl- 
reNCtor of the new manu&ctory of porce- 
lain in Meissen, though he was often 
treated as a prisoner, lest the secret should 
be betrayed. He was finally removed 
fit)m his dignity, on account of his im- 
moral life, and died, March 13, 1719, in 
the greatest poverty, so that he did not 
even leave sumci^t to pay the expenses 
of his funeral. 

BooDANowiTscH, Hippolyt Federo- 
witsch, the Russian Anaoreon, VFas bom 
in 1743, at Perewolotschna, in White . 
Russia. His father was a physician. He 
was demgned for an engineer ; went, for 
the purpose of studying engineering, to 
Moscow, in 1754, and enteiid an acad- 
emy there ; but the eoght of a splendid 
play, and the reading of Lomonossow's 

Eoems, turned his inclination to poetry., 
[e wished to become an actor, but the 
manager of die theatre, Cheraakow, dis- 
suaded him fix)m his puipose. By his 
advice, he applied hinMelr to the study 
of the fine arts, and to learning foreien 
laneuages. He gained patrons and firiends, 
and, in 1761, was made inspector in the 
university of Moscow, and afterwards 
translator in the department of foreign 
afliiirs. In 1762, he travelled witb«ount 
Beloselsky, as secretary of legation, to 
Dresden, where he devoted his whole at- 
tention to the study of the fine arts and 
of poetry, till 1768. The beautifiil pic- 
tures in the gallery of that place inspired 
him to write his Psyche [Du8chmka\ 
which appeared in 1775, and fixed hJs 
fame on a lasting foundation. After this, 
he devoted himself to music and poetry, 
in solitaiT study at Petersburg, till Cath- 
arine called him firoin bis retirement 
He then wrote, on different occanons, 
several dramatic and historical pieces. In 
1788, he was made president of the im- 
perial archives. In 1795, he took leave 
of the court, and lived as a private man 
in Litde Russia. Alexander recalled him 
to Petersburg, where he lived till 1803^ 
He was as remarkable for modesty as for 
genius, and a man of childlike goodness 
and vivacity. 
BoootI, at the time of the Spanish 



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BOGOTA— BOHEMIA. 



155 



€0Dmi68t» wa» tbe seat of empire of one 
of the most civilized states of America, 
that of the Muisca Indians. Owing to 
the fertility of the great valley of Bogot4, 
which has been thought capable of sus- 
taining a population of two or three mil- 
lions, It contained a comparatively dense 
population of Indians, whose advances in 
refinement rendered them, in a certain 
sense, the rivals of the inhabitants of 
Cuzco, They traced the fi>undation of 
their religious and political institutions to 
Bochica, whose history greatly resembles 
that of Manco Capac. ^They were sub- 
dued by the Spanish general Gonzalo 
Ximenez di Quesada. (See Bochicoj 
CundinamarecLf Mudgca; Compagnoni, t 
xix; Hupiboldt; Robinson's Bogota.) 

BoeoTi, or Santa F^ ds Bogota ; a 
city of South America, the capital of the 
republic of Colombia, and formerly the 
capital of the vice-royalty of New Grena- 
da. Lon-W^lS^W.; lat 4^36^ N. The 
population has of late been variously 
stated, from less than 30,000 to 60,000. 
It is situated in a spacious and luxuriant 
plain, elevated 8721 feet above the level 
of the sea, and lies to the east of the prin- 
cxpel chain of the Andes. Two small 
streams flow through the town, which 
join the river Funza, or Bogota, at a short 
dis&mce. The citjr contains a magnifi- 
cent ca&edral, a umversity, a mint, an hos- 
pital, and various other public buildings. 
The streets are wide and well pavol 
The city, by reason of its elevation, en- 
joys the temperature of perpetual spring; 
the mean heat being 57.74, and the ther- 
mometer havinff a range of only a few 
degrees. The plains around Bogota pro- 
duce two regular harvests in a year. 

BoootX or Funza river. (See Tequeu' 
damoy CdLasnuAof.) 

Bohemia, Bsheim, Bojenhbiii, has its 
name from the Boii, a Celtic nation, who 
setded there about 600 R C, under their 
leader Segovesus, a nephew of Ambiga- 
tus, lunar of the Bitur^es, but were after- 
wards umoet all driven out by the Mar- 
comannL About the middle of the 4th 
century, BL, then inhabited by German 
nations, enjoyed a settled and qmet gov- 
ernment imder its dukes, who were, as 
yet, but litde known. In the middle of 
the 6th cenmry, a numerous army of 
Sclavonians (Csee^ottfe, T^icfteeften, as the 
BolMmians still call themselves), viiio had 
hitherto inhabited the shores of^the Black 
Sea, invaded B. (as some say, under the 
command of one Zecko), conquered the 
eounliT, and put it under cultivation. 
Aooorakig V> othenv Zecko wa» entuely 



unconnected with the Sclavonians, and 
his successors were hard pressed by that 
people, although his descendants were 
never quite expelled from the land. The 
first of them who is known to us by 
name was Przemislas, a peasant, whom 
the princess Libussa espoused, 632, and 
raised to the "throne. Although Cbarle- 

Smasne and some bf his successors com- 
elled B. to pay tribute, this subjection 
id not continue long. In 840, B., Si- 
lesia and Moravia were free firom all for- 
eign dominion, and governed by their 
own dukes, although still maintaining a 
sort of confederacy with tbe German em- 
pire. In 1061, rienry IV cave the title 
of Awg to the duke of B., which was not, 
however, generally recomised till the 
time of WxatiBlaus, in 106o. Afterwards^ 
about 1230, Philip conferred the royal 
dignity, on Przemislad and his succeasors. 
It was confirmed by Frederic II, since 
whose time B. has remained a kingdom. 
The male descendant? of the old kings 
ceased with Wenzel V, in 1305, on whose 
death, John of Luxemburg obtained the 
crown by marriage, in 1310, and left it to 
his descendants. After this, Charles IV 
(of the house of Luxemburg, under the 
name of Charles I, who very much im- 
proved the kin^rdom), and his sons, Wen- 
zeslaus and Sigismund (the latter near- 
ly lost B. in the religious war with the 
Hussites), united the crown of B. to that 
of the German empire. After Sigis- 
mund's death, 1437, B. came into tbe pos- 
session of his son-in-law, Albert of Aus- 
tria, who died in 1439, and the crown 
descended to his son Ladislaus, bom after 
his death, 1440 (hence sumamed Pottkur 
miw), who being at the same dme king of 
Hungary, B. was separated again from 
the German states. After his death, 1457, 
the people chose George von Podiebrad, 
who had been rogent, for their king, in 
1458, and, in 1469, when he was excom- 
municated 'by the pope, they elected the 
Polish prince Wladislaus, who, however, 
did not come into possession of the throne 
till the death of Geoise, m 1471. He 
was succeeded, 1516, after a reign of 45 
vears, by his son Louis. These were 
both also kings of Hungair. Lewis be- 
ing killed m a battle vriUi the Turks near 
Mohatz, in 1526, B. fell to the house of 
Austria. The brother-in-law of Louis, 
Maximilian's second grandson, the arch- 
duke Ferdinand, succeeded to tiie ciown. 
This prince desued the Bohemians ta 
take up arms in the Smalkaldic wair 
against the elector of Saxony ; but, find* 
mg them avene to bis wishes, and threats 



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156 



BOHEMIA. 



< ening to rebel against him, he oooducted 
lowiuds them with great harshness, after 
the victory of Chanes V, at Miihlberg, 
V and declared B. an abeolute monarchy. 
He was succeeded by his son Maximilian 
(1564), and he by his sons Rodolph (1576), 
and Matthias (1612^ Towards the close 
of the reign of the latter prince, in conse- 
quence of the infringements upon the re- 
ligious liberty of the Protestants, troubles 
arose, which threatened the house of 
Austria with the loss of B. In 1619, the 
people invited Frederic V, elector of the 
Palatinate, to the throne, to the exclusion 
of Ferdinand II, who had been ahneady 
crowned kin^ during the life-time of his 
cousin Matthias. But, when the victory 
at Prague, Nov. 9, 1630, had decided the 
war in favor of the emperor, those who 
had joined in the rebelhon were most rig- 
orously dealt with : 27 of them were ex- 
ecuted, 16 banished or imprisoned for life, 
.and tlieir goods confiscated. The sen- 
tence of confiscation was also extended 
to those who had already died, and to 29 
who had escaped, as well as to 728 
wealthy lords and knights, who had vol- 
untarily acknowledged their offence. 
The Protestant religion, which was held 
by three fourths of die people, was rooted 
out ; Rodolpb's imperial edict ^vas revok- 
ed (1627), and B. reduced to an absolute 
and hereditary monarchy, and the Roman 
Catholic faith established to the entire 
exclusion of all others. From this time 
B, continually declined. History hardly 
furnishes a parallel instance of such a 
complete triuniph of mere brute force 
over the spirit of^a people. The house of 
Hapsburg has to answer for this violation 
of human rights. More than 30,000 fam- 
ilies (185 of which were of the rank of 
lords and knights), all the Protestant min- 
isters and teachers, a multitude of artists, 
tradesmen and mechanics, who refused 
to become Catholics, emigrated to Saxo- 
ny, Brandenburg, Holland, Switzerland, 
&c. In the mountain and forest villages, 
however, out of the way of the J^uits 
and soldiers, many secret Protestants still 
remained. Since that period, the Bohe« 
ipian language has been disused in public 
transactions. In the 30 ^eara' war, B. 
was entirely desolated; it lost the best 
of its strength and wealth. When Fer- 
dinand II died, in 1637, there remain- 
ed of the 732 towns, 34,700 villages, and 
3,000,000 of inhabitants, which B. con- 
tained in 1617, only 130 towns, a little 
more than^ 6000 villages, and 780,000 in- 
habitants! Afler the death of Charles 
VI (1740), Charies Albert, elector of Ba- 



varia, laid claim to the crown, and the 
oath of allegiance was taken to him in 
Prague ; but Maria Theresa succeeded in 
obtaining possession of B., which has 
remained ever since one of the richest 
jewels in the Austrian diadem. — ^The 
kingdom of Bohemia is bounded on the 
west by Bavaria, on the east by Moravia 
and Silesia, on the north by Lusatia and 
Misnia, and on the south by Austria and 
Bavaria. It contains 20^200 square miles, 
and over 3^380,000 inhabitants (of whom 
2,170,000 are Czechs, and more than 
50,000 Jews), in 286 large towns (Hadte), 
275 market-towns, and 11^924 viUages. 
The prevailing religion is the Roman 
Catholic ; other sects, however, are toler- 
ated. The language of the country is 
Bohemian, a diuect of the Sclavonic : in 
some districts, and in most of the cities, 
Grerman is spoken. R is surrounded on 
all sides by mountains, is covered with 
large forests, and considerable pond& 
The number of the latter is reckoned at 
20,000. Its plains are remarkably fertile. 
The largest nvers are the Elbe and the 
Moldau. All sorts of grain, flax, hops 
(the best in Europe) and fiiiits are ex- 
ported. Wine is not abundant, but, in 
the neighborhood of Melnic, of pretty 
good quality. The raising of sheep, 
horses, swine and poultry is carried on to 
a considerable extent. The mines yield 
silver (1823, 13,873 marks), copper, excel- 
lent tin (1800 cwt.), mnetsand other pre- 
cious stones, iron (200,000 cwt.]^ cobalt, 
arsenic, uranium and tunesten, antimony, 
vitriol, alum, calamine, siuphur, and coal 
in abundance. There are also numerous 
mineral springsf 150), but little salt. Man- 
ufactories of difierent kinds are establish- 
ed in all parts of the countiy. The most 
important of these are the linen, cambric, 
lace, thread and veil factories, and others 
of a similar kind. These, in 1801, yielded 

goods to the value of more than 20,000,000 
orins: half of this amount was exported 
from the country. The woollen manu- 
factories produced an amount of 10,000,000 
florins. The woollens have advanced, of 
late years, both in quantity and quality. 
The Bohemian glass (there are 78 glass- 
houses) is the best in Europe, and is car- 
ried to Spain, America, Russia and the 
Levant, to the amount of 2,500,000 florina 
Besides these, there are 8 mirror flictories. 
At Tumau there are manufiictories of 
composition-stones, porcelain and earthen 
ware, &c. Of considerable importance, 
too, is the manu&cture of hats of the fin- 
est sort, of paper, of silk stuffi, polished 
garnets, musical inBtrumenta, and manj 



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BOHEMU— BOHEMIAN BBETHREN. 



167 



«tiier aitides. ^B. contains, besides the 
eii^ of Pra^e, 16 circles, governed by 
officers appointed yearly. 'The most im- 
portant places are the cities of Buntzlau, 
Mekdk, Tumau, Reichenberg, Trautenau, 
Kuttenberg, Budweis, Piken, Carlsbad 
(q. vX JoacfaimstbaJ, Teplitz {a. v.), Eger ; 
the &rtreases of K6niffingratz, Josepb- 
stadt, Tfaereaienstadt; the manu&ctunng 
town of Rumburff ; the villages of Ader- 
boch, Sedlitz, SeidschCitz, PCdlna, K6nig8- 
wart, Fransensbninnen (q. v.), Marien- 
bad (q. v.)^ &c. For internal intercourse, 
there are excellent highways, extending 
1060 miles; and, in 1826, a rail-road was 
laid to connect the Danube with the Mol- 
daUd — ^The Bohemians of all ranks are 
distinguished for their public spirit, exert- 
ing itself in the most noble and useful 
plan& In 1822, they had 2996 public 
establishments for education, a university, 
3 theological academies, 26 gymnasiums, 
2961 common schools, and a conservatoiy 
for music, 6709 teachers, 410,463 pupils; 
among thena^ 2055 students in the nigh 
flchook (See prof SchnabeFs iStoluficd 
jSeanmt of Bohemia,) 

BoHEMiAif Bkethren; the name of a 
Christian sect which arose in Bohemia, 
about the middle of the 15th century, 
fiom the remains of the stricter sort of 
Hussites, (q. v.) Dissatisfied with the ad- 
vances towanu popery, by which the 
Calixtines (q. v.| had made themselves 
Che ruling party m Bohemia, they refused 
Co receive the compacts^ as they were call- 
ed, i. e., the articles of agreement between 
chat par^ and the council at Basil (30th 
Nov, 14^), and began, about 1457, under 
the direction of a clergyman, Michael 
Bradatz, to foim themselves into separate 
parishes, to hold meetings of their own, 
and to distinguish themselves from the 
rest of the Hussites by the name of Bro- 
therSf or BrMen^ Umon ; but they were 
often confounded by their opponents with 
Che Waldenaes and Picards, and, on ac- 
count of their sedosion, were called Cav- 
em-himUn (ChiAemheimar). Amidst the 
hardships and oppreaaions which they 
fluflfered fit>m the Calixtines and Catho- 
lics, without making any resistance, their 
uumbers increased so much, through their 
constancy in thenr belief and the puriQr 
/of then: morals, that, in 1600, their par- 
ishes amounted to 200, nM)et of which 
had chapels belonging to them. The pe- 
culiarities of their religious belief are seen 
in their confessions of fiuth, especiallv 
cheir opinions with regard to the Lord% 
supper. They rejected the idea of tran- 
flUMtaatiatioDy and admitted only a my»- 

VOL. II. 14 



tical spiritual presence of Christ m the 
euchansu In other points, they took the 
Scriptures as the mund of their doctrines 
throughout, and tor this, but more espe- 
ciaUy for the constitution and disciplme 
of their churches, received the approba- 
tion of the reformers of the 16th century. 
This constitution of theirs was filmed 
according to the accounts which remain 
of the oUlest apostohc churches. They 
aimed to restore the primitive purity of 
Christianity, by the exclusion of the vi- 
cious fix)m their conmiunion^ and by 
making three degrees of excommunica- 
tion, as well as by the carefijl separodon 
of the sexes, and the distribution of the 
luembers of their society into three 
•classes— the beginners, the proficients 
and the perfect. Their strict system 
of superintendence, extending even to 
the mmute details of domestic life, did 
much towards promoting this object. To 
carry on their system, they had a multi- 
tude of officers, of different degrees: viz. 
ordaining bishops, seniors and conseniorS, 
presbyters or preachers, deacons, lediles 
and acolytes, among whom the mana^- 
ment of the ecclesiastical, moral and civil 
afiairs of the conimunity was judiciously 
distributed. Theu* first bishop received 
his ordination fiiom a Waldensian bishop, 
though their churches held no commun- 
ion with the Waldenses in Bohemia. 
They were destined, however, to experi- 
ence a like fate with that oppressed sect 
When, in conformity to their principle not 
to perform miUtary service, they refused 
to take up arms in the Smalkaldic war 
against the Protestants, Ferdinand took 
their churches fit)m them, and, in 1548, 
1000 of their society retired into Pokind 
and Prussia, where they at first settled in 
Marienwerder. The agreement which 
they concluded at Sendomir, 14th April, 
1570, with the Polish Lutherans and Cal- 
vinistic churches, and still more the Dis- 
senters' Peace Act of the Polish conven- 
tion, 1572, obtained toleration for them in 
Poland, where they united more closely 
with the Calvinists under the persecutions 
of the Swedish Sigismund, and have con- 
tinued in this connexion to the present 
day. — ^Their brethren, who remamed in 
Moravia and Bohemia, recovered a cei> 
tain degree of liberty under Maximilian 
II, and had their chief residence at Ful- 
nek, in Moravia, and hence have been 
called Marwian Brethrtn, The issue of 
the 30 years' war, which terminated so 
unfortunately for the Protestants, ^occa- 
sioned the entire destruction of their 
diiiiches, and then: last biahop^ Come- 



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BOHEMIAN BRETHREN— BOHEMIAN LANGUAGE. 



nius (q. v.), who had rendered important 
services in the education of youth, was 
compelled to fly. From this time, they 
made frequent emigrations, the most im- 
portant of which took place in 1722, and 
occasioned the establishment of the new 
churches of the Brethren by count Zin- 
zendorf. (For the history of the old 
churches of this sect, we refer the reader 
to Cranzen's History qf the BreQvrtn^ and 
to Bchulz On the Origin and Constituium 
of the Evangelical Breihren^s Church 
(Gotha, 1822), a sensible and impartial 
work.) Although the old Bohemian 
Brethren must be regarded as now ex- 
tinct, this society will ever deserve re- 
membrance, as a quiet guardian of Chris- 
tian truth and piety, in times just emerging 
from the barbarity of the middle ages; as 
a promoter of pure morals, such as the 
reformers of the 16th century were una- 
ble to establish in tlieir churches; and as 
the parent of the esteemed and widely ex- 
tended association of die United Brethren 
(q. v.), whose constitution has been mod- 
elled after theirs. 

Bohemian and Bavarian Forest. 
From the Fichtelgebirge, southward, to- 
wards the confluence of the Ilz and the 
Danube, extends a ridge of mountains, 
covered with wood, called the Bohemian 
Ihrestj in ancient times a part of the Sylva 
Hercynioj the highest peaks of which are 
the Arber (4320 feet high), Rachel and 
others. It separates Bavaria and Bohe- 
mia. The great abundance of wood has 
occasioned the establishment of many 
^ass-houses, forges, &c in this region. 
The inhabitants have acquired, in their 
seclusion from the world, many charac- 
teristic virtues and vices. 

Bohemian Language. The Czechish 
(Bohemian) dialect was the first of the 
Sclavonic idioms which was cultivated 
scientifically. ' This dialect is spoken in 
Bohemia, Moravia, with slight variations 
in Austrian Silesia, in half of Hungary, 
and in Sclavonia. That the Czechish 
has been widely spread as a dialect of the 
Sclavonian, is proved, as well by its anti- 
Guity, and its degree of cultivation, as by 
the size of the countries whose nadonai 
language it is. We shall conidder first 
tlie richness of the vocabulary of this lan- 
guage. This richness consists in the 
number of inflexions of the syllables 
at the beginning and end of words. 
Thus firom the single radical word lyti 
(his) there are more than 110 derivatives ; 
nrom the radical word dige se (i read like 
ea), sonifying U hcq^pens^ there are more 
than 95, without reckonmg the fi^equent- 



ative verbs, verbal substantives and adjee* 
tives. By the simple prefixing of the 
letters «, to, v, z, the veifo acquires a dif- 
ferent signification ; e. g., f-ren^ v^azytiy 
w-razyti^ convey the meanings to beat downy 
to beat off, to heat in. Hence this lan- 
guage has formed, firom native roots, all 
the scientific terms of theology, jurispru- 
dence and philosophy, and, vrith every 
new invention, can be further developed. 
A proof of its richness is to be found also 
in the numerous synonymes, as payee 
U read hke the Italian ee^hthkoy ^tta, the 
bitch ; hodmostj dudognost^ dignity ; hfwgy 
mrtoa, manure ; weSy toe^mce, didmOj the 
village. — ^If one compares the B<^emian 
radi^ words vrith the analogous terms in 
other languages, he will be astonished at 
the numTOr of inflexions and derivations 
b^ which the language of the Czechi is 
distinguished. A ^reat part of the &cility 
with which it receives new forms and a^ 
ditions rests upon its manifold declensions 
and its numerous tenses and pardciples. 
In this respect, the language of%e Bohe- 
mians excels that of all other modem na- 
tions, with the exception of the other 
races of Sclavonic origm. In the variety of 
declensions, which are terminated almost 
all with a vowel, are inflected only at the 
end, and aro used without an article (see 
the Gramnuo' of M^edly, Prague, 1821]^ 
the Bohemian equau the precise Latin ; 
for instance, mun (two), zene (femma), {z 
read like the French ci), &c. The par- 
ticiples ffive it a great deal of pliability, as 
they unite in themselves the advanutge 
of verbs and adjectives, by denoting, as 
vexbal adjectives, at once the quahty of 
the thin^ and the detexmination of the 
tinie, saving thus the use of the relatives 
tohichf who, as, and the prepositions cfttr, 
since, &c., by which periods become so 
dragguiff: hence its conciseness. — ^An- 
other advantage of the pHability of the 
Bohemian language is the means which 
it affords of compounding words; as, 
Samowlddce, he who rules alone; HrO' 
nundddny, the ruler of the thunder, &c. 
The Bohemian expresses the compound 
words of the Greeks and Germans some- 
times by a particidar form of the adjec- 
tive, sometimes by particular substantives ; 
as, kostmc, the charnel-house ; ehmdmee^ 
the hop-yard; dtJta, the rainbow. — An- 
other pecutiarity is the great variety of 
diminutives, by which not only small, but 
agreeable and dear objects are designat- 
ed ; BBfOanaeek, the little gentleman ; tm- 
lenka, me much beloved; panenka^ th# 
litde maid, and many others: also tiie 
ways of ezpreaslBg concisely the fiequent 



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BOHEMIAN LANGUAGE. 



159 



nttning of a thing ; for instance, I\ranti$' 
kowati at {§ read as $ch), to use fiequently 
the name Francis; maceehowati «e, to use 
fiequently the name step-mother. It pos- 
sesses also the patronymic nomis ; for in- 
stance, krafowec^ the king's son. It indi- 
cates concisely that an action is complet- 
ed ; as, dopsiij to write to an end. It 
contains the inceptive veifos ; for example, 
hrba;^ I am becoming hunch-backed ; 
and many othera. — Secondly, the Bohe- 
mian language has much expressiveness 
and energy, as it is not weakened by a 
number of articles, auxiliary words, con- 
junctions and words of transition, but is 
able to represent the objects of imagina- 
tion, of pasabn, and all the higher emo- 
tions of the p€»et and orator, in a quick, 
rigorous and lively manner, by its orev- 
ity, heapinff together the most significant 
words, and arranging the connexion of 
the parts of speech according to the de- 
gree of feeling to be expressed, so as to 
give the style spirit and energy, or gentle- 
ness and equabdity. The Bohemian des- 
ignates numy objects by the imitation of 
natural sounds. Thus the names' of many 
aniniAlg are taken fifom their voices ; as, 
kruiot the turkey; kadma^ the duck. 
Many plants he names from their effects ; 
as, boMdaWj hemlock (fiiom head-ache). 
The conciseness of the language is in- 
creased by the absence of auxiliaries in 
the ffreater part of the verbs ; as, dam, I 
shall give. The preterites, in the third 
person, singular and plural, express a 
meaning still further condensed, as the 
variation in the last syllable is made to 
designate the sex; for example, psaly 
psalOf jwdOf he, she, it has written; 
psalij puHyy' pscdoj they have written; 
xorozen, norozetut, fuuvzeno, he, she, it 
has been bom. Thus the absence of the 
personal pronouns in the verbs, of the ar- 
ticle in the substantives, and the use of 
many participles and participial forms, give 
to this language the expressiveness and 
power of the LAtin. In like manner, the 
bohemian saves many prepositions and 
much circumlocution or other kinds, by 
the use of the ttufrum^ito/, agreeing 
with the Latin ablative; for instance, 
f eccfym mut Uomu mu tff al (t read like 
U\ with a blow of the sword he has cut 
off his head. This language is, therefore, 
very well fitted for the translation of the 
Ladn classics. By the use of the part, 
prai. aetmf the Bohemian can designate, 
as well as the Greek, who has really per- 
formed the action contuned in the predi- 
cate of the accessary clause, which the 
LaiiDf with his ablative absolute, or 



participle passive, must leave always 
undefined and dubious; for instance, 

Uiviapot UankXia anoUt^as ttctrponw cai tvv 
jfoi^os KM T*» ;i^pi|^ariM' artipa us lUXonownoov ; 
Pindanu vsUmawko PasikUa za porueryka 
8yna wfiho a geho ^mtry, tM do Pd^pim' 
nesu ; Pwdarus constituto PatieU turn 
JUn turn honorum tutore, in Pdopormesvm 
abitt. This contributes to the perspicuity 
and precision of the Bohemian language. 
Everv notion, moreover, is expressed by a 
peculiar word ; for example, the verbs ^H, 
gtjhati^ krdgeHj rezati, denote to cut with 
the scissors, with the sickle, with the 
knife, and with the sithe ; while most lan- 
guages use one verb, to cut, in all these 
cases. In the subtilty of grammatical 
structure, the Bohemian is like the Greek, 
and has the advantage over the Latin and 
other languages. In speaking of two 
hands, two eyes, &c., the dual number is 
used ; e. g., nice, oci, &c. The language 
is also capable of expressing the idea of 
duration referring to an indefinite past 
time, like the Greek aorist ; for instance, 
hxpowcd dvmj aU nekaypU ho, which we 
have no means of rendering precisely, for 
knqtowati means to hvy, and^aiipifi means 
also to buy : accordingly the phrase would 
be, literally, he bought the home, and 
bought Unotj which would be a contra- 
diction: he was about to buy the hmue^ 
but did fwt buy it, would be also an in<i 
correct expression of this idea, for the 
action was already goinff on-^he was al-^ 
ready buying. The language afibrds 
several preterite tenses, which are dis« 
tinguished with great subtilty; as, prtd. 
aing. unit, (time which has only past 
once)~Aau/m, he has bought once ; /Htw- 
quamperf, primuni--4cupoumj he had pur« 
chased for a long time; plvsquamperf. 
8ecundumr'4cupowaioalj he had purchased 
formerly several times ; pluaquamperf, 
tertium^upowawdwal, he seldom had 
purchased m former times ; where, bv 
adding the auxiliary verb byl, a time stiU 
longer passed may be expressed; though 
this is very seldom used; for instance, 
byl kupowawalj he had purchased in times 
long past Another advantage of tibe lan-^ 
guage consists in the many future tenses 
by which the Bohemian denotes not only 
the time, but also the duration, and the 
more or less frequent repetition of ^e 
action; viz. futurum simplex — kaufjmy 
I shall purchase once ;^uruin duratwum 
— for instance, budu htpWMXtiy I shall be 
purchasing for a long time ; fut, frequent 
tativum — budu hqHno&toatiy I shall pur- 
chase several times ; and fut. iteratwuM 
-^udu hupowdwaH, I shall be purchasing 



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BOHEMIAN LANGUAGES-BOHEMIAN LITERATURE. 



very often. Not less manifold in sig- 
nification, and equally subtile in the de* 
termination of time, are the participles 
and the participial constructions. The 
determination of the sex and the number 
by the final syllable of the participle gives 
the Czechish language no small prefer- 
ence above others. The Bohemian can 
express himself as elegantly and politely, 
and at the same time as concisely* as the 
Greek with his optative; for instance, 
nechalo foAo, she may let it go ; vcinU, let 
him do it. The small, connective parti- 
cles of speech, which the Bohemian has, 
in common with the Greek, must be con- 
sidered as so many touches and shadings, 
by which the whole idea and feeling is 
more distinctly expressed. The Greek 
oAXa fttvt yapf U, rSf &c. agree With the 
Bohemian de pak, wsak, 1%, z, f; only the 
three latter are always affixed to a word. 
Finally, the free, unrestrained arrange- 
ment of the woids contributes much to 
perspicuity, as the Bohemian is less fet- 
terea than any of the other modem lan- 
guages to a particular construction. — By 
a happy mixture of vowels and conso- 
nants, and by a combinatiqp of the latter 
fiivorable for the pronunciation, the lan- 
guage has also much euphony, though 
manv call it rough on account of the r 
(read rsh) ; but the sound of entire words, 
not that of the smgle letters which com- 
pose them, determines the roughness or 
smoothness of their pronunciation ; be- 
sides, every language, on account of the 
difference of the feelings which it has to 
convey, — ^sonie gentle, others harsh and 
violent,-^ught to be able to form some 
harsh sounds. Tlie terminations of the 
various declensions and conjugations are 
mostly vowels, or the smoother conso- 
nants. In general, the Bohemian has a 
natural melody, like that of the Greek ; 
for the tongue stops longer on a syllable 
containing a long vowel, a, i,j, tc, ^, than 
on one containing a short vowel. In the 
Bohemian alphabet of 42 letters (a num- 
ber in which it is surpassed only by the 
Indian, the most copious of known alpha- 
bets, and the Russian, which comes next 
to it), there are to be fbund all the sounds 
of the other languages. The English 
sound of U the Bohemian expresses ^ith 
c, the English y with g, the ah with aa or 
8j the Italian ce or a with c, the French 
ge and gi with the z, the Italian u with 
the y, tlte gn with the n, the English w 
with the Wf particularly at the end of 
words. Hence his alphabet enables liim 
to write all languages so as to give their 
correct pronunciation, and to pronounce 



them easily and well, so as to be eonsid* 
ered by Frenchmen, Germans and Ittd- 
ians as their countryman. He never 
confounds smooth and rough letters ; lus 
singing is easy and graceful, and the Bo- 
hemian opera pleases, like the Italian, as 
it suppresses no syllables, but gives a full 
sound to each word. It is very seldom 
that combinations of difficult consonants 
are to be found in the Sclavonic idioms, 
and these may be softened by the free- 
dom of construction which the language 
allows. The euphony of the language is 
also the reason why the Bohemian takes 
a rank in music inferior only to that of 
the ItaUan. Throughout Europe, Bohe- 
mian mu^cians are to be found : the dis- 
tu3guished musicians of Austria are mostly 
from Bohemia. Taste and feeling for 
music almost alvniys keep pace with the 
melody of the language of a nation. 

Bohemian lAUrature has ^ve periods. 
The first extends from the mythological 
times to 1409. It is certain, that, among 
the Sclavonian tribes, the Czechi were 
the first who cultivated and fixed their 
language. (&ee Sckwrnicois and Sclavonic 
Language,) It afibrds no written docu- 
ments of remote antiquity, unless we be- 
lieve the Runic characters to have been 
in use before the introduction of Chris- 
tianity. We know, however, that the 
language of that period was similar to the 
present, firom the names of the gods, 
dukes, rivers, cities, mountains, which 
have been preserved, such as Perun, 
Frcemysl, Boriwog, Wltawa, Bila, Praha, 
Tetin, iCrkonose. The Sclavonian apos- 
tle Method, and the philosopher ConStan- 
tine, called Cyril, made the Sclavonians 
in Moravia acquainted with Christianity. 
From thence it penetrated, under duke 
Boirwog, to Bohemia, and ^us the peo- 
ple of this coimtiy received the Grseco- 
Sclavonic ritual in the year 845. The 
same Constantino invented for the sounds 
of the Sclavonic language the Cyrillic- 
Sclavonic alphabet — Az, Buky, Wiedi, 
Glagol^Dobro, &C., borrowed mostly from 
the Greek. In later times, the GlagoUtic 
alphabet sprung up, of which, however, 
less use was made. When the Latin 
church supplanted the Greek in Moravia, 
Bohemia and Pannonia, the Latin alpha- 
bet came also into iise, instead or the 
C3rrilUc. In Bohemia, the Cyrillic char- 
acter was in use only vnth the monks of 
Sazawa, who observed the Sclavonic ritu- 
al. King Wzatislaus, intending to intro- 
duce it a^n in other places^ and asking 
the permission of pope Gregoiy VII, re- 
ceived a refusal As the Latins endeav* 



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BOHEMIAN LITERATUEE. 



161 



«red to annihilate all the writinn of the 
old litual, and the Sclavonic language 
vas, in many cases, obliged to give way 
to the Latin, Bohemian literature suffeEed 
from popery incalculable injury: henca 
we pc^ss, from the earlier centuries, but 
a few insignificant remains in the charao 
ters above mentioned. In the 10th cen- 
tury, the Bohemians had a school at Ku- 
det, in which they learnt Latin. Their 
most ancient relic is the hymn (Hogjwimt 
PomiZicyiw) of bishop Adalbert ( Wegtech), 
a native &>hemiany which is sung to the 
present day, even b^ the Russians and 
roles. Some think it of still greater an- 
tiquity. From the 11th century, we have 
no complete works ; but, in Liatin docu- 
ments, Sclavonic names are frequently 
found. The 12th and 13th centuries 
were more fertile. When king Wratislaus 
issued the summons for the renowned 
expedition to Milan, all Prague resound- 
ed with the songs of the valiant yoimg 
knights; but none of them has been 
preserved. Zawis Z. Rozmberka wrote, 
m 1290, several good poems. The Bo- 
hemians possess the remains of a collec- 
tion of lyric-epic national songs, without 
rhyme, which seem to have been of great 
merit; but only two sheets of parchment, 
in duodecimo, and two small strips, have 
been preserved. Mr. Hanka, keeper of 
the Bohemian national museum, discov- 
ered these valuable remtuns in a room in 
the church at Koniginhof, in a pile of 
neglected papers. The manuscript ap- 
pears to have been written in the years 
1290 and 1310 : some of the poems may 
be still older : the more is the loss of the 
greater part of them to be regretted. This 
whole collection consisted of 3 books, as 
may be concluded from the inscription of 
the remaining chapters of the 3d book, 
which are inscribed 26th, 27tb, 28th. 14 
poems are preserved, which constitute 
those 3 chapters. (See Rukopi's Krahd-^ 
worahf wydany od Wac^ Hanky, 1819.) 
We cannot determine the subject of the 
first song, BoUslanjp^ by the part which 
has come dovm to us ; the second poem, 
Wxhori Dvh^ calls upon duke Udalnch to 
drive the Poles firom Prague (1003) ; the 
third, Bents, celebrates the repulse of the 
Saxons who advanced from G6rlit;E ; the 
fourth relates Jaroslaw Sternberg's victo* 
ly over the Tartars, near Ohntitz, in 1241 ; 
and so on* Gothe found diese nation- 
al songs worthy of particular attention, 
They deserve, perhaps^ to be placed by 
the side of Ossian's poems. A Bohe- 
mian psalter, and a legend, in rhyme, on 
Uie 12 apostles (the latter only a fragment 
14* 



of 70 verses, at Yienna), have also been 
preserved ; fike^se, the Complaint of a 
Lover on the Banks of the Muldau (^Wel- 
tawa), m prose ; a firagment of a history 
of the passion of Jesus, in rhyme ; the 
hynrn ^oaty Jfadanae ; besides a number 
of poems, sonfls, &bles and satires, in 
verses of four feet, also in rhyme. The 
14th centviry is more productive. Under 
the emperor Charles IV, who promoted 
the cultivation of the Bohemian language, 
the university of Prague was founded, in 
1348. In the golden bull, he commanded 
the SODS of the German electors to learn 
the Bohemian language. Under his son, 
the emperor Wenceslaus, all decrees were 
written in Bohemian, which formerly 
were in Latin. Prague was then not 
only the most populous city in Germany, 
but also, on account of its splendid coiut 
and the wealth of its citizens, the centre 
of the arts and sciences. Dalemil Me^ 
zericky wrote a history of Bohemia in 
verse ; Ondreg Z. Dube, a collection of 
Bohemian lavra, in 3 vote. ; Warinec Z. 
Brezowa, a history of the Roman empe^ , 
rors, and translated Mandeville's Travels ; 
Pribik Pulkawa, a Bohemian history ; 
and Benes Z. Horowic, a historv of the 
empire to the time of WenzeL This 
penod affords, also, many vocabularies, 
poems and songs; also a translation of 
the hfe of Alexander the Great ; the Ufe 
of the emperor and kinj^ Charles IV ; the 
description of the heroic feats of Pliehta 
of Zerotin, and of the battle of Cressv, in 
1346, and an account of the death of king 
John, which celebrates his fimie and tha| 
of tlie oxher Bohemian heroes ; a descrip* 
tion of the tournament in 1315 ; the ex- 
pedition of kin^f John against count Mat-r 
thias of Trenzcin, &c^-*With Hubs com^* 
inenced the second period, fix)m 1409 to 
1500, which elevated the character of the 
Bohemian language and nation. The 
ossembled fathers at Constance and B^e 
beheld with astonishment, among the Bo-r 
hemian nobilitv and citizens, men not 
only distinffuished for then* intrepidity, 
but able, also, to explain with profound 
learning the word of God. The Bohe- 
mian nobility of those times not only 
wielded with a vigorous ann the national 
weapon of their country in defence of the 
rights of the nation, but stood,' also, in the 
firat rank of scientific cultivation. The 
prevalence of religious disputes caused 
the Bible to be generally read and under* 
stood. <£nea8Bylviu8, then pope, says,^ 
Pudeat haluE sacerdates, quos ne $tmd 
mddem novam kgem ccnitat Ugiistj apnd 
TafforiUu vix mtdiercuUm inoefiiUf qua 



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BOHEMIAN LITERATURE. 



dt N'ofso TaUmetdo et veUri respondere 
nesciat. (Com. in Diet Alpb. Reg., sec. 
ii, 17.) Huss of Hussinetz translated 
Wickhffe's book Trialogus into the Bo- 
hemian tongue, and sent it to the laymen 
as presents. The treatise of the six er- 
rors he caused to be inscribed, in Bohe- 
mian, on the walls of the chapel of Beth- 
lehem. He wrote his first collection of 
sermons when at the castle of Kozy 
(1413), besides an appeal to the pope, a 
commentary on the ten commandments, 
an ^explanation of the twelve articles, two 
sermons on the Antichrist, the Triple 
Cord, and several excellent hymns. His 
letters from the dungeon in Constance to 
the Bohemians were translated by Lu- 
ther into Latin, accompanied with a 
?ire&ce, and printed at Wittenberg in 
536. He, and Jakobellus and Jerome, 
improved and distributed the Bohemian 
Bible, of whlt^h several copies have been 
preserved to our times. How many of 
4ii8 works perished by the hands of the 
Jesuits is unknown. The cruel execu- 
tion of the Bohemian martyrs Huss and 
Jerome, for their faith, was considered 
by their cotmtiymen as an outrage upon 
the whole nation, of which they com- 
plained bitterly ; many satires, also, were 
written at that time. Of Zisca of Troc- 
now, one of the greatest generals in his- 
tory, several letters, and his rules of war, 
have been preserved. From this period, 
there have come down to us, also, several 
war-songs of the Taborites; as 
Keioz gste BorJ bogotonfoy a zakona gdio, 
(Who are you, warriors of God and c? his law), &c. 
Nitz mmskow^ poskakugUt 
(Well now, ye monks, be chaste), &c. ; 

also some songs of Prague, Martin Lu- 
pac undertook, with the assistance of 
some learned men, the labor of translating 
the whole New Testament, and rendered 
it, in many places, more correct and 
plain. The church-service was now 
performed entirely in the Bohemian lan- 
guage. The bishop of the Taborites, 
Nicholas of Pelhrimow, wrote a Bohe- 
mian and Latin iheoloffical tract Kristan 
Prachatitzky wrote a book on medicine ; 
Martin Kabatnik, a Joiuney to Jerusalem ; 
P. Prespole, the mining laws of Kutten- 
berg and Iglaw, which have since be- 
come so famous. Johann Rokycana, H. 
Litomericky, W. Koranda and others 
wrote different works on religious sub- 
jects. P. Chelcicky gave an explanation 
of the Lessons of the Gospel for every 
Sunday ; wrote the Net of Faith [SU Wjry% 
a diacourae on the 13th chapter of Reve- 
lation, of the beastand its image(0 iSie^me 



a Ohrazn Gegjm), and an essay ofn the lore 
of God. The most famous book of his 
was one in 40 cfaapters, which he called 
Kopyla (Last). Many controversial writ- 
ings of this period might be mentioned. 
Bohuslaw of Sechtic wrote the work 
Zrcadlo wacho Kregtanstwa (Mirror of the 
whole of Christianity ). In diis, the differ- 
ence between the conduct of the apostles 
and of the Roman bishops is represented 
by various drawings. Thi^ee other draw- 
ings represent Huss preaching, and at the 
stake ; besides 16 leaves, upon which the 
life and the letters of Huss are contained. 
After two pictures, of which one repre- 
sents the worship of the Hussites, the 
other the exj[)edition of the Taborites, 
. comes a satirical letter of Lucifer: an- 
other plate represents the blind hero Zisca 
at the head of his army, under which 
there are quotations fit)m the Taborite 
war-song, Neprdtd se ndekeyte — JVhio- 
risteck se nezcutawuffme (Fear not the 
foes — Stop not for plundering): besides 
a dialogue, in which the father tells his 
son how the cup and the law of God had 
been introduced into Bohemia. The whole 
consists of 118 leaves, of which 88 have 
pictures. Stibor of CTmburg and Towa- 
cow wrote the veiy ingenious work on 
the possessions of the clergy, which he 
dedicated to king George, in 1467, and 
the collection of the rights and privileges 
of the margraviate of Moravia. Walcow- 
sky Z. Knezmosta wrotft on the vices and 
hypocrisy of the clergy ; P. Zidek wrote, 
in 3 vols., the Art of Governing, 1471 
(Zprawa Krdknoska), The first volume 
treats of the duties of a king with regard 
to the public welfare ; the second, on his 
personal behavior ; the third is a general 
view of history, from the beginning of the 
world to the time of the author, wherein 
frequent hints are given, as to what a king 
should do, and what avoid. William Cor- 
nelius of Wsehrd wrote nine books on the 
laws, judiciary ofiices and the register of 
lands in Bohemia. King George was the 
author of an ordinance respecting meas- 
ures, money, weights, &c. V. M&dien(N 
wic, who, when notary at Constance, was 
an eye-wimess of the execution of Huss, 
wrote an account of his life. This used 
to be read in the Bohemian churches. 
Procopius continued the rhyming chron- 
icles of Dalemil. J. Lodkowic related 
his Journey to the Holy Sepulchre. Sasek 
of Mezyhor wrote Notes and Travels 
tlirough Gerinany, England, France, 
Spain, Portitgal and Italy, of the Bohe- 
mian baron Loew of Rozmital and Vlatna 
(whom he accompanied); a contribution 



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BOHEBOAN UTERATURE. 



163 



to our kno^dedge of the manneiB of the 
15th oentury, which was puUished by 
JofiL Edak Horl^, in a German transla- 
tion printed at firiinn, 1824. M . Gallus, 
Aibjk, Chrifilan, Zidek, J. Cemy» J. 
Blowic and Siudel, wrote on medicine, 
astrology and agricttlture. As early as 
1447, we have an anonvmous work on 
the grafting of trees. We have also the 
rhyming legend of the 10,000 knights, a 
translation of the fikbles of iEsop, the 
council of the bcsasts and birds, in prose 
and verse, in 3 vols. (Pkuj Rada), Each 
lesson, which flows in rhyme from the 
mouths of the animals, is f>receded by the 
natural history of the animals and the 
moraL It was printed three times in the 
Bohemian language, and published at 
Cracow in Latin verse, 1521, 4to. There 
is, likewise, a satire, in 132 verses, on the 
persecution of the priests of the Tabor- 
ites ; the Ma/Uraium of Hynek of Podie- 
brad, die younger son of king George; 
besides several vocabularies and roman- 
ces, among which is TkadUctkj which 
has been published at Vienna, in a Ger- 
man translation. Of the Bible, 14 trans- 
lations have come down to us, besides 10 
of the New Testament. The oldest, of 
the year 1400, is in Dresden. The typo- 
graphic art made a rapid progress in Bo- 
hemia. The first printed work was the 
epistle of Huss f x>m Constance, in 1459 ; 
the second, the Trojan War, in 1468 ; the 
third, a New Testament, in 1474*; the 
whole Bible, in 1488 ; the first almanac, 
in 1489.— The thutl age, firom 1500 to 
1620, may be called the golden age of 
the Bohemian language. During those 
dreadful tumults, in which, not only in 
this kingdom, but also in the neighboring 
countries, populous cities became heaps 
of ashes, and innumerable villages en- 
tirelv disappeared, the peculiar inclination 
of the nation to investigation, and their 
predilection for science and art, devel- 
oped themselves. The cultivation of 
learning — ^in other countries, with only a 
few exceptions^ the monopoly of the 
clergy — was, in this fiivoured land, open 
to the whole nation. All branches of 
science were elaborated, and brought to 
an uncommonly high degree of improve- 
ment for that time. The purpose of this 
woric does not allow us to enumerate all 
the authors of this age, sinee, under Ro- 
dolph II alone, there were more than 150. 
Gregory Hruby of Geleni translated the 
woik of Petraroh, De Ramdm tOriuague 
Forhtna. W. Pisecky transkted from the 
Greek the Exhortation of Isocrates to 
Demon]):o9. John Amos Gomenius wrote 



54 works, some of which were very ex- 
cellent He published his Jamta and an' 
Orbi$ Pietiu, which were translated, in his 
lifetime, mto 11 languages, have passed 
through innumerable Mitions, and are 
not yet surpassed. In all the north of 
Europe, Comenius attracted attention by 
his projects for improving education, 
which were deliberated upon even by the 
diet of Sweden and the paniament of Eng- 
land. The hymns of this and the earlier 
ages, part of which have been translated 
by Luther, may serve as standards for all 
languages. In Prague alone, there were, 
at this period, 18 printing-presses ; in the 
country-tovnis of B. 7, and m Moravia 
also 7 : many Bohemian books, too, were 
printed in foreign countries, as in Venice, 
Niirembci^, Holland, Poland, Dresden, 
Wittenberg and Leipsic. — ^The fourth pe- 
riod begins with 1620, and ends with 
1774. After the battle at the White 
mountain, the whole Bohemian nation 
submitted entirely to the coni^ueror. The 
population of most of the cities and of 
whole districts migrated, in order not to 
be false to their fiiith. More than 70,000 
men, and almost the whole of the nobility, 
all the Protestant clergy, scholars and ar- 
tists, in general, the most cultivated part 
of the nation, lefi their native country. 
Of these emigrants, the greater part 
formed the flower of the army of count 
Mansfeld. Hence the 30 years' war de- 
populated Bohemia more than any other 
country, since these fugitives endeavored 
to regain their native country by repeated 
invasions. Nothing, however, was so dis- 
advantageous to Bohemian literature as 
the introduction of monks, who were 
mostly Italians, Spaniards and Southern 
Germans, who condemned every Bohe- 
mian work, as heretical, to the flames, so 
that individuals boasted of having burnt 
about 60,000 manuscripts, which they 
took from the people by force, afler 
searching their houses. Such works as 
escaped the flames were shut up in 
monasteries, in carefully-secured rooms, 
listened with iron grates, doors, locks, 
bolts and chains, and often inscribed vrith 
the warning title HelL Instead of these 
excellent remains of the classical times 
of the country, they gave the Bohemians 
nonsense of all kmda ; accounts of hell 
and purgatory, the reading of which 
made many of the popula»9 maniacs; 
though even this stun was, m many 
cases, burnt, and mostly fbibidden. The 
fugitives estabUshed at Amsterdam, Dres- 
den, Berlin; Breslau and Halle, printin(|^- 
preeses^ and .sent to their brethren m 



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164 



BOHEMIAN LITERATURC-BOIL. 



Bohemia, Moravk SDd Hungary, a num-* 
ber of books, mostly new editions. Some 
Bohemians, who observed the decay of 
their language, strove to remedv it; as 
Pesina Z. Cechorodu ; Joh. Beckowsky, 
who continued the Bohemian history to 
1620; W. Weseley, who wrote a work 
on geometry and tr^onometry, &c. ; but 
the decay was too great to admit of being 
checked ; the nobifity had become stnn- 
gers, and the government encouraged 
only German literamre. From this time, 
therefore, the Bohemians wrote more in 
the German languajie. — ^In the fifth pe- 
riod, from 1774 to 1826, a new ray of hope 
shone on Bohemian literature ; when, 
under the emperor Joseph II, a deputa- 
tion of secret Bohemian Protestants, trust- 
ing to his liberal views, made him ac- 
quainted with the great number of their 
brethren of the same faith. He perceived 
the necesnty of introducing toleration, 
and hundreds of thousands of Protestants, 
in Bohemia and Moravia, came to hght : 
their concealed works were printed anew, 
their classical language was again ac- 
knowledged and cultivated* This is done 
still more under the present government, 
who perceive the necessity and utility of 
the sclavonian language, which, in the 
Austrian states, is spoken by 14,000,000 
people, and of which the Bohemian is 
the written dialect Under this protec- 
tion, many men of merit, minaful of 
the fkme of their ancestors, have endeav- 
ored to cultivate anew all branches of the 
sciences, and to reach, if possible, their 
more advanced neighbors. In particular, 
the members of the Bohemian society of 
sciences, of the national museum, and of 
other patriotic societies, above all, count 
Kollowrath-Iiebsteiosky and count Cas- 
par of Sternberg, deserve to be named 
with high respect — ^The Bohemian has 
natural talents for mathematics, as Co- 
peruicus, Vega, Stmad, Wydra, Littrow, 
&Ci, may prove. The corps of Austrian 
artillery, which are recruited in Bohemia 
and Moravia, have alwa^ contained men 
distinguished for acquaintance with this 
science. In philology and mu»ic, the 
Bohemians are likewise eminent The 
teacher of Mozart was Kluck, a Bohe« 
mian. Recently, Adlab^t Sedlaczek, 
eanon of a chapter of the Preemonstra-' 
tenses, has distinguished himself by phyfrr 
ical and mathematical compendiums in 
the Bohemian lanj^uage.— Compare the 
VoUstandigt BohnMche Litaratur of pro- 
fessor" Jungmann (Prague, 1825, 2 
vols.). 
BoiARDo, Matteo Maria, count of Scan- 



diano, was bom at a seat belonging to his 
&milv near Ferrara, in 1434. From 1488 
to 14u4, the period of his death, he was 
commander of the city and castle of Ref- 

§10, in the service of his protector, Eroole 
'Este, duke of Modena. This accom- 
plished courtier, scholar and knight was 
particularly distinguished as a poet His 
OHaaido hnamaraio (Scandiano, 1496) 
is continued to the 79th canto, but not 
completed. He immortalized the namet 
of hjs own peasants, and the charms of the 
scenery at Scandiano, in the persons of his 
heroes and his descriptions of the beauties 
of nature. In language and versification, 
he has been since surpassed by Ariosto, 
whom he equalled in invention, grace, and 
skilful conduct of complicated episodes. 
Bominichi, Bemi and Agostini new 
modelled and continued the work of B. 
without improving it One continuation, 
only, will never be forgotten— tiie im- 
mortal Orkmdo of Ariosto. In some of 
his works, K was led, by the spirit of his 
times, to a close imitation of the ancients; 
e. g., in his Capitoli; also, in a comedy 
borrowed firom Lucian's ISman; and in 
his Latin eclogues and translations of 
Herodotus and Apuleiua In his sonnets 
and ccmzoni (first printed at Reggio, 1499), 
he has displayed great talents as a lyric 
poet 

Boil ; to heat a fluid until it bubbles 
and becomes changed into vapor. If the 
requisite heat is applied a sufficient time, 
bubbles continuallv arise, until the fluid is 
entirely consumed. A singular circum- 
stance is to be remarked, that the fluid, 
in open vessels, when it has once begun 
to boil, receives no increase of heat, even 
from the hottest fire. The reason is this, 
that the additional caloric goes to form 
steam, and ascends with it into the air. 
The steam itself, when formed, may be 
raised to a much higher degree of temper^ 
ature. During the period of boiling, the 
surface of the fluid exhibits a violent un« 
dulating motion, and the stratum of air 
immediately over it is filled with vapor. 
The noise which accompanies boihng, 
arises^ vrithout doubt, firom the displacing 
of the steam-bubbles, and varies very 
much with the nature and situation of 
the vessel. The vaporization of fluids i% 
very probably, nothing more than a me- 
chanical union of caloric with the fluid. 
The degree of heat at which diflerent 
fluids boil is very diflerent Spirits boil 
at the lowest temperature; pure water 
next; at a still higher temperature, the 
fixed oils. The degree of heat at which 
a fluid boils is eaUed its hoQing point. 



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BOIL-B0S9-LE-DUC. 



165 



This is used as one of tfie fixed point» in 
the graduation of thermometers. This 
point is uniform only in case of complete 
twiling, and under a uniform pressure of 
the atmosphere. The influence of this 
pressure appears from experiments. In 
an exhausted receiver, the heat of the 
human hand is sufficient to make water 
hoil ; while, on the contrary, in Papin's 
digester, where the confinement prevents 
evaporation, it may be heated to 300 or 
400 degrees without boiling. Under the 
common pressure of the atmosphere, the 
boiling pomt of rain-water is 212° Fahren- 
heit ; that of alcohol, 174° ; that of mer- 
cury, 6G0° ; that of etheis, 98°. From the 
experiments of prof Robinson, it appears, 
that, in a vacuum, all liquids boil about 
145° lower than in the open air, under a 
pressure of 30 inches of mercury ; water, 
therefore, would boil in a vacuum at 67° 
Ether may be made to boil at the com- 
mon temperature, by merely exhausting 
the air from the vessel in which it is con- 
tained.' 

BoiLEA0, Despr^au^ Nicholas, bom in 
1636« at Crosne, near Paris, commenced 
his studies in the colUge d^JSarcowrt^ and 
continued them in the ealUge de Beau^ 
tfcd». Even in his early youth, he read 
with ardor the great poets of antiquity, 
and tried his own powers in a tragedy, 
though with little sucCesa. After having 
completed his academical studies, he en- 
tered upon the career of the law ; but 
soon left it from disinclination, tried some 
other pursuits, and resolved, finally, to 
devote himself entirely to belles-lettres. 
His first satire, Les adieux h Paris, made 
known his talents. In 1666, he published 
seven satires, with an introduction, ad- 
dressed to the king. They met with ex- 
traordinary applause; for no erne, be- 
fore him, bad written with such ele- 
gance of versification. But in this, and 
* m the puiity of his language, and the 
clearness with which he sets forth his 
luminous principles, consists their chief 
merit; novel, profound, original ideas, 
we should look for in vain, though the 
pieces are not destitute of graceful touches 
and delicate strokes. Thev are unequal 
in merit The satires Sur t^quivoqae and 
Siir rUommt have undeniable defects. 
That on Women, which he wrote at a more 
advanced age, is monotonous, and de- 
ficient in humor. His epistles, in which 
he is the successful rival of Horace, are 
more esteemed at the present day. They 
display a graceful versification, a natural 
ana sustamed style, vigorous and well 
connected ideas. Thes^ were followed 



b^ his Art Poitigm^ in wluch he describes^ 
with precision and taste, all the dififerenl 
kinds of poetry fwith the exception of the 
apologue), and lays down rules for them. 
In regularity of plan, happy transitions, 
and continual elegance of 8t^le,this poem 
is superior to the Ar$ Poehca of Horace. 
It was long reg:arded) not only in France, 
but also in foreign countries, as a poetical 
code, and has eveiy where had a &vora- 
ble influence, as it inculcates purity and 
regularity, and subjects all the produc- 
tions of poetical genius to a fixed standard. 
B.'s censures of Tasso and Quinault, with 
some other equally unfounded opinions, 
display a narrowness of spirit Ue had 
many opponents, who accused film of 
want of fertility, invention and variety. 
To refute them, he wrote his Luiritty a 
mock-heroic poem, which is still un- 
rivalled in the eyes of the French. A 
music-stand, 'which had been removed 
from its place, bad occasioned dissensions 
in a chapter : this is the subject of B.'s 
poem, 1(1 which his art of making petty 
details interesting deserves as much praise 
as the other exc^ences of his poetry al- 
ready enumerated. In his life, B. was 
amiable and generous. Louis XIV gave 
him the place of historiographer, in con- 
nexion with Racine. As he had attacked 
the academicians in several of his writ- 
mgs, he was not received into theur socie- 
ty until 1684, and then only by the inter- 
ference of the kinff. He died in 1711, 
of the dropsy. M. de St Surin has pub- 
lished (Euvres de BoUeau, with a com- 
mentary, Paris, 1824, 4 vols. The first 
volume of Daunou's (member of the in- 
stitute) (Euvres Canutes de BoUeau, with 
a literary and historical commentary, ap- 
peared in Paris, 1825. 

Boiler. (See Steam and Steam Enr 
gifte,) 

Bois-LE-Duc (the French name for the 
Dutch Hertogenbo^ also Im Bosh); a 
fortified city in the province of North 
Brabant, in the kingdom of the Nether- 
lands, witii 3770 houses and 13,300 in- 
habitants, at the confluence of the Dom- 
mel and the Aa, which form, by their 
junction, the Diest Lon. 5° 9^ E. ; lau 
51° 40^ N. It has many manufiictories, 
and much trade in com, some salt- 
works, a lyceum, 10 Catholic churches, 
4 Calvinistic, 1 Lutheran. Godfrey, duke 
of Brabant, founded this important mili- 
tary post in 1184. The fortincatious now 
consist of strong walls and seven bastions, 
but it owes its security, chiefly, to the &- 
cility with which the whole country 
around can be laid under water (the new 



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166 



BOIS-LE-DUC-BOLEYN. 



canal to Maestricht has 16 stuicea). B. is 
defended by several forts and a citadel. 
The city has four gates, and three en- 
trances from the water. The cathedral 
is one of the finest in the Netherlands. 
The city suffered much in the religious 
wars of the 16th century, and fell into the 
hands of the Dutch in 1629. Sept 14, 
1794, the French defeated the English 
here ; Oct 9 of the same year, it surren- 
dered to Pichegru. In January, 1814, it 
was taken by the Prussian general Billow. 
BoissEREE. A celebrated gallery of 
pictures is exhibited in Stuttgart, which 
was collected by the brothers Sulpice 
and Melchior Boisser^e, and John Ber- 
tram, men who, animated by love of the 
arts, began, at the time of the destrucdon 
of the monasteries, during and after the 
French revolution,' to purchase old pic- 
tures, and afterwards completed their 
collection by the addition of many valua- 
ble paintings of the old German schooL 
By this coUection, the brothers Boisser^e, 
and Bertram, have haj^pily realized the 
idea of a historical series of old Grerman 
paintings. It is to their endeavors that 
we owe the discovery, that Germany pos- 
sessed, as early as the 13th century, a 
school of painters of much merit, which, 
like the Italian, proceeded from the old 
Byzantme school, but became, in the se- 
quel, distinguished by excellences of its 
own. We owe to these collectors, also, 
the restoration to favor of the forgotten 
Low German masters, and a just estima- 
tion of John von Eyck, as the creator of 
the genuine German style of painting. 
By this collection, the names of von Eyck, 
Wilhelm von K61n, Hemling, Goes, Mec- 
kenem, Wohlgemuth, Schoen, Mabuse, 
Schoorel, ^nd many others, have attained 
deserved honor. The most distinguished 
connoisseurs and artists, including Gothe, 
Canova, Dannecker and Thorwaldsen, 
have stronffly expressed their admiration 
of ihis collection. The proprietors are 
publishing a work consisting of excellent 
lithographic prints from their pictures. 
In the autumn of 1820, the publication 
of the splendid engravings, illustrative of 
the cathedral in Cologne, was resolved 
on. The plates surpass, in size and exe- 
cution, every thing which had appeared 
in the department of architectural deline- 
atjons, and were partly made in Paris. 
(See Boisser^e's Geschichte und Beschrei- 
bung dts Doma von KUri, Stuttgart, 1823.) 
BoissoNADE, Jean Frangois, bom at 
Paris, 1774, one of the most distinguished 
Greek scholars in France, was made as- 
sistant professor of the Greek language 



in the university of Paris, in 1809; audi 
in 1812, after the death of Larcher, whom 
he succeeded in the institute, principal 
professor. The king made him a mem- 
ber of the legion of honor in 1814, and, 
in 1816, member of the academy of in- 
scriptions. Bendes valuable contributions 
to the Journal des D&HdSy to the Matvrt^ 
to the Magazin Encyclopidiqite, to the 
BiograpkU Umverselle^ajid to the Notices 
et Exiraits (10 vols.), we are indebted to 
him for an edition of the Heroica of Phi- 
lostratus (1806), and of the Rhetoric of 
Tiberius (181d). Still more important 
are his editions of Eunapus' lives of the 
Sophists, of Proclus' Commentary on the 
Craiylus of Plato, never before printed ; 
of a Greek romance by Nicetas Euffenia- 
nus, &c. He compiled, also, a French 
dictionary, on the plan of Johnson's. 

BojACA, Battle of, so called, from 
having been fought near the bridge of the 
small town of Bojaca, not &r mm the 
city of Tunja, between the Spaniards, 
under Barreyro, and the united forces 
of Venezuela and New Grenada, com- 
manded by Bolivar. It occurred August 
7th, 1819, and was deciinve of the inde- 
pendence of New Grenada* Among the 
republicans, generals Anzuategui, Paez 
and Santander distinguished themselves ; 
and the Spaniards sustained a total de- 
feat, their general, most of their officers 
and men who survived the battle, together 
with all their arms, ammunition and 
equipments, falling into the hands of 
Bolivar. So complete was the destruc- 
tion of the Spanisn army, that the vice- 
roy instantly fled from Santa F^, leaving 
even the public treasure a prey to the 
conquerors. 

Bole ; a fossil of a yellow, brown, or red 
color, often marked with black dendrites ; 
found in difterent parts of Bohemia, Si- 
lesia and Stiria, also in Lemnos, and at 
Sienna in Italy. It is made into pipes 
for smoking, and vessels for cooling water 
in hot weather. The terra sigwata is 
nothing but bole. 

BoLEYN, or BoLEN, Auuc, second vrife 
of Heniy VIII of England, was the 
youngest child of sir Thomas Boleynand 
a daughter of the duke of Norfolk, She 
was TOrn, according to some accounts, in 
1507, but, according to other more prob- 
able ones, in 1499 or 1500. She attended 
Mary, sister of Heniy, on her marriage 
with Louis XII, to France, as lady of 
honor. On the return of that princess, 
after the kingl's death, she entered the 
service of queen Claude, vrifb of Francis 
I, and, after her death, that of the duchen 



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BOLEYN— BOLINGBROKE. 



lor 



of AIen<?oii, nster of the French king. 
Younj^, beautiful, gay and witty, she was 
an ob|ect of great attraction in the gallant 
court of Francis I. She returned to Ens- 
land about 1525 or 1527, and became lady 
of honor to the <]ueen, whom she soon 
supplanted. The kmg, passionately enam- 
orea of her, found an unexpected opposi- 
tion to his wishes, and Anne firmly de- 
clared that she could be had on no terms 
but those of marrisAe. She knew that 
the kinff already memtated a divorce from 
his wife, Catharine of Aragon ; but she 
also knew what difficulties the CathoUc 
religion opposed to the execution of this 
plan. Cranmer oflRdied his services to 
Drinff about the accomplishment of the 
kin^s wishes, and thus gave the first oc- 
casion to the separation of England fix)m 
the Roman church. But the unpetuous 
Henry did not wait for the ministers of 
his new religion to confirm his divorce: 
on the contrary, he privately married 
Anne, Nov. 14, 1532, navinff previously 
created her marchioness of rembroke. 
When her pregnancy revealed the secret, 
Cranmer decku^d the first marriage void, 
and the second valid, and Anne was 
crowned queen at Wesuninster, with un- 
paralleled splendor. In 1533, she became 
the mother of the fiimous Elizabeth. She 
could not, however, retain the afRsctions 
of the king, as inconstant as he was tvran- 
nical; and, as she had supplanted her 

aueen, while lady of honor to Catharine, 
he was now supplanted herself by Jane 
Seymour, her own lady of honor. Sus- 
picions of infidelity were added to the 
dis^t 6f Hennr, which seem to be not 
entu^ly unfounded, although the judicial 
process instituted against her was whoUv 
irregular. In 1535, she was imprisoned, 
accused, and brought before a jury of 
peers. Smeaton, a musician, who was 
arrested with others, confessed that he 
had enjoyed the queen^s fiivors, and. May 
17, 1536, she was condemned to death by 
26 judges. Anne in vain affirmed that 
she had lone before been contracted to 
the duke of Northumberland, and, there- 
fore, had never been the lawful wife of 
Henry. Cranmer in vain declared the 
marriage void. The sentence of death 
was executed by the command of the in- 
flexible Henry, who esteemed it a great 
exercise of clemency to substitute the 
scafiTold for the stake. The last day of 
the life of this unhappy woman, May 19, 
1536, presents manj interesting moments. 
She sent for the wife of the lieutenant of 
the Tower, threw herself upon her knees 
before hei^ and said, ^ Go to the princess 



Mary (daughter of Catharine) in my name, 
and, in this position, beg her forgiveness 
for all the sufferings I have drawn upon 
her and her mother." ** She sent her last 
message to the king," says Hume, ** and 
acknowledged the obligations which she 
owed him in unifbmuy continuing his 
endeavors for her advancement" "From 
a private gentlewoman, you have made 
me, first, a marchioness, then a queen; 
and, as you can raise me no higher in 
this world, you are now sending me to be 
a saint in heaven." 

BoLiifOBROKE, Henry St John, viscount, 
bom in 1672, at Battersea, near London, 
of an ancient &mil^, the members of 
which had disdnguielied themselves in 
military and civil offices, received an edu- 
cation adapted to his rank, and completed 
his studies at Oxford, where he early ex- 
hibited uncommon talents, and attracted 
general attention. On entering the world, 
he displayed a rare union of brilliant parts 
and elegance of manners, with beauty of 
person, dignity and afiab^^, and such 
fascinating eloquence, that, according to 
the unanimous testimony of his contem- 
poraries, nobody could resist him. Unfor-f 
tunately, the pasdons of his youth oppos- 
ed the developement of his talents ; and, 
in his 23d year, he was distinguished prin- 
cipally as an accomplished libertine. His 
parents, suppoone that marriage would 
nave a salutary influence upon him, pro- 
posed to him a lady, the heiress of a mil- 
lion, who united with a charming figure a 
cultivated mind and noble birth. But the 
young couple had hved but a short time 
together, when irreconcilable disputes 
arose between them, in consequence of 
which they separated for ever. Another 
plan was adopted to give a better direction 
to the impetuous character of B. By the 
influence of his father, he obtained a seat 
in the house of commons. Here his elo- 
quence, his acuteness, and the strength of 
his judgment, attracted universal attention. 
His former idleness was changed at once 
into the most incessant activity. In 1704, 
ho was made secretary of war, and came 
into immediate connexion with the duke 
of Marlborough, whose talents he discern- 
ed, and whose enterprises he supported 
¥rith all his influence. When, however, 
the whigs gained the ascendency, B. gave 
in his resignation. Now followed, as he 
said himself the two most active years of 
his life, in which he devoted himself to 
study, but by no means neglected public 
afiSiirs. He continued to maintain a con- 
stant intercourse with the queen, who 
preferred him to her other counsellois. 



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The whig ministiy was overthrowD, to 
the astonishment of aU Europe ; and B. 
received the department of foreign afiairs, 
in. which post he concluded me peace 
of Utrecht, of which he was always 
proud, and which gained him general 
admiration. In concluding this peace, 
every thing was unfavorable to him — ^the 
whigs, the peers, the bank, the East India 
societv, Marlborough, Eugene, the empe- 
ror, Holland, the jealousy of all the Euro- 
pean powers, the wealmess of his ovm 
queen, the uresolution, imprudence, and 
even the envy of his colleagues. B. after- 
wards became a prey to the impetuosity 
of his passions, and exhibited a vereatility 
of conduct that has rendered his loyalty, 
his patriotism and his whole character 
suspected. The collision of the whigs 
and tories produced such a general excite- 
ment, that the ministers were attacked, 
the peace was decried as disastrous, and 
the Protestant succession was declared in 
danger. At this moment, a &tal conten- 
tion broke out between the lord high 
treasurer (the earl of Oxford) and fi., 
immediately afler the conclusion of the 
]>eace. Swift, the friend of both, but par- 
ticularly intimate with the lord hi^h treas- 
urer, accused B. of having principally 
contributed to the ruin of their party, fiie 
this as it may, queen Anne, provoked to 
the utmost by Oxford, dismissed him four 
days before her death, and made B. prime 
minister. But the death of Anne changed 
the whole scene. George I of Hanover 
ascended the throne, and the whigs tri- 
umphed more completely than ever. B., 
who could not impose on the Hanoverian 
court by his plausible pretences, and who 
was as much envied as he was hated, was 
dismissed by kins Greorge, while yet in 
Germany, and fled to France, upon leam- 
iuf that the opposite parly intended to 
brmg him to the scaflbld. James III, the 
Prt&nderf as he was called, invited him to 
Lorraine, and made him his secretary of 
state. But, when Louis XIV died, B. 
lost all hope of the success of the Pretend- 
er, and repented of having entered into so 
close a connexion with nim. Whatever 
the feelings and plans of B. may have 
been, his intentions, with regard to James 
III, were doubtless honest Nevertheless, 
the latter deprived him of his dignity, and 
transferred it to the duke of Ormond. 
Thus it was die strange fate of B. to be 
charged with treachery, both by the king 
and the Pretender, (men were made to 
him by kinff George, on condition of his 
revealing the secrets of the Pretender, 
This proposal he at first declined, but 



afterwards yielded so far as to promise a 
decisive blow against the cause of the 
Pretender, on condition of the total obliv- 
ion of what had already passed, and of an 
entire confidence for the future. Wal- 
pole, however, was afiaid of B.'s influence 
in parliament, and opposed his recalL B., 
in order to forget nis situation, applied 
himself to vmting philosophical consola- 
tions after the manner of Seneca, but 
soon found sweeter ones in his marriage 
with a rich and amiable lady, niece of 
madame de Maintenon. In 1^23, the par- 
liament, which had been so hostile to B., 
was at length dissolved, and he was per- 
mitted to return to England. His estates, 
however, were not restored until two 
years after, by a particular act of pariia- 
ment. On his return, he lived at first 
retired in the country, maintaining, how- 
ever, a correspondence vrith Swijft and 
Pope. But no sooner was the voice of 
opposition heard in parliament, than he 
hastened to London, and, as the restora- 
tion of his seat in the house of lords was 
still denied him, attacked the ministry 
during eight years, in the journals or in 
pamphlets, with great success. He drew 
upon himself powerful enemies, against 
whom he directed his Treatise on Parties, 
which is considered as his masterpiece. 
He then returned to France, with the in- 
tention, as even Swift supposed, of throw- 
ing himself into the arms of the Pretend- 
era party, agednst which charge Pope 
defended him, and declared that he had 
himself advised his noble fiiend to leave 
an ungrateful country, by which he was 
suspected and persecuted. In France, B. 
wrote, 17d5, his Letters upon History, 
which are admired even at the present 
day, but in which the individual character 
of the author appears to the exclusion of 
general views, and which were blamed, in 
particular, for attacking revealed religion, 
which he bad once warmly defended. In 
1729, in the midst of his contest vrith 
Walpole, he had suggested to Pope his 
Essay on Man, assisted him in the com- 
position, and supplied him with the most 
important materials. His feelings finally 
carried him back to his country, where 
he wrote, 1738, his Idea of a Patriot 
King, under the eyes of the heir apparent 
He died in 1751, in his 80th year, after a 
long and dreadful disease, during which 
he composed Considerations on the State 
of the Nation. He bequeathed his manu- 
scripts to the Scotch poet Mallet, who 
published them in 1753; but scarcely had 
they appeared, when a general cry was 
raised against them, on account of their 



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nyoltnig atlackB on ChiMamty. They 
were preeeiited by the grand juiy of 
Westminster as subversive of religion, 

S>vemment and morality. B. was oapa- 
e of inspiring the wannest fiiendsoip 
and the bitterest enmity. He was accus- 
ed of immoderate ambition, and of a proud, 
passionate, envious and implacable tem- 
per. His memoirs are useful, as iilustrat- 
mg English history during the first quar- 
ter of the 18th century. 

Bolivar, Simon, the great military 
captain of South America, and the most 
prominent individual yet produced ))y the 
revolution in the late Spanish colonies, 
was bom in the city of Caraccas, July 24, 
1783. Ifis fiither was don Juan Vicente 
Bolivar y Ponte, and his mother, doiia 
Maria Concepcion Palacioe y Sojo, both 
of noble ana distinguished families in 
Venezuela. Afler acquiring the first ele- 
ments of a liberal education at home, B. 
repaired to Europe, in jpursuit of more 
extended means of caimng knowledge, 
visiting Havana and Mexico on his way. 
He completed his studies in Madrid, and 
then spent some time in travelling, chiefly 
in the south of Europe. He was particu- 
Icurly attracted to the capital of France, 
where he was an eye-witness of some of 
the later events of the revolution, and 
there, probably, conceived the idea of 
liberatmg fads countiy from the tyranny 
of Spain. Returning to Madrid, he mar- 
ried the daughter of don N. Toro, uncle 
of the marquis of Toro, in Caraccas, and 
embariLed with her for America, intend- 
ing to dedicate himself^ for a while, to 
domestic life and the superintendence of 
his large estate. But the premature and 
sudden death of his wife, who fell a vic- 
tim to the yellow fever, djspeUed his vis- 
ions of domestic happiness ; and he again 
visited Europe as a relief to his sorrow 
for her loss. On his return home, he 
passed through the U. States; and the 
lesson of liberty was not without its fiuits ; 
for, on his arrival in Venezuela, he em- 
barked in the plans and intrigues of the 
patriots, and pledged hinoself to the cause 
of independence. Being one of the chief 
promoters of the movement in Caraccas 
of April 19k, 1810, which is considered as 
the beginning of the revolution, he re- 
ceived a colonel's commission from ihe 
flopreame junta then established, and was 
assoeioled with don Luis Lopez Mendez, 
for the purpose aif communicating inteUi- 
flenoe of me change of government to 
Cheat Britain. He took part in the &st 
military operations of. the Venezuelan 
patriots after the declaration of indepen- 

VOL. II. 15 



dence, July 5, 1811, serving under Mi- 
randa in an expedition against a body of 
persons in Valencia, who thus early took 
a stand opposed to the revolution. Afler 
the earthquake of Mareh, 1812, tiie war was 
commenced in earnest by the advance of 
Monteverde with the Spanish troops ; and 
the command of the important post of 
Puerto Cabello was intrusted to B. Bfit, 
unfortunately, the Spanish prisoners iu 
the castle of San Felipe, which com- 
manded the town, corrupted one of the 
patriot officers, and obtained possession 
of the casde ; so that B. was compelled to 
evacuate the place. This mishap con- 
tributed greatly to produce ll>e submission 
of Miranda, which left Venezuela in the 
full control of Monteverde, M^ny of 
those persons, who Were deeplv cdmrait- 
ted in tlie revolution, now sought to leave 
tlieir country; and B. succeeded in ob- 
taining a passport and escaping to Cura- 
Qoa. Unable, however, to remain a cold 
spectator of the events occurring on the 
continent, he renaired to Carthagena, iu 
September, 1812, and, with otlier cnii- 
grents from Caraccas, entered into the 
service of the patriots of New Grenada. 
They gave him the command in the 
small town of Baranca, nominally under 
tlie orders of Labatut, the republican gov- 
ernor of Santa Marta ; but B. could not 
be content with the obscure part which 
must have fallen to him had he remained 
at Baranca. Instead of this, he under- 
took an expedition against Tenerif%, a 
town hiffher up on the river MagdaJena, 
occupied by the Spaniards, captured it, 
and, gathering forces on the way, he 

Sroce^ed, on his own responslbiti^, to 
[ompox, driving the Speuiiards before 
him from all their posts in tlie U])])er 
Magdalena, and finally entering the city 
of Ocaiia in triumph, amid the acclama- 
tions of the inhabitants, whom he deliv- 
ered. These happv and successfiil move^ 
ments now turned the public attention 
upon him ; and he was invited to march 
upon Cucut4, and attempt to expel the 
Spanish division commanded by Correa. 
This operation, also, he achieved, without 
any loss, by the celerity and skill of his 
movements, and now conceived tlie 
great and boM proiect of invading Vene- 
zuela with his little army, and delivering 
it from the powerful forces under Monte- 
verde. The congress of New Grenada' 
Satified him in this respect, and gave 
m a commisnon of brigadier ; but 
many obstacles were thrown in his way 
by colonel Manuel Castillo, commandant- 
general, undev the congress, in due prov- 



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BOLIVAR. 



ince of PamplcMUi, which led to an uree- 
oncilable dinerence between theni. At 
lenffth, haviiiff overcome a multitude of 
difficulties which retarded his advance, 
and driven Correa from the valleys of 
Cucuta, he commenced his march for 
Venezuela, with a small force of but little 
more than 500 men, but accompanied by 
excellent officers, some of whom after- 
wards acquired great celebrity, such as 
Rivas, Jirardot, Urdaneta and d'£luyar. — 
Heedless of the accusations of rashness 
lavished on his enterprise, B. plunged into 
the province of Merida. The inhabitants 
of the provincial capital rose upon the 
Spaniards on learning the news of his 
approach. He hastily reestablished the 
republican autliorities tliere, while his 
van-guard was proceeding upon Trujillo, 
under JirardoL A sin^e engagement 
took place in Carache, where JiFardot 
defeated a strong corps of royalists under 
/ Cailas, after which the provinces of Me- 

rida and Trujillo remamed wholly free 
from the Spaniards. B. had detached 
from his troops a small body under 
colonel Briceuo for the occupation of 
Vaiinas. Briceiio was defeated ; and, 
falling into the hands of the Spaniards, 
was shot in cold blood, with 17 of his 
companions, and many of the patriots of 
Varinas, by the Spanish commandant 
Fiscar. Meanwhile, B. obtained authen- 
tic intelligence of tlie horrid and shame- 
less cruelties and oppressions every where 
perpetrated in Venezuela by Monteveitie 
and his subordinate officers, analogous to 
the butcheries of Fiscar. Exasperated by 
tlie knowledge of these events, he issued 
the &mous decree of guerra a muerU, 
condemning to death all the Spanish 
prisoners who might fall into his bands. 
But he is not of a cruel or sanguinary 
temper; and this decree seems to have 
been intended rather to intimidate the 
royalists than hterally to be put in execu- 
tion. His army increasing daily, he sep- 
arated it into two divisions, committing 
one of them to the charge of Rivas, and 
both rapidly advanced upon Caraccas 
through the provinces of Trujillo and 
Varinas. Several engagements ensued, 
in which the patriots were successful; 
and, at length, the decisive victory of 
Lastoguanes, in whicli the flower of 
Monteverde's troops were completely de- 
feated, lefl open the road to Caraccas. 
Monteverde shut himself up in Puerto 
Cabello, and B. lost no time in marching 
upon the capital, whicli was evacuated 
by the Spaniards without a strugde, and 
enteied in triumph by B., Aug. % 1813. 



Meantime, Muiuo had eflfoeted the libei^ 
ation of the eastern provincet of Venezu- 
ela, of which the patriots had regained 
entire possession, excepting onl^ the for* 
tress or Puerto Cabello.-^At this period, 
tlie whole authority in Venezuela centred 
in B., as the commander of the liberating 
army, and the oppressions of some of b£ 
subordinate officers excited loud com- 
plaints. NevertbelesB, convinced of the 
necessity of having Ae resources of the 
country, at such an emergency, in the 
hands of a single individual, it was re- 
solved, in a convention of the principal 
civil and miUtary officers, assembled at 
Caraccas, Jan. 2, 1814, to confinn the dic^ 
tatorial powers which circumstances had 
aheady tluiown upon B. A desperate 
contest now ensued between the royalist 
and patriot parties and forces; and to 
narrate the part which B. took therein, 
would be to relate the history of the war. 
Suffice it to say, that, ailer various vicis- 
situdes of fortune, B. was beaten by 
Boves, in a battle fought in the plains of 
La Puerta, near Cora, and compelled to 
embark for Cumana, with the shattered 
remnant of his forces ; so that Caraccas 
was retaken b^ the Spaniards in July, 
1814, and, before the end of the year, 
the royalists were again undisputed mas- 
ters of Venezuela. Once more, therefore, 
B. appeared in Cartha^na tfs a fugitive, 
and proceeded to Tunja, where the con- 
gress of New Grenada was ntting, to give 
an account of his brilliant, but, in the re- 
sult, disastrous expedition. Notwithstand- 
ing his misfortunes, and the efibrts of his 
personal enemies, he was treated with 
great consideration, and received the ap- 
plause merited by one who bad needed 
only resources proportionate to his tal- 
ents to have accompliahed the permanent 
deUverance of his country^ — When B. 
arrived at Tunja, the congress was or- 
ganizing an expedition against the city 
of Bogota, for the purpose of compelling 
tlie province of Cundmamarca to accede 
to tlie general union of the provinces of 
New Grenada, and thus put an end to the 
collision which divided the means and 
crippled the exertions of the republicans. 
Every conciliatory measure having failed 
to e^ect a union of the provinces, the 
government had recourse to arms. B. 
was intrusted' with the delicate tadt of 
commanding the forces of the union upon 
this bcc4ision, and marched against Santa 
F6 earlv in December, 1814, at the head 
of nearly 3Q00 troops. He invested the 
city, drove in the outposts, obtamed pos- 
sessioQ of the subuifas by stonn, and was 



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BOLIVAR. 



171 



prepariog to aaHiuh the great squaro, 
where the dictator Alvarez and the troops 
of OundinainarBa were posted, when the 
latter- capitulated, I>ecember 12, and be- 
imme suDJect, thenceforth, to the general 
government of New Grenada, which was 
peaceably transferred to Bogota. Thecon> 
gress passed a vote of thanks to B. for 
the wisdom and courage with which he 
had directed the campaign, and brought 
it BO speedily to a happy termination; 
and the inhabitants of the city themselves 
expressed their approbation of his person- 
al conduct — Previous to this time, Santa 
M arta had fellen into the possession of 
the royalists, in consequence of -the inca- 
pacity of Labatut ; and the general gov- 
ernment justly appreciated the impor- 
tance of regain iog it. R was accordingly 
employed upon this service, and was to 
receive the necessary munitions of war 
from the citadel of Carthagena; but the 
rivalry and jealousy of the military com- 
mandant Castillo, the origin of which we 
have already explained, defeated all his 
plans. Indignant at Castillo's conduct 
in refusing him the requisite supplies, B., 
after the season for acting against Santa 
Marta to advantage had been wasted in 
ruinous delays, invested Carthagena with 
his troops, hoping to intimidate Castillo 
ante submission, or, if not, to reduce him 
to reason by force. But, m the midst of 
these wretched dissensions, wherein both 

C'es listened too much to resentment, 
illo arrived at the isle of Margarita 
with an overwhelming force from Spain ; 
cuid B., avrsre that all further views upon 
Santa Marta were hopeless, threw up his 
command, and, finding that he could not 
be usefiiUy employed at Carthagena, em- 
iMirked for Jamaica, m May, 1815, to wait 
for better times. He remained in Kings- 
ton most of the year, whilst Morillo was 
r^uctng Carthagena, and overrunning 
New Grenada. During his residence 
there, a hireling Spaniai-d made an at- 
tempt upon his tife, and would have as- 
sassinated hhn, if it had not happened 
that another person occupied B.'s bed 
at the time, who was stabbed to the heart 
— From Kingston, B. repaired to Aux 
Cayes, in the island of Hayti, and, assisted 
by private individuals, and with a small 
force furnished by Petion, formed an ex- 
pedition, in conjuneuon with commodore 
Brion, to join Arismendi, who had raised 
the standard of independence anew in 
the isle of Mai^garita. He arrived in safe- 
ty at Margarita yi May, 181^ and, sailing 
thence, landed on the mam land near 
Pmqaoa^ but, i^ a feyr months^ was en- 



countered by the Spaniards UQder Mo- 
rales at Ocumare, and compelled to re- 
embartt Nothmg -disheartened by this 
&ilure, he obtained re^nibrcements at 
Aux Cayes, and, in December, 1816, land- 
ed once more in Margarita. There he 
issued a proclamation convoking the 
representatives of Venezuela in a general 
conpess; and from thence passed ver 
to £ircelona, where he oi^nized a pro- 
visional government, and gathered forces 
to resist Morillo, who was approaching 
with a powerful division. They encoun- 
tered each other on the 16th, 17th and 
18th of February, in a desperate conflict, 
which ended in B.'8 obtaining the victory. 
Morillo retreated in disorder, and was 
met and defeated anew by general Paez, 
with Lis irresistible Llaneros. B., being 
now recognised as suoreme chie^ pro- 
ceeded in his career or victory, and, be- 
fore die close of the year 1817, had fixed 
his head-quarters at Angostura. The 
sanguinary battles of tliis period, in the 
most important of which he was engaged 
in person, belong rather to the history of 
Colombia (q. v.) than to B.'s own life. 
He found time, however, to preside at 
the opening of the congress of Angosta-* 
ra, February 15th,. 1819, and to submit a 
long and elaborate exposition of his views 
of government He also surrendered his 
authority into die hands of the congress, 
which required him to resume it, and to 
retain it untU the independence of his 
country should be fully achieved. B. 
soon reorganized his forces, and set out 
from Angostura, with the purpose of cross- 
ing the Cordilleras, and efiecting a junc- 
tion with general Santander, who com- 
manded the republican forces in New 
Grenada, so that the united arms of the 
two republics might act with the greater 
efficiency. He succeeded, in July, 1819, 
in reaching Tunja, which city he entered 
afler a battle on die neighboring heights, 
and, on the 7th of August, gained the 
great and splendid victory of Bojaca. 
which gave hiin immediate possession or 
Santa F^ and all New Grenada. The 
viceroy Samano fied precipitately before 
him; and he was enthusiastically wel- 
comed in Santa F^ as a deliverer, ap- 
pointed president and captain-general of 
the republic, and enabled by the new re-> 
sources of men, money and munidcMis of 
war, which he found diere, to prepare for 
returning into Venezuela widi an armv 
sufiScieut to ensure the complete exput 
sion of the Spaniards. — ^B.'s enti^ mto 
Angostura, afler his glorious campaign ui 
New Grenada, was a peculinriy gratify- 



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ing and afTecting spectacle. Its whole 
)x>pulatlon hailed him as the liberator and 
fatner of his country. He embraced the 
favorable moment to obtain tlie funda- 
mental law of December 17th, 1819, by 
which the republics of Venezuela and 
New Grenada were to be thenceforth 
united in a single state, under the pretd- 
denry of K, and by the title of the repub- 
lic of Colondncu Meanwhile, the seat of 
government was transferred provisional- 
ly to Rosario de Cucuta ; and B. again 
took the field, at the head of the most 
formidable army that had been aasembled 
by the independents. After a series of 
memorable advantages over the Span- 
iards, an armistice of six months was ne- 
gotiated at Trujillo, between B. and Mo* 
rillo, and subscribed November 25th, 

1820. Morillo soon afterwards returned 
to Spain, leaving La Torre in command. 
At the termination of the armistice, B. 
made a great effort to finish the war by 
a decisive blow, and attained his object 
by vanquishing La Torre, in the famous 
banle of Carabobo, leaving to the Span- 
iards only the broken figments of an 
army, wliich took refuge m Puerto Ca- 
bello, and there, after a protracted and 
obstiuate struggle of more ttian two years, 
surrendered to general Paez. — ^The battle 
of Carabobo may be regarded as having 
put an end to the war in Venezuela. B. 
entered Caraccas, June 29th, 1820, having 
now, for tlie third time, rescued his na- 
tive city fiwm its oppressors, and was re- 
ceived with transports of joy. By the 
close of the year, the Spaniards were 
driven from every part of the country, ex- 
cept Puerto Cabelio and Quito ; and the 
time was deemed auspicious for establish- 
iiig permanent political institutions in 
Colombia. The present constitution was 
completed and adopted August 30th, 

1821, and B. was elected the first con- 
stitutional president, with general San- 
taiider for vice-president. Having thus 
achieved the independence of his own 
country, B. placed himself at the head of 
tlie liberating anny destined to expel the 
Spaniards m>m Quito and Peru. The 
ftue of Quito was decided by the battle 
of ^Pichincha, fought in June, 1822, and 
gained bv the tSents and prowess of 
Sucre. Aware tliat tlie southern prov- 
inces of Colombia could never be secure 
while Peru remahied subject to Spain, 
and anxious to extend the blessings of 
independence to all America, B. resolved 
to march upon Lima, and assist the Peru- 
vians. The royahsts, not beiug pre|>ared 
to meet him, evacuated Lima at his ap- 



proach ; and B., entering the capital amid 
the acdamatioDs of the people, was in- 
vested with supreme {wwer as dictator^ 
and authorized to call into action ail the 
resources of the country for its liberation. 
But, opposed and denounced by some 
of the factions which distracted Peru, he 
found himself under the necessity of re- 
turning to Trujillo, in Northern Peru, leav- 
ing Lima to be retaken by the Spaniards 
under Canterac — At length,in June, 18^ 
the Uberating army was completely or- 
ganized, and soon after, taking the field, 
routed the vanguard of the enemy. B. 
was anxious for the opportunity of a 
decisive engagement, and, in fact, soon 
obtained a ^lliant victory, August 6, on 
the plains of Junin. Leaving Sucre to 
follow the royalists in their retreat into 
Upper Peru, he repaired to Lima, to or- 
ganize the government; and, during his 
absence fit)m tlie army, Sucre gained 
the splendid victory of Ayacucho. Noth- 
ing was now held by the Spaniards in 
Peru but the casdes of Callao ; which 
Rodil maintained for upwards of a year, 
B. employing all the resources of the 
government for their reduction, until Jan* 
uary, 1826. In June, 1825, B. visited 
Upper Peru, which detached itself firotn 
the government of Buenos Ayres, and 
was formed into a new republic, named 
Bolivioj in honor of the hberator. The 
members of tlie congress of the new re- 
pubUc, assembled in August, 1825, seem-' 
ed to vie with one another in extrava- 
gant resolutions, testifying their gratitude 
to B. and Sucre. The lorraer was de- 
clared perpetual protector of the republic, 
and requested to prepare for it a consti- 
tudon of government. Returning to Lima, 
he occupied himself in performing this 
task. — Wo touch now upon a {leriod 
when B. appears in a new as])ect. Hith- 
erto, we have traced his military career, 
at first unceitoin, and abounding in great 
revers(*8,but at leneth splendidly success- 
ful. His remarkable fertility in resource^ 
his courage, conduct, and pi^miuent 

genius for tiie art of war, are all ufldcnia- 
le, and arc proved not less by his brilliant 
success, than by the tesdmony of all the 
most competent judges. But he now 
comes before us in the capacity of a law- 
giver ; and impuuitions on the purity of 
hi8}>oiitical vie^vs arise contemporaneous- 
ly with his assuming tlie delicate task of 
consolidadng the governments which his 
military ])rowes8 had created. — In De- 
cember, 1824, B. issued a decree, convok- 
ing a constituent congress to assemble in 
Lima tlie ensuing Februaiy. This body 



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MBembled aceordmffly ; but, in considera- 
tioD of the unsettled state of tfae country, 
resolTed to continue the dictatorial pow- 
ers of B. another year, without attempt- 
ing to settle the government permanendy. 
They also urged on B. a ^rant of a million 
of dollars, which he, with the liberality 
of feeling, and contempt of mercenary 
motives, which have invariably distin- 
guished him, rejected Congress soon 
adjourned, and B. remained sole and 
absolute governor of Peru. Residing 
partly at Lima, and pardy at Magdalena, 
he directed the acts of the government, 
and, at tliis period, proposed the cele- 
brated congress of Panaiii6, for tlie, pur- 
pose of establishing a stable aHiiuice 
between all the independent states of 
America. Having completed his project 
of a constitution tor Bohvio, he presented 
it to the congress of that state, with an ad- 
dress, dated May 25th, 1826, wherein he 
solenmly recorded his opinions of the 
form of government required by the new 
republics of the south. Of tliis famous 
code, an account will be found in the 
aiticle Bolivia. It is enough to state here, 
that, among other features which alarmed 
the friends of iiberty,tlie most exception- 
able was a provision for lodging the exec^ 
utive authority in the hands of a president 
for life, without responsibility, and with' 
power to nominate his successor. When 
the nature of this constitution became 
generally known in South America, it 
excited the liveliest apprehensions, es- 
pecially among the republicans of Bue- 
nos Ayres and Chile, who feared, or 
pretended to fear, an invasion from B. ; 
and n9t less in Peru, where he began to 
be accused of a design to unite perma- 
nently Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and 
to make himself perpetual dictator of the 
same^-^These imputations received coun- 
tenance, at least, from the proceedings of 
B. hiipself The surrender of Callao, by 
completely freeing Peru from the Span- 
iards, finished the business for which B., 
and the Colombian troops, had been 
called into the country. But he mani- 
fested no intention of departing, or of re- 
signing his authority. On the contrary, 
when the deputies for the constituent 
congress of 1826 assembled, they saw fit, 
or were mduced,for alleged irregularities 
in their appointment, and jR>r other causes, 
to decline acting in their legislative ca- 
pacity. A majority of the deputies pub- 
lished an address, in which they urged 
B. to continue at the helm another vear, 
and, meantime, to consult the provinces 
iadividually as to the form of government 



which they might desire, and the person 
who should be placed at its head. Ac- 
cordingly, circular letters, written in the 
name of B. and his council of govern; 
ment, and issued from the bureau of his 
minister Pando, were addressed to the 
several prefects of departments, com-* 
maiiding them to assemble the electoral 
colleges, and submit, for their sanction, a 
form of constitution precisely the same 
with the Bolivian coae, only adapted to 
Peru. This constitution was adopted by 
the colleges, who also nominated B, 
president for life under it, with a una-r 
nimlty too extraordinary not to have 
been the result either of intimidation or 
of management. Before tliis time, how- 
ever, events had transpired in Colombia, 
which demanded the presence of B. in 
his own countr}'. During his absence, 
the vice-president, Santander, had ad- 
ministered the government With abiUty 
and uprightness. Colombia had been 
recognised by otlier countries as an inde- 
pendent state; its territory was divided 
into departments, ^nd its government 
regularly organized. But, in April, 1826, 
general Paez, who commanded in Ven- 
ezuela, being accused before the Colom- 
bian senate of arbitrary conduct in the 
enrolment of the citizens of Caraccas in 
the militia, refused obedience to the sum- 
mons of the senate, and placed himself in 
o)>en rebellion to the nationijil government 
and constitution. Taking advanta^ of 
tliis unhappy incident, the disa&cted 
party in the ancient Venezuela, all those 
opposed to a central form of government, 
and all those opposed to the existing ad- 
ministrators of the government, united 
with Paez ; and thus me northern depart- 
ments became virtually separated, for the 
time being, from the rest of the republic. 
But all professed a readiness to submit 
their grievances to the decision of B., and 
anxiously required his return to Colom- 
bia. While these movements were taking 
place in Venezuela, professedly with a 
view to obtun a federal, instead of a cen- 
tral form of govermnent, various muni- 
cipalities in the southern departments, 
formed from what had been the presi- 
dency of Quito, held public meetinss, in 
which they voted to adopt the Bolivian 
code, and lodged the authority of dictator 
in the hands of B. Evidence has been 
adduced, shovving that the latter proceed- 
ings were in accordance with the wishes 
of B., and that the meetings were actual- 
ly summoned by the personal interven- 
uon of Leocadio Guzman, an emissary 
of his, who suggested the resolutions they 



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should pass; and suq^icions have not 
been wanting, that Paez Was either in- 
cited, or sustained, by intimations received 
from the same quarter. On these things 
it would be premature now to decide. 
Ceilain it is, that, to all appearance, the 
central departments alone, answering to 
New Grenada, continued faithful to the 
constitution. These circumstances most 
imperiously demanded the presence of JB., 
wliether as the cause and object of 
the public distractions, or as the means 
of composing them. Accordingly, he 
set out from Lima in September, 1826, 
committing the government to a council 
of his own appointment, and responsible 
to him alone, with general Santa Cruz at 
its head, and leaving the whole of the 
Colombian auxiliary anny in Peru and 
Bolivia. B. made all haste to reach Bo- 
gota, which he entered Nov. 14, 1826, 
and, assuming the extraordinary powers 
which, by the constitution, tlie president 
is authorized to exercise in case of rebel- 
lion, he remained only a few days in the 
capital, and pressed on to stop the effusion 
of blood in Venezuela. He went, accom- 
panied merely by a small escort, although 
forces were in readiness to s^stain him if 
requisite, and all the demonstrations of 
insurrection vanished at his approach. 
He reached Puerto Cabello December 
31 St, and immediately issued a decree, 
dated Jan. 1, 1827, giving assurance of 
a general anmesty to tlie msurgents, on 
their peaceably submitting to his author- 
ity, and eng^png to call a convention for 
the reform ofthe constitution. He had a 
friendly meeting with Paez, and, soon 
afterwards, entered Caiticcas, where he 
fixed his head quarters, having the north- 
em departments under his immediate 
personal authority, and separated from 
ilie body of the repubhc, which pro- 
ceeded in its ordinary routine. B. and 
Santander had respectively been reelected 
to the offices of president and vice-presi- 
dent, and should have been qualified anew 
as such in January, 1827. But, in Feb- 
ruary, B. addressed a letter from Carac- 
cas to the president ofthe senate, renounc- 
ing the preudency of the republic, and 
expressing a determination to repel the 
imputations of ambition cast upon him, by 
retiring to seclusion upon his patrimonial 
estate. Santander, in reply, ur^d him 
to resume his station as constitutional 
president, convinced tliat the troubles and 
agitations ofthe country, if they were not 
occasioned by the intrigues of B. Idinsel^ 
might at any moment be quieted by his 
lendmg the authority of bis name, and 



his personal influence, to the cause of the 
constitution. But distrust, suspicion and 
jealousy of the conduct and intentions of 
B. now filled all the friends of republJcan 
institutions. He had recorded his confes- 
sion of political faith, to use his own ex* 
pression, in the anti-republican Bolivian 
code, and he was believed to be anxious 
for its introduction iuto Colombia. When 
his renunciation of the presidency was 
submitted to the consideration ofthe con- 
gress, a portion of the members urged 
that body to accept tlie renunciation. 
They publicly accused him of being in 
concert with Paez ; of having designedly 
thrown the whole nation into discord and 
confusion, in order to create a false im- 
pression of the necessity of bestowing 
upon himself tlie dictatorship. But a 
majority of the members insisted upon his 
retaining the presidency, and required his 
presence at Bogota to take the constitu- 
tional oaths. Before he came, however, 
tliey had passed a decree of general am- 
nesty ; a decree for assembling a national 
convenuon at Ocaua, and a decree for re- 
establishing constitutional order through- 
out Colombia. His arrival was hastened 
by unexpected events, touching him per- 
sonally, which had occurred in Peru and 
the southern departments. Not long afler 
his departure from Lima, the returns of 
the electoral colleges were received by 
the council of government, by which the 
Bolivian code was pronounced to be the 
constitution of Peru, and B. the preadent 
for hfe. The constitution vras accord- 
ingly promulgated officially, and was 
sworn to, by uie public functionaries in 
Lima, Dec. 9, 1826^ the anniversary ofthe 
victory of Ayacucho. At this time, the 
Colombian auxUiary army in Peru was 
cantoned in three divisions ; one stationed 
in Upper Peru, and two m Lower Peru ; 
one or these at Arequipa^ and one in Lima. 
This third division consisted of veteran 
companions of B.'s triumphs, and was 
commanded by his personal fiiends, gen- 
erals Lara and Sands. Notwithstanding 
the attachment of these troops to B., they 
had lately been growing distrustful of his 
designs ; and, although they did not feel 
disposed, it would seem, to thwart his 
views upon Peru, they took fire immedi- 
ately when they saw cause to believe that 
he had similar views upon their own na- 
tive Colombia. The consequence was, 
that, in the short space of six weeks after 
the new constitution was solemnly adopt- 
ed, they came forward, and revolutionized 
the government of Peru. So well were 
theur measures taken, that, Jan. 26^ 1827, 



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175 



they arrested thor general officen without 
any conflict or opposition ; placed them- 
selves under the command of Bustamante, 
oncf of their colonels ; and announced to 
die inhabitants of lima, that their sole 
object was to relieve the Peruvians from 
oppression, and to return home to protect 
their own country against the alleged 
ambitious schemes of B. The Peruvians 
immediately abjured the Bolivian code, 
deposed B.'s council of ministers, and' 
proceeded, in perfect freedom, to organ- 
ize a provisional government for them- 
selves. Arrangements were speedily 
made, after this bloodless revolution Was 
effected, to transport the third division to 
Guayaquil, according to their own desire. 
They embaiked at Callao, March 17, and 
landed in the southern department of Co- 
lombia, in April, part of them proceeding 
for Guayaquil, and part for CuenQa and 
Quito, uniibrmly declaring their object to 
be the restoration of constitutional order, 
in opposition to any deagns upon the 
republic entertained by B. Intelligence 
of these events reached B. while he was 
still in the north of Colombia. Rousing 
himself instantly from his long-continued 
inactivity, he made preparations for 
marching to the other extremity of the 
republic, and reducing the third division. 
But these troops, findmg the sovemment 
was in the hands of the regular national 
executive, had peaceably submitted to 
general Ovando, who was sent, by the 
constitutional authorldes, for the purpose 
of taking the command. B. meanwhile 
signified his consent to be qualified as 
president, and proceeded, with this intent, 
to Bogota, where he arrived Sept 10, 
took the oaths prescribed by the constitu- 
tion, and resumed the functions belonging 
to his official station. To external appear- 
ance, therefore, Colombia was restoied to 
tranquillity, under the rule of her consti- 
tutional magistrates. But the nation was 
divided between two great parties, and 
agitated to its centre by their opposite views 
of the pohtical concution of tne country. 
B. had regained the personal confidence 
of the soldiers and officers of the third 
division, who expressed the deepest re- 
pentance for their distrust of his charac- 
ter, and their entire devotion to his inter- 
ests. But the republican party, and the 
friends of the constitution, with Santander 
at their head, continued to repaid his 
ascendency over the army, and hiB politi- 
cal movements, with undisguised and not 
unfounded apprehension, universally ac- 
cusing or suspecting him of a desire to 
emu)^ the career of Napoleon. They 



looked to the convention of Ocafia, which 
was to assemble in March, 1828, for a 
decided expression of the will of the na- 
tion in frivor of the existing republican 
forms. The military, on the other hand, 
did not conceal their conviction that a 
stronger and more permanent form of 
government was necessary for the public 
welfare ; tiiat the people were unprepared 
for purely repubhcan institutions, and that 
B. ought to be intrusted with discretionary 
power to administer the afiTairs of Colom- 
bia. — In 1828, B. Iissumed the supreme 
power in Colombia, by a decree, dated 
Bogota, Aug. 27, which gives him autlior- • 
ity to maintain peace at home, and to 
defend the country against foreign inva- 
sions ; to have the command of the land 
and sea forces ; to negotiate with foreign 
powers ; to make peace and declare war; 
to make treaties ; to appoint the civil and 
military officers ; to pass decrees, and ordi- 
nances of every description ; to regulate 
the administration of justice, &c. The 
decree provides, however, that he is to be 
assisted m the exercise of executive pow- 
er by the council of ministers. If B. is 
to be the Cfesar of South America, even 
his enemies admit that, like Coesar, his 
purposes are ultimately good. He desires 
the pure administration of justice, encour- 
ages the arts and sciences, fosters all the 
great national interests, and, if he attains 
absolute power, will probably use it wisely 
and nobly. But it is premamre to denom- 
inate him the HaalnngUm of the Southy 
before it well appears whether the liber- 
ties of his countiy are safe fix>m his am- 
bition. — In his person, B. is described as 
being of ordinary stature ; ungraceful in 
his air and movements; thin and spare, 
but capable of great endurance ; of an 
olive complexion, with black, coarse hair, 
thin in firont ; broad, bushy eye-brows over- 
shadowing an eye somewhat sunken, but 
full of fire and expression. His intellect 
is undoubtedly of^the highest order, and 
his general character of mat ardent, lofty 
cast, which civil commotions are apt to 
form, and which qualifies its possessor to 
ride on the tempest His ormnary state* 
papers do not bespeak a very pure taste, 
nor an understanding ever subjected to 
any well-directed cultivation, and are 
frequentiy conceived in language which 
even the lofly idiom of his vernacular 
tongue will hardly sanction. Being now 
only 46 years of age, he may have a long 
career of varied fortune yet before him, 
wherein he may do much, either to fill 
the friends of republican institutions with 
sorrow, or to build for himself a durable 



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BOUVAIU-BOUVIA. 



monument of gkny. (RestreDo's Ootew- 
&M, vols. 3—6; Cdumlnay ▼ol. 2; ,^mer» 
An, Regisiar, vols. 1 and 2.)— There has 
latelv appeared a work, enutled Metnoirs 
ofSmonBolivcaryOnd o^kuminciptd Gen- 
erals, tnih an hOroduction, &c., by general 
H. L. V. Ducoudray Uolstein; Boston, 
1829. The book is a violent philippic 
against B., and evidently colored too highly 
to be a safe authority. It does not be- 
come the biographer to adopt the views 
of a political partisan, nor to pronounce 
a decisive iudmient until the career of 
his subject is closed. 

Bolivia ; the name (^ a country in 
South America. It is bounded N. W. 
by Peru, N. E. and E. by Brazil, S. by 
Buenos Ayres or the United Provinces of 
South America, and W. by the Pacific 
ocean and Peru. It is elevated and moun- 
tainous, givinff rise to several laive tribu- 
taries, both of the Amazon and La Plata. 
It includes lake Titicaca. It contains rich 
silver mines, of which those of Potosi, 
that were formerly very productive, are 
the most celebrated. The town of Chu- 
quisaca, or La Plata, is the capital. Some 
of the otiier principal towns are Potosi, 
Charcas, Oropesa, Oruro, La Paz and Co- 
chabamba. xhe population has been re- 
cently estimated at 1,000,000 or 1,200,000. 
— ^This republic dates its origin from the 
battle of Ayacucho, fought Dec. 9, 1824, 
in which general Antonio Jose de Sucre, 
at the head of the Colombian forces, de- 
feated the viceroy La Sema, and insured 
the independence of the country. It con- 
sists of the provinces known imder the 
Spanish goverameut as Upper Peru, and 
then governed as a dependency of the 
viceroyaky of Buenos Ayres. Olaneta 
maintained a show of opposition for a 
short time after the battle of Ayacucho; 
but Sucre quickly drove him into the 
province of Salta, where his forces were 
dispersed by the Buenos Ayrean authori- 
ties^ -in April, 1825. No obstacle now re- 
mained to prevent the organization of an 
independent government. A congress 
assembled at Chuquisaca, in August, 1825, 
and resolved to estabUsh a separate repub- 
lic, independent both of Lower Peru and 
of Buenos Ayres, to be named Bolivia, in 
honor of the Hbeiator Bolivar. Among 
other testimonials of their gratitude to« 
wards him, they requested him to prepare 
the draft of a constitution for the republic, 
lodfing the authority of president, mean- 
while, in the hands of Sucre. Bolivar 
accordmgly prepared the project of a con- 
sdtution, which he presented to them 
May 25, 182^ accompanied by an address, 



containing his general views upon the 
subject of government By this code, the 
powers of government are distributed into 
four sections— 4he electoral, legislative, 
executive and j udiciaL The electoral bod^ 
is composed of persons chosen, for a pen* 
od of four years, by the citizens at laige, 
at the rate of one elector for every hundred 
citizens. The legislative power resides 
in three chambers, the first of tribunes, 
the next of senators, and the highest of 
censors. The tribunes are to bt^ chosen 
for a period of four years, half of the 
chamber being renewed every second 
year; and tlie senators for eight years, 
half of their body beinff renewed every 
fourth year. Between these two bodies, 
the ormnaiy duties of legislation are ap- 
portioned in a manner peculiarly artificial 
and inconvenient, together with various 
other functions of a judicial and executive 
character. The censors are for life, and 
their busmess is to watch over the gov- 
ernment, to accuse the executive before 
the senate, to regulate the press, educa- 
tion, and the arts and sciences, to grant 
rewards for public services, and to de- 
nounce the enemies of the state. The 
executive power resides in a president for 
life, a vice-president and four secretaries. 
The president commands all the military 
and naval forces, and exercises the whole 
patronage of the government, nominating 
all the civil and military servants of the 
state, ofiicers of the army, navy and treas- 
ury, foreign ministers, and the vice-presi- 
dent, who is to be his successor: ne is, 
moreover, without any responsibility for 
the acts of his administration. The judi- 
cial power is regulated so as to secure the 
due administration of justice ; and the 
private rights of individuals are carefully 
protected by suitable guarantees. This 
form of constitution, it is evident, would 
give the executive such preponderating 
power, that all the measures of govern- 
ment would, in facti be subject to his will, 
and he would be, to all intents and pur- 
poses, the elective prince of a monarchy^ 
limited in theory, but absolute in opera- 
tion. This code was presented to the 
constituent congress of Bolivia, which 
assembled at Chuquisaca, in May, 1826, 
and by that body adopted as the constitu- 
tion of the republic. The 9th of Decem- 
ber, the anniversaiy of .the battle of Aye** 
cucho, being fixed upon as the 'period 
when it should be carried into effect, Su- 
cre resigned his discretionaiy authority 
into the hands of congas, and solicited 
them to appoint a native of the country 
to be his successor. But they resolveSl 



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that he should retain the executive power 
until the election of a constitutional pres- 
ident should take place. Sucre consented 
to continue in office until that time ; re- 
quiring, however, that the electoral col- 
leges should present a candidate for the 
high office of president, previous to the 
assembling of the constitutional legisla- 
ture. This resulted in the election of 
Sucre as president for life under the con- 
stitution. Whether the choice was en- 
tirely a fiee one or not is yet uncertain. 
A large bodv of Colombian troops re- 
mained in lJppe( Peru, under circum- 
stances analogous to the situation of other 
troops of the same nation in Lower Peru, 
and, of course, affi3rdiug like reason to pre- 
sume tliat military influence may have 
afiected the election. — ^The geographical 
position of B. being mosdy inland, its po- 
litical condition is less accurately knqwn 
than that of the neighboring countrieii, and 
less an object of general interest. In the 
natural progress of things, it would seem 
likely to be reunited to Lower Peru, 
from which it was arbitrarily severed by 
the Spanish government.. But hitherto 
the congress of the Rio de la Plata has 
refused to recognise its independence, 
iusistipg that the MmiUi of their republic 
shall TO coextensive with the ancient 
boundaries of the vicero^alty of Buenos 
Ayres, and, of course, claiming the prov- 
inces of Upper Peru by the same title 
under whicn they lay claim to Paraguay 
and the Banda Oriental. But it is not 
probable, in any event that can be reason- 
ably anticipated, that Bolivia will again 
be joined to Buenos Ayres. (Const, qf 
Bolivia; Amer. An, Reg, vols. 1 and 2.) 

BoLLANnisTs ; a society of Jesuits in 
Antwerp, which has published, under tlie 
title Ada Sanetomm (q. v.j, the well- 
known collection of the traditions of the 
saints of the Roman Catholic church. 
'They received this name from Jolm Bol- 
land, who first undertook to digest the 
materials already accumulated by Heri- 
bert Roswey. 

BoLLMAN, Erich, a man distinguished 
for knowledge, character and enterprise, 
bom in 1770, at Hoya, in Hanover, went, 
in 1792, to Paris, to practise as a physi- 
cian. Here he saved count Narbonne 
from the Jacobins. In 1794, he resolved 
to free La&vette from his prison in Ol- 
tniitz. By his efforts, and those of Mr. 
Huger, a gentleman belonging to tiie U. 
Sttttesy Lafayette was enabled to quit his 
duofleon, Nov. 8, but was unfortunately 
retaken soon afier. B. was cast into 
prison, but aAer a while set at liberty, and 



banished from the Austrian dominions. 
He afterwards settled in the U. States, 
and subsequently went to England. 

BoLOOffA {BoTtorda Fdsima); one of 
the oldest, largest and richest cities of 
Italy, with colonnades along the mdes of 
the streets for foot-passengers. It is caU- 
ed la grassa (the &t) ; lies at the foot of 
the Apennines, between the riven Reno 
and Savena, and contains 65,300 inhabitr 
ants and 8000 houses, with manufkctories 
of cordage, soap, paper, artificial flowers 
and arms. B. is the capital of the papal 
delegation of the same name ; the seculiur 
concerns of which are administered by a 
cardinal lesate, who resides here ; whilst 
the ai^hbi^op directs in spiritual afifairs. 
A gorifaioniertj chosen every 2 months, 
witti 50 senators and 8 elders firofii the 
citizens, form a republican government, 
which has almost the whole management 
. of the afiaurs of the city. The people of 
B. voluntarily submitted to the papal see 
in 1513, being tu^d of the party struggles 
among the nobles, by whicn the strength 
of the state was exhausted. B. has an 
ambassador in Rome, whose duty it is 
to maintain the limitations of the papal 
authority, according to the constitution, 
and who, after every new election of a 
pope, presents complaints 'of the en- 
croachments of his predecessor. The 
city chooses, alto, one of the judges com- 
porang tiie high court of appeals at 
Rome. Her armorial bearings are even 
now surrounded by the charmed word 
Libertas, The pope, by the constitution, 
can exact no other tax than the excise on 
wine. During three centuries, the papal 
government endeavored to introduce in 
D, the excise on com (annoTia'^ but could 
not succeed. The rich nobility of the 
papal states live in B., and are on bad 
terms with the head of the church. — ^This 
city is also the residence of the old Bo- 
lognese patrician fiunilies, who have given 
many popes to the church. The most 
hbend men in the papal dominions are to 
be found among the learned of this city. 
In 1816, the nobility, scholars and citi- 
zens founded a Socratic societv for the 
Eromotion of social happiness, which was^ 
owever, suspected of Carbonarism. B. 
ms long renowned for its university, 
founded, according to tradition, by Theo- 
doslus the younger, in 425, which, in the 
centuries of barbarism, spread the light 
of knowledge over all Europe. It once 
had 10,000 students, but the number at 
present is only 300. Here the famous 
Imerius taught the civil law in the 11th 
century ; and men like Bulgerus, MaAi- 



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BOLOGNA--BOMB. 



ntis, Jacobus and Hugo attmcted pupils 
from every quarter. The university for- 
merly po8set»ed so much influence, that 
even the coins of the city bore its motto, 
Boiumia doceL The law school enjoyed 
the greatest fiime. Its teachers had \he 
reputation of inculcating principles &vor- 
able to despotism, and were consequently 
rewarded oy the &vor of the emperors 
and of the Italian sovereigns. During 
1400 years, eveiy new discoveir in sci- 
ence and the arts found patrons here, and 
the scientific journals prove tliat curiosity 
on these subjects is still awake in B. A 
citizen of B.,* general count Fern. Mar- 
si^li, founded, in 1709, the ingtituio deUe 
scienze, and gave it a library of almost 
2C0,000 volumes ; to which, m 1825, the 
abbatc Alezzofanti, professor of Oriental 
languages, was appointed librarian. This 
learned man speaks a large number of 
living languages correctly and fluently 
rfor instance, German, in several dialects, 
Russian, Hungarian, Walacluan, the lan- 
fiua^ of the Gripsies, &c.), without ever 
havmg left B. The foreign troops in Italy 
gave him opportunities for learning them. 
Count Marsigli founded and endowed, ^ 
also, an observatory, an anatomical hall, 
a botanical garden, and accumulated val- 
uable collections for aU branches of sci- 
ence and art. These are at present con- 
nected with the acecukmia , CUmtntina 
of pope Clement XI. In the 16th cen- 
tury, the famous painters and sculptors 
Caracci, Guido Reni, Domenichino and 
Albauo founded a school, to which their 
works have given great reputation. (See 
Painting,) There were, even as early as 
the 12th and 13th centuries, great jiaint- 
ers in B. Francesco, called il Francia, 
was famous in the 15th centurv. The 
chief place of die city is adorned by sev- 
eral venerable buildings : among them are 
the senate hall (which contains a number 
of excellent pictures and statues, and tlie 
200 folio volumes of the famous natural 
philosopher Ulysses Aldrovandus, written 
with his own hand, as materials for future 
worksj, the palace of justice of the 'podts- 
ia, and the Ciidiedral of St. Petronio, with 
its unfinished fltiut and the meridian of 
Cassiui drawn upon a copper plate in the 
floor. Among the 73 other churches, the 
following are distinguished : S. Pietro, S. 
Salvatore, S. Doineuicho, S. Giovanni in 
Monte, S. Giacomo maggiore, all pos- 
sessed of rich treasures of art. The col- 
lections of works of art are numerous : 
they are part of rich family fortunes, 
traasmittea in trust, and are continuallv 
increased by each generation. The gal- 



leries Sampieri and Zambeccari fonaeAf 
excelled all others, but are now surpamed 
bv those of Marescalchi and ErcolanL 
The collection of the academy of paintinr, 
endowed, in modem dmes, by die muni- 
cipality, principally with the treasures of 
abolished churches and monasteries, is 
rich, and full of historical interest. The 
admired fountain of the market is defi- 
cient in nothing but water. It is adorned 
with a Neptune in bronze, by John of 
Bologna. The towers degli Asinelli and 
Garisenda were formerly objects of ad- 
miration ; the former for its slendemess, 
which gave it the appearance of an Ori- 
ental minaret ; the latter for its inclination 
fhim tlie perpendicular, which amounted 
to 14 feet It has since, however, been 
reduced to one third of its former height, 
from precaution. B. has always fc«en 
famous for cheap living, and has been 
chosen as a residence by many Kterary 
men. Gourmands praise it as the nadve 
country of excellent maccaroni, sausages, 
liquors and preserved fruits. The schools 
for training animals enjoy, likewise, some 
reputation. The pilgrimage to the Ma- 
donna di S. Lucca, wnose church is sim- 
ated at the foot of the Apennines, half a 
league distant from B., and to which an 
arcade of 640 arches leads, annuaUy at- 
tracts a great number of people from all 
parts of Italy. 

Bomb ; a large, hollow, iron ball or 
shell, formeriy often made of cannon- 
metflJ, and sometimes of an oval form; 
with a hole in which a wooden fuse is 
cemented, and with two little handles. 
Bombs are thrown from mortars. They 
are filled with powder and combustible 
matter (which consists of equal parts of 
sulphur and nitre, mixed with some 
mealed powder), and are used for setting 
fire to houses, blowing up magazines, &c. 
The charge in bombs of 74 pounds con- 
tains from 5 to 8 pounds of powder, and 

1 pound of the other comoosition above- 
mentioned. In bombs of^ 10 pounds, it 
amounts to 1 pound of powder and from 

2 to 3 ounces of the mixture. The fiise, 
which is hollow, and filled with powder 
and other infiammable ingredients, sets 
fire to the charge. The lengtli and the 
composition of the fuse must be calcu- 
lated in such a way that the bomb shall 
burst the moment it arrives at the des- 
tined place. Bomb-shells are generally 
cast- somewhat thicker at the bottom than 
above, that they may not fall upon tlie 
fuse and extinguish the fire ; yet they are, 
at present, oflen cast of an equal thickness 
in every part, because it has been found 



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BOMB-BOMBAY. 



179 



dMt tbe fuse remains at the top, Hotwith- 
Btandioff. — ^As eailv as the 7th century, 
balls, mled with buming matter, were 
thrown from yessels of clay, then from 
machines called Idydes or manges^ or 
with haod-slJDgs made of a small net of 
iron wire. In 1238, James I, king of Ar- 
ragon, used, at the siege of Valencia, a 
Idtnd of large rockets, n^e of four pan'h- 
ment skins, which burst in &lUng. After- 
wards^ large iron balls, heated red hot, 
came into use. In tbe middle of the 15th 
century, prince Rimini Sigismund Pan- 
dulf Matatesta invented mortars and 
bombs. They consisted, at first, of two 
hollow hemispheres of metal, fiUed with 
powder, and held together by chains. By 
degrees, thev received their present shape. 
An E^lish engineer, Malthus, whom 
Louis XLll took into his service, intro- 
duced them into France, and used them 
first (1634) at the siege of Lamotte, in 
Lorraine. — ^The frtnades, which are 
thrown fit>m howitzers, are easily distin- 
ffuished firom the bombsy which are cast 
from mortars. The first are used only in 
the field, the latter in sieges. The Prus- 
sian general von Tempelhofif has in vain 
attempted to bring 10 pound mortars into 
the field. — In order to make a wall bomb- 
proof it should be three feet and a half 
thick. 

Bombast, in composition ; an attempt, 
by strained description, to raise a low or 
mmiliar subject beyond its rank, which, 
instead of being sublim^ becomes ridicu- 
lous. Its original mgnification was, a stuff 
of soft, loose texture, used to swell out 
garment& 

Bombay ; a presidency, iskuid and city 
in British India; lat 18^56^ I^.; Ion. TOP 
T E. The island was formerly subdi- 
vided into several smaller ones, but many 
thousand acres, once entirely under water, 
have been recovered, and the two ranges 
of hills which cross the island have thus 
been united by a line of fertile valleys. 
It is of litde importance as regards its 
internal resources, but in a commercial 
point of view is of great value. Its prox- 
imity to the main land gives it a fiiciUty 
of communication with all the different 
points of that long line of coast, as well 
as with the shores of Persia and Arabia. 
The island is easily defended, and the 
rise of the tide is sufficient to allow the 
construction of docks on a large scale. 
The sur&ce is either naked rock or low 
ip»und exposed to inundation : the quan- 
tity of grain, which it is capable of m-o- 
ducing, is, therefore, very small The 
causeway which coniiectB it with Sal- 



sette, an island lying between B. and the 
coast of Malabar, afiords, however, an easy 
way of introducing provisions. When first 
known to Europeans, it was considered 
a. very unhealthy place ; but it has been 
improved by drainiuff and embankments. 
Tiie population, in 1816, was 161,550, of 
whom 104,000 were Hindoos, 28,000 Mo- 
hammedans, 11,000 native Christians, and 
4300 English. There were also about 
13,000 Parsees, who here found an asy- 
lum fit>m the persecutions of the Moham- 
medans, and are almost the exclusive 
proprietors of the island.. On a narrow 
neck of land, near the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of the island, stands the city, 
which is about a mile in length and a 
quarter of a mile in breadth. It is sur- 
rounded by fortifications, which have 
been gradually improved, in proportion 
to the growing importance of the place. 
It is the seat of government for the south- 
western part of the British possessions in 
India. In fix>nt of the fort is an espla- 
nade : at the coipmencement of the hot 
season, those Europeans, who are obliged 
to have their principal residences wiuin 
the fort, erect InmgalowB on this spot, 
which are, many of them, ele^t build- 
ings, but unfit to resist the violence of 
the monsoons. As soon as the rains be* 
ffin, thev are taken down, and preserved 
tot another year. There are three gov- 
ernment residencies in the island. The 
one within the fort is used principally for 
holding councils, and fox. despatching 
business. It is a spacious, dismal-looking 
building, like many of the other large 
bouses in B. The European society here 
is neither so numerous nor so expensive 
as that in the other presidencies ; but, if 
not rivals in splendor, they are quite equal 
in comfort and hospitaUtv to their coun- 
tirmen in Calcutta or Madras. — ^As this 
place is the emporium of all the north- 
western coast of the peninsula, and of the 
Persian and Arabian gulfi, its trade is 
very considerable. To China it sends a 
large quantity of cotton. Pepper, sandal- 
wood, gums, drugs, pearls, ivoir, gems, 
sharks' fins, edible birds' nests, form the 
remainder of the cargoes for Canton. 
Hemp, cofiee, barilla, manufactured goods 
from Stunt, and other articles, are sent to 
Europe. The trade to America is incon- 
siderable. — ^The company's marine estab- 
lishment consists of 18 cruisers, besides 
boats: the militaiy and marine corps 
amount to less dian 3000 men. Besides 
the governor and council, stadoned at the 
city, there are magistrates and commer- 
cial residents in the chief towns of the 



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180 



BOMBAY— BONAPAKTE. 



different provinces subject to dieir goy- 
enunent There is one supreme court 
of Judicature, held under a angle judge, 
called the recorder* — Since 1814, B. has 
been a station of the American board of 
commissionens (or forei^ missions, and, 
in 1828, they had 4 missionaries and a 
printing press employed here and in the 
vicinity ; with 16 schools for boys, con- 
taining 1049 pupils, and 10 for girls, con- 
taining 577. — ^B. was obtained by tlie Por- 
tuguese, in 1530, firom an Indian chief at 
Satsette ; by them it was ceded to Great 
Britain, in 1661, and, in 1668, it was 
transferred, by the king, to the E^ India 
company. From the commencement of 
^e last century, it has gradually increased 
in importance, and has now attained a 
high degree of prosperity. It is difficult 
to fix, with precision, the extent of the 
territories included within the presidency 
of B^ as some districts belongmg to the 
uadve powers are intermingled with 
tliem. They mav be calculated at about 
10,000 square miles, with a population of 
2,500,000. 

BoMBELLES, Louls, msrquis de; bom 
1780, at Ratisbon, where his father was 
French ambassador at the diet. His 
mother had been governess in the royal 
family (des enfisM dt France)^ and an in- 
timate friend of tlie virtuous Elizabeth, 
sister of Louis XVL The son inherited 
a feeling of devotion for the familjr of 
Bourbon. Under the protection of prince 
Mettemich, he was sent, in a diplomatic 
capacity, to Berlin, and when, m 1813, 
the king lefl this city to declare himself 
against Napoleon, he carried the archives 
of the Austrian embassy, in the absence 
of die ambassador, to Silesia. In 1814, 
at the entry of the allies into Paris, he 
was appointed, by the emperor of Austria, 
to cacxv to the count of Artois the white 
cockade, and was repeatedly sent to Den- 
mark. In 1816, he went to Dresden, as 
Austrian ambasisador, and married Ida 
Bnin, the daughter of the poetess of this 
name. Since 1821, he has been Austrian 
ambassador in Florence, Modena and 
Lucca. 

Bomb-Ketch; a vessel built for the 
use of mortars at sea, and furnished with 
all the apparatus necessarv for a vigor- 
ous bombardment Bomb-ketches are 
built remarkably strong, to sustam the vi- 
olent shock produced by the discharge 
of the mortars. The modem bomb-ves- 
sels generally carry two 10 inch miortars, 
four 68 pounders^ and six IS pound car- 
ronades ; and the mortars may be fired at 
as low an angle as 20 degrees; their 



principal purpose, at these low an^^es^ 
being to cover the landinr of troops, and 
protect the coast and harbors. A bomb- 
ketch is generally from 60 to 70 feet kuig, 
from stem to stem, and draws 8 or 9 feet 
of water, carrying 2 masts, and is usually 
of 100 to 150 tons burden. The tender is 
generallv a brig, on boartl of which the 
l>arty of^ artillery remain till their services 
are required on board the bomb-vessels. 

Bona (the ^phrodisium of Ptolemy) ; a 
sea{X)rt of Algiers, 66 miles N. N. E. Con- 
stantina; Ion, 7^ S& E.; lati 36° 32' N. 
Pop. 8000. This town is built above a mile 
south of the ancient Hippo, or Hippona. 
The harbor, which is situated to the east 
of the town, is capacious, and a considera- 
ble trade is carried on here in com, wool, 
hides and wax. The situation is good, be- 
in^ near the mouth of the Seibouse, end^ 
with proper care, it might be made one of 
the most flourishing towns in Barbaiy. 

Bona Dea ; a name given to Ope, Ves- 
ta, Cybele, Rhea, by the Greeks, and by 
the Latins to Fauna or Fatua. She was 
so chaste that iio man saw her, after her 
marriage, but her husband; for which 
reason, her festivals were celebrated by 
night, in private houses, and all statues of 
men were veiled during the Ceremony. 

BoNALD, Louis Gabriel Ambroise, vis- 
count de, member of the French cham- 
ber of deputies, is one of the first speakers 
of the ultramontanist party. He emigrat- 
ed in 179], and wrpfee, in Heidelberg, af- 
ter the dissolution of the corps of the 
emierants, in which he had served, his 
well-known TMorie da Pofwoair^ poliUque 
et rdigieux (3 vols. 1796). The charac- 
ter of this, and of his later polidcal writ- 
ings, is that of metaphysical abstraction, 
which is by no means popuhur among the 
French. After he retumed to France, he 
succeeded in inflinuating himself into the 
favor of Napoleon and of his brothers. 
The emperor made him a counsellor at 
the university, with a salary of 10,000 
finncs. Louis proposed to hun to under- 
take the education of his son, then crown- 
prince of Holland, but B. declined the 
offer. He was closely connected witli 
Chateaubriand, and asosted in the editing 
of the JIfercure de France. After the res- 
toration of the Bourbons, he was chosen, 
in 1815, member of the chamber of depu- 
ties. He voted, in this chambre tniremoa- 
hk (q. v.), with the majority. In 1816, 
he was admitted into the French acade< 
my. His most important work is the 
LmdatUm primitive (3 vols. 1802). 

Bonaparte is the name of an ancient 
Italian fimiily, which, Louis Bonaparte 



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BONAPARTE— BONAVENTURA. 



181 



H^ in iuB BocwMfM JMoriques stir h 
€hlwemement d$ la HoUonde, wea settled 
in TreviflO as early as 1272^ when a Nai^ 
diUus Booapaite gained renown MpwUs- 
A4^ Panna and kmght of 9t Maria or 
QaadentiuB. An author of this name, 
James Bonaparte, a Tuscan nobleman, 
who lived about 1JK27, remaibs that his 
fim^y held important offices in the rd- 
pubtte of San Miniato, in the Tuscan 
tenitDry,and had been distinguished m 
the ware of Florence. A Inwich of it 
existed at Sanzana, in the Genoese do- 
minions, and, durinff- the contests of tlie 
Chielphs and GrhibeUines, setded at Ajac- 
<do, in Corsioa. FVom this branch sprupg 
the ftdier of Napoleon, Cbaries Bona- 
parte, who at first fought with Paoli for 
the indepeDdence of Corsica, and in com- 
pany with him left the island, but eventu- 
•Dy remmed, at the invitation of Louis 
XV. In 1776, Cornea chose him one of 
the deputies of the nobility who were to 
be sent to the king of France. Before 
the French Vevohition, he wrot^ liis name 
di Bonaparte, On account of his healthy 
he subsequently retired to Montpelliei-, 
wbare be died in 1785,' 40 years old. — ^His 
wife, the beautiful Maria Letitia, bom at 
j^cdo, Aug. ^ 1750, was descended 
from tha house of Ramolini, which was 
of ItaEan origin. 8he bore him the fol- 
lowing children, whose names are cited 
in the order of birth : — Giuseppe, Napo- 
lione, Lucianoj Luigi, Mariana, Carletta, 
Annunziada and Girolamo. Left a young 
widow, destimte of property, she sought 
and obtained friends among die powerful. 
Her acquaintance with the count of Mar- 
boBuf was the foundation of the fortune 
ofberfiunily. The Coraicans maintained 
that they were aU nobles, and reftised, 
thavelbfe, to pay tax^ Louis XV, in 
consequence, commanded the governor 
to select 400 fiunilies, who were alone to 
be considered as noble. In this list 
MaiboBuf inserted the Bonapartes. Whea 
the English conquered Corsica, in 1793, 
madame Letitia, whose second husband 
was ci^Main Francis Fesch, of B&le (see 
Fetehj Joseph^ eorefmal), fled, with her 
daughters, to Marseillea Soon after die 
18th Bnimaire (9di November), 1799, she 
went to Paris ; but not till after Napo- 
kon's elevation to the imperial dignity, 
was homage paid to madame Mhe, who, 
in pronuncianon and language, was half 
Italian, half French* She maintained a 
separate household, and was appointed, 
bj Napcdeon^ srofsdriee gMrale da Hdb- 
huemtnt de monk. Her benevolence, at 
this period, was much praised. Some 

VOL. II. 16 



persons, however, deemed her avaricious. 
She was not dazzled by the greatness 
which surrounded her. Of her children, 
^he entertained the greatest affection for 
Louis, the ex-king of Holland. In 
1814, she went to live at Rome, with her 
brother-in-law, cardinal Fesch. Napole- 
cn seems to have always had much Sec- 
tion for her.' She died at Marseilles in 
the year 1€22.— By the treaty of Paris, of 
Nov. 20, 1815, the whole family of Bona- 
parte was banished from France^ and, in 
the edict of amnesty issued by Louis 
XVIII, Jan. 6, 1816, all Napoleon Bona- 
parte's relations were excepted. They 
were to remain in banishment, hold no 
possessions in France, and dispose of 
all their property there within six months. 
The royal ordinance of May 22, 1816, de- 
creed, that the property and income of 
the members of the bonaparte fiunily who 
had come bade on Napoleon's return 
from Elba, which had been confiscated 
by the law of Jan. 12, 1816, should be 
appropriated to the support of meritorious 
soldiers and such donees as had lost their 
dcNiations in foreign' countries.^ — ^For ac*. 
counts oi Joseph^ M^oleouj Lueien^ Louis 
and Jerome Bonaparte^ see these heads; 
for information respecting Mariana, after- 
wards called EliHL we refer the reader to 
the article Baeciocni; r^pec^ng CarUttOy 
afterwards called Marie Pauline^ to the 
article Borghese ; respecting JhrnumtadOj 
afterwards called Annonciade Caroline, to 
the article Murat, See, moreover, Fesch, 
Eugetie (whose sister, HorUnsia, is men- 
tioned in the article Louis BonaparteX, 
and Maria Louisa (LecpMine Caroliney 
— The members of the ftunily of Napo- 
leon live retired and mucli respected, 
manifesting great taste for the fine arts 
and the science& Almost all have ap- 
peared' as authors, with more or less suc- 
cess, as will be seen under the different 
heads. 

BoNAVENTURA, John of Fidanza; one 
of the most renowned scholastic philoso- 
phers ; bom, 1221, in Tuscany ; became, in 
1243, a Franciscan monk ; in 1255, teacher 
of theology at Paris, where he had studied ; 
in 1256, general of his order, which hs 
ruled with a prudent mixture of gently 
ness and fimmess. He died in 1274, at 
the age of 53. At this time, he was a 
cardinal and papal legate at the council 
of Lyons. His death was hastened by 
his ascetic severitiea On account of his 
blameless conduct fix>m his earliest youth, 
and of some miracles ascribed to hun, he 
enjoyed, during his fife, the ffreatast ven- 
eration» and was canontzed oy pope Six- 



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182 



BONAVENTURA—BONE. 



tus IV. The elevation of thought in h^ 
Writings, and his dignity as general of the 
Seraphic order,, procured him the name 
doctor Seraphicui. The Franciscans op- 
posed him as their hero to the Dominican 
scholastic Thomas Aquinas. He wrote 
for the honor and hnprovement of his 
order, for the promotion of the worship 
of the virgin, on celibacy, transubstantia- 
tion and other doctrines. He is frequent- 
ly obscure by his attempts to support the 
creed of the church with argt^nents 
drawn from the Aristotelian and new 
Platonic philosophy, and by his myntical 
views in treating of the moral apd intel- 
lectual prfection of the humfan character. 
Yet he is distinguished from other scho- 
lastics by perspicuity, avoidance of use- 
less subtleties, and greater wiumth c^ 
religious feeling. Amonj^ his writings 
are, Mntrarvam Mentis xn Deum ; &- 
dudio Artium m Thedogiam ; CenHioquir 
um^ and Breviloquium, The whole was 

Siblished 1588--^ at Rome, 7 vols, folio, 
ut many pieces in that collection are not 
genuine. 

Bond, in law, is a deed whereby the 
party obliges himself^ his executors or 
administrators (and, if die deed so express 
it, his heirs also], to pay a certain sum of 
money to anottier at a dav appointed. 
If tills be all, the bond is called a tumple 
one (gimpkx ohlifotio). But there is 
generallv a condition added, that, if the 
obligor does some particular act, ,the obli- 
ption shall be void, or else sha|l remain 
m full force ; as payipent of rent, per- 
fonnance of covenants in a deed, or re- 
payment of a principal sum of money 
borrowed of tlie obligee, with ititerest ; 
which principal sum is usually one half 
of the penal sum specified in the bond. 
In case this condiuon is not performed, 
the bond becomes forfeited, or absolute at 
law, and charges the obligor while living, 
and, after his death, his personal repre- 
sentatives, and his heirs, if the heirs be 
named in the bond. In case of a failure 
to perform the condition of the bond^ the 
obligee can recover onlv , his principal, 
interest and expenses, if the bond were 
given to secure the {Miyment of money, 
or, if it were given to secure the per- 
formance of a covenant, he can recover 
onW reasonable damages for tlie breach. 
fioNDAGE. (See Fmenoge.) 
BoRDi, Clemente, abbate, one of the 
most esteemed modem poets, of Italy, 
bom at Mantua, or, according to some 
accounts, at Parma, entered the order of 
the Jesuits a few years before its abolition. 
After his talents became known to the 



archduke Ferdinand, governor of MHan, 
and his lady^ Maria Beatrice of Este, a 
princess worthy of that name, which has 
been immortalized by Arioeto and Taaso, 
he was appointed tutor of theur children, 
and appeared successive^ as a lyric, de- 
scriptive,'satirical and elegiac poet; oft^i, 
also, as a ppetical translator. By the ele- 
gance, flow and harmony of his versifi- 
cation, and by the nobleness of his style, 
disfigured neither by extravajrance nor 
by aftectation, he became a mvorite in 
Italy. We possess all the poetry of K 
in an elegant edition (1808, 3 vols, by 
Degeui Vienna). .The first volume con- 
tains the longer poems, Iio QmoersaaAone ; 
La FeUcUa; II Govemo Pacifico; La 
^Moda^ and La Gwmata VUUreeeia. The 
second and third contain sonnets, epistlea, 
elegies, con^ont, cantatasy and other small 
poems. The third concludes with the 
translation of Virgil's Georgics. 

BoNDT, Tailiepied, eount of; bom at 
Paris, 1766, of an ancient ftmily. In 
1792, h^ was made director of the manu- 
&ctofV ff assignats. Aueuat 10th of this 
year, he retired from public office until 
1805, when Napoleon made him a cham- 
beriain, and afterwards prefect of the de- 
partment of the Rhone, where he con- 
ducted with mildnesBj and promoted the 
public works in his district. In 181S, he 
was very useful to Lyons by his care to 
prevent a scarcity of food in the city. 
In 1814, he maintained the city for a long 
time against the alliea. In 1815, he was 
appointed, by Napoleon, prefect of the 
Seme, with a vote in the council of state. 
Here he K)oke, usually, with great fi«nk- 
ness to Napdeon, on the necessity of a 
constitutional system of goveraroent. July 
3d, 1815, he was one m the three com- 
missioners of the government for conclad- 
ing with the generals of the allies the 
terms for the ^u^^ender of the oapHaL 
In 1816 and 18, he was deputy for the 
deparurient of the Indre, and advocated 
the principles of the left side. 

Bone. The bones are the hardest and 
moat solid parts of animals ; tfa^ consti- 
tute the frame, serve as points of attach- 
ment to the muscles, and aftbrd suppett 
to the softer solids. They are the instra- 
ments, as muscles are the organs, of mo- 
tions—In the wammaUa, Inrast fish and 
reptiles, the whole system of bones unit- 
ed by the vertebral column is called the 
4kdAm^—ln the fiBtus, they are first a 
vascular, gelatinous substanoe, in difiisrent 
points of v^ch earthy matter is graduai- 
ly deposited. This prooees is peroeptible 
towards the end of the Mcond monthi 



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BONE— BONIFACE. 



185r 



and, at the time of mottiritjr, the heme is 
completely fonned. After birth, the bones 
become gradually more solid, and, in the 
temperate zones, reach their peifecticm in 
men between the ages of 15 and 20. 
From this age till aO, they change but 
slightly; alter that period, they grow 
thmner, lighter, and more britde. Tliose 
of the two first classes of animals are 
harder on theur exterior than they are in- 
ternally. Their material, except in the 
teeth, is neariy the same throughout. 
Th^ structure is yaseular, and they are 
traversed by the blood-vessels and the ab- 
sorbents. They are hardest at the surface, 
which is fbnned by a finn membrane, 
call^ the periatUum; the internal parts 
are cellular, containing a subs^nce called 
flMSToto, The use of the manow is to 
prevent the too great drj^ness and brittle- 
ness of the bones.— CJhemistiry decomposes 
bone into gektin, fat, cartilage and earthy 
salts. A nesh bone boiledf in water, or 
exposed to the action of an acid, gives out 
its gelatin ; if boiled in water, on cooling 
the 'decoction, a jellv is formed, ivhich 
makes a good portable soup. A pOund 
of bone yields twice as much to the same 
quantity of fleshy' The earth of bones is 
obtained by .caldnation ; that \f^ by ex* 
posing them to a red heat, by which they 
are deprived of the soft subslnnces. — ^That 
part 01 analomy which treats of the bones 
as called dileofofly: 

BoNxa, Ulridi, the most ancient Ger- 
man ftibulist, was a Dominican friar at 
Berne, in the" first half of the 14th centu- 
ry. He lived when the age of minstrelsy 
and chivahoos poetiy lyas in its decline, 
and hai» published a collection of fables, 
under the tide Der EdeUtem (The Gem), 
which is distinguished b^ purity of lan- 
guage and picturesque simplicity of de- 
scription. The firtt editions of these 
fid)le8 were by Bodmer and Esehen- 
burg. Benecke in Gottingen has pubhsh- 
ed a very good edition tnore recently, and 
added a vocabulary (Berlin, 1816). 

Bo9«8BT. The herb Imown by the 
name of honeset or dioroughwortfsttpctfo* 
fiitm perfoHakan) is a viery usefiil annual 
slant, indijienocB to the United States. It 
IS easily distinauudied, in the autumn, in 
marshy grounds, by its tall stem, four or 
five feet in height, pasriog through the 
middle of a large, double, h&y leaf, which 
is perforated Inr the stalk, and surmounted 
by a broad, flat head of l!|^t-puiiple 
flowers. — ^It is nmch used as a medicine, 
throughout the country, in the form of an 
infusion of the heads of the flowers, and 
part of the remainder of die pbnt» in 



boilbg water, which is. allowed to stand 
a few minutes upon the fire. It is one 
of the best domestic articles for breaking 
up and throwing off a violent cold, for 
vniich purpose, Som a half pint to a pmt 
of the above infiision may be drank cold, 
at bed-time, which will be found to purge 
by mommg; or it may be taken warm 
before eating, in the morning, when it 
will generally operate as an emetic and 
purgative. Smaller quantities of tiie in- 
lusion, taken warm mro^^ the day, in 
bed, .and in combination with other med- 
icines, will be found highly serviceable hi 
riieumatism and rheumatic fevers. As a 
safo and valuable fttmily medicine, it can- 
not be too highly recommeuded* 

BomtFACX ; the name of several popes. 
B. I; elected, 418, by a party of the clergy, 
and confirmed bv the emperor Honortus, 
who declared the antipope Eulalius a 
usurper. B. pers^utea the Pelagians, 
and extended his authority by prudent 
measures. A decree of the emperor The- 
odosius deprived him, in ^1, of the 

Siritual sovereignty over Eastern Illyria. 
e died 432. His history proves the 
Roman bishop to have been, in his time, 
dependent on the secular power^ — ^B. II, 
elected 530. The death of his rival, the 
totipope Dioscorus, a few days after his 
election,'ieft him in quiet possession of 
the papal chur. He acknowledged the 
supremacy of. the secular sovereign, in a 
council held at Rome.— B. Ill, chosen 
607, died nine months after his election. 
— B. IV, elected 008. He consecrated the 
Pantheon (q. v.) to the virgin and all the 
saints. — B. V, a Neapolitan, was pope from 
619 to 6S25. He confirmed the inviola- 
bility of the asylums, and endeavored to 
diftuse Christianity among the English. 
— B. VI, a Roman, elected 896, died of 
the gout a fonnigfat after. — ^B. VII, anti- 
pope, elected 974, during the lifetime of 
Benedict VI, whose death he was sus- 

eicted of having caused. Expelled fit>m 
ome, he returned on the death of Bene- 
dict VII, and found the chair occupied 
by John XlV, whom he deposed and 
threw into prison, where he allowed him 
to die of hunger. B. died 11 months af- 
ter his return. — ^B. VIII, see the article. — 
B. IX, Pietro Tomacelli of Naples, suc- 
ceeded Urban VI at Rome, during the 
schism in the church, while Clement VII 
resided at Avignon. He was distinguish- 
ed for the beauty of his person, and the 
elegance of his manners, rather tlian for 
a profound knowledge of theology and 
canon law. Even the counsel of his ex- 
'perienced eardinals could not save him 



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184 



•BONIFACE. 



&om the conuniflsioii of grosd blunders. 
He was more skilled in the arts of simony 
and extortion. He sold the same bene- 
fice repeatedly, established the annates in 
1372, and laTished the treasures thus pro- 
cured on his relations, or in costly edi- 
fices ; the fortification of the castle of 3t 
Angelo, for instance, and the capitol. — 
lie supported the pretensions of Ladis- 
lau^ to the throne or Naples, and, during 
the greatest part of his pontificate, was 
engaged in negotiations with his rivals 
at Avignon, Ck;nent VII and Benedict 
XUI. He died in 1404. 

BoiviFACE VIII, Benedict Cajetan ; bom 
at Anagni, of an ancient Catalonian fami- 
ly ; elected popfe Dec ^th, 1294. He 
received a careful education, studied jur 
risprudence, was a canon at Pans and 
Lyons, advocate of the consistory, and 
prothonotary of the pope at Rome. After 
Martin IV had elevated him to the dignity 
of a cardinal (1251), he went as legate to 
Sicily and Portugal, and was intrusted 
with embassies at several coiurts ; in par- 
ticular, with the charge of reconciling the 
king of Sicily vntli Alphonso of Anr^n, 
and Philip the Fair with Edward I of 
England. After Coslestine V had resigned 
the papal dignity, at Naples, in 12&, at 
the instigation of B., the latter was chosen 
pope. He met with opposition firom the 
cardinals of the family Colonna, and re- 
venged himselfby excommunicating them. 
His induction was magnificent The 
kings of Hungary and Sicily held his 
'bridle on his way to the Lateran, and 
served him, at table, with their crowns on 
their heads. B., however, was not suc- 
cessful in his first efiTorts for the increase 
of his power. The sovereignty of Sicily 
was denied him, and Frederic II was 
crowned king there in spite of his excom- 
munication. He v^QS equally unsuccess- 
ful in his attempt to arbitrate between 
England and France. The bulls Which 
he issued, at this time, against king Philip 
the Fair of France, obtdned no considera- 
tion. This was also the case with the 
interdict which he pronounced against 
him at the council of Rome, in 1302. 
Supported b;)r the states and the clergy 
of France, Philip defended his royal rights 
against the encroachments of the pope. 
Tne pope was accused of dupUcity, of 
sinvony, of usurpation, of heresy, of un- 
chastity ; and it was resolved to condemn 
and depose him at a general council at 
Lyons. Philip went still further: he sent 
Nogaret to Italy, in order to seize his 
person, and brinff him to Lyons. Nogaret 
united himself, for thia purpose, with Sci- 



am Colonna, who, with his whole. &tiii- 
ly, had been oppressed by B., and was, 
in consequence, his enemv. B. fled to 
Anagni, where Nogaret. and Colanna sur- 
prise him. B., on this occaakui, acted 
with spirit ^ Since I am betrayed," said 
he, ^ as Jesus Christ was betrayed, I will 
die at least as a pope." He aasiiined the 
pontifical robes and the tiara, took the 
keys ai]d the cross in his hand, and seated 
himself in the papal chair. But the insig- 
nia of his holy ofiice did not save him 
firom arrest Nay, Colonna went so fiir 
nk to use personal violence. B. remained 
in a disagreeable confinement for two 
days, when the Anagnese took up arras, 
and delivered him. After tliis, he depart- 
ed to Rome, where he died, a month later, 
in IdOli. f^rom fear of poison, be bad 
not token any food during his captivity. 
This abstinence brought on a^ver, which 
terminated fatally. Boldness in his vievra, 
and i)erseverance in his resolutions, can- 
not be denied to K ; but these qualities 
were -stained by ambition, vanity, a spirit 
of revenge, and a mean pliability. Dante 
assigns to him, as guilty of simony, a 
place in hell, between Nicholas UI and 
Clement V. B. founded, m 1300, the cen- 
tennial jubilee, and enriched his treasury 
by the frequent sale of indulgences. He 
was an accomphshed man,. for the times 
in. which he fived. 

BoNiPiiCE, St ; the aposde of GennaBy^ 
who first preached Christianity^ and spread 
civilization among the Germans* He was 
bom in England (680), and his original 
name was Winfrid. In his 30th year, he 
was consecrated a priest A (peat part 
of Europe, at this period, was jnhalHted 
by heathens, and several aniasknaries set 
out from Englaxvd to convert them. Cal- 
lus, in 614, went to Allen[Minia ; Emme- 
ran, who died 652, to Bavaria f Kilian, 
who died 689, to Franconia; WiHibrord, 
who died 696, to Friesland; Sifffrid to 
Sweden; Swidvertto> Friesland. In 716, 
B. conceived the plan of preaching Chris- 
tianity among the Frieslanders ; but was 
Srevented by the vrar between Charles 
laitel and the king of Friesland, Rad- 
bod. He therefore returned to England, 
where he was chosen abbot In 718, he 
went to Rome, where Giegoiy 11 au- 
thorized him to preach the gospel to all 
the nations of Germany. He commenced 
his labors in Thuringia and Bavaria, 
passed three years in Friesland^ and jour* 
neyed through Hesse in Sa&ony, bapciz* 
ing every where, and converting the pa- 
gan temples to Christian churches. In 
723, he was invited tp Koa»y nude m 



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ST. BONIFACE— BOKN. 



185 



Mihofs by Gregoiy n, andiecommesded 
to CLaries Martel and all princes and 
biahops. Hia name Winfiid be changed 
to B. In 7S4, he destroyed the oak sar 
cred to Thor, near Geismar, in Hesse, 
ibooded churches and monasteries, invit- 
ed fiom England priests, monks and nuns, 
atad sent them to Saxony, Frieshmd and 
■Bataria. In 73S, Qregoiy III made him 
ardibishop and primate of all Qermany, 
and authorized mm to estabUsh bishop- 
rics, the o^y existing bishopric beins 
the one at Passau. He founded those of 
Freisingen, RatisboU) Erfurt, Barahourg 
(transferred afterwards to Paderbom^ 
Wtozburg and Aichstadt In 739, be 
restored tiie episcopal see of ^ Rupert, 
at Salzburg. Aftitt the death of Charles 
Martel, he consecrated Pepin the Short 
king of the Franks, in Sinssons, fav.whom 
he was made bishop of Mentz. He held 
eight ecclesiastical councils in Germany, 
founded the fimious abbe^r of Fulda, and 
undertook, in 754, new journeys for the 
con vernon of the infidels. He was killed 
at Dockum, in West Friestend, by some 
barbarians, in 755, in his 75th year. In 
Fulda, a cop^ of the Gospels, in his own 
handwriting, is to be seen* At the place 
where B. built, in 734, the ftnt Christian 
church in North Germany, near the yil- 
lage of Altenburg, in the Thuringian for- 
est, a monument has been erected to his 
memory, conristing of a canddabrtan^ 90 
feet hi^. The most complete collection 
of the letten of B. was pubushed at Meptz, 
1789, folio. 

Bomr ; capital of the Pruarian govern- 
ment of Cologne, formerly the residence 
of the elector of ColognO) on die left bank 
of the Rhine, with 1109 houses, four 
Catholic, and, since 1817^ one Protestant 
church. It contains 10,600 inhabitants, 
amotig whom are 200 Jews, who dwell 
in a particular sdpeet K wfu 4brmeriy 
fortified: the works wer6 demolished in 
1717. A lyceum was instituted here in 
1802. An academy had been established 
hi 1777, and, m 1786, ereetod into a uni- 
veisity. ,Tlus institudon was superseded 
by the lyceum. The manufiicturte are 
not impartant The commerce is ehiefly 
in the hands of the Jews. A walk, with 
four rows of trees, and 1900 paces in 
length, leads to the beautiful palace of 
Clemenaruhe, near the villajge or Poppels- 
dorf. B. contains the university of the 
Rhine, the charter of which was given, 
Oct4 18, 1818, at Aix-lapChapelle, % the 
king of Prussia, who, at the same time, ' 
endowed it with an annual income of 
80,000 Prusman dollars, 16,000 of which 
10* 



are appropriated to the botanical garden. 
The former residence of the elector of 
Cologne was bestowed on the university. 
It has been fitted up at great expense, and 
is surpassed, in extent and beauty, by no 
tipiversity buildmgs in Eui^pe. It con- 
tains all the lecture haHs, a library of 
more than 60,000 vt>kime8, a museum of 
antiquities, a collection of casts of the 
principal ancient statues, a cabinet for 
natUFU philosof^y, clinical institutions of 
uncommon extent and order, to which 
will be added a Catholic theological sem- 
inary, and a eonvietortum (refectory). The 
paintings in the mda mmor (among oth- 
ers, the great allegorical picture, the 
Christian Vkurch) were executed by some 
pupils of Cornelius. To the liberaiity of 
the king, the university owes also an ana- 
tomical bally a new'ridinff-school, and an 
edifice, once a ro}td pauce, in Poppels- 
dor^ ten minutes' walk fix>m the city, 
which contains the mineralogical and 
zoological collections, and before which 
lies the botanical garden. Adjoining it 
are lands and buildmgs for the use of the 
agricultural institute. The tower <^ die 
okl custom-house, which commands a 
fine view, is- destined for an obs^ratory. 
The king has also established here a print- 
ing press for Sanscrit, under the inspec- 
tion of A. W. von Sehlegel. The museum 
of German and Roman antiquities is un- 
der the direction of the same distinguish- 
ed scholar. The teachers of the &ve 
faculties, of which the universitv con- 
sists, are more than fifty. Particular ad- 
vantages are afforded for the education 
of young men intended for instruoters. 
Many men distinguished in various 
branches of science are connected with 
the university. The historian Niebuhr 
has lately repaired thither to deliver 
lectures. The exertions of the govern- 
ment to collect in B. all the means of 
instruction, united with the charms of the 

Elace and the beauties of the scenery, 
ave made the university in a short time 
very much fi^equented. In 1826, it con- 
tauxed 931 students, among whom were 
110 forei^ers. 

Bonn, Andrew, an anatomist, bom at 
Amsterdam, in 1738, studied and received 
his degree tH Leyden. His dissertation 
was the excellent treatise De ConHnidtor 
tibua Membranarumf of which two famous 
physicians, Bichat and Wrisberff, have 
made use m their woiks. He finished 
his studies at Paris. In 1771, he returned 
to Apisterdam, where he delivered lec- 
tures. He hod the three fim numbers of 
the Thuffwus Hoiianua Ossium Morbo- 



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186 



BOrW— SONNET. 



wrmA dfimved at his own expense. He 
died in 1818. His long Hfe was devoted 
to the relief of the su&rin^ and to the 
education of skilful physicians and sur- 
^ons. As president of the Monnikhof 
institution for the investigation of the best 
remedies against the dmerent kinds of 
hernia, he has likewise accomplished a 
great deal. 

BoKSEB, Edmund, an Endish prelate 
of infamous notone^, was the son of a 
peasant at Hanley in Worcestershii-e. He 
ynxs educated at Pembroke college, Ox- 
ford, where hei was made doctor of com- 
mon law, in 1525. For his skill ip busi- 
ness, he was iktronised by cardinal 
Woisey, from whom he received several 
clerical preferments. On the death of 
Woisey, he acquired the favor of Heniy 
VUI, who made him one of his chaplains, 
and sent him to Home to advocate his 
divorce from queen Catharine. Here he 
conducted widi so much intemperance, 
that the pope is said to have threaten- 
ed to thjx)w him into a caldron of boil- 
ing lead, on which, he thought proper 
to retum. In 1538, he was nominated 
bishop of Hereford, being then ambas- 
sador at Pans;. but, before his conse- 
cration, he was translated to the see of 
London. At the time of the death of 
Henrv, he was ambassador to the emperor 
Charles V, but returned the same year, 
when, refusing to take the oath of suprem- 
acy, he was deprived of his bishopric, 
to which, however, he was restorea, on 
making subnussion. Still continuing to 
act witn contumacy, he was, afier a fone 
trial, once more deprived of his see, and 
committed tothe Marshalsea; from which 
prison, on the accession of Mair, he was 
released, and once more restorea by com- 
mission. During this reign, B. distin- 
guished himself by a most sanffuinaiy 
persecution Of the Protestants, 200 of 
whom he was instrumental in bringing to 
the stake, whipping and torturing several 
of them with his own hands. When 
Ehzabeth succeeded, he wedt, with the 
rest of the bishops, to meet her at High- 
gate, but, at the sight of him, she averted 
her countenance with an expression of 
horror. He remained, however, immo- 
lested, until his refiisal to take the oath 
of supremacy: on which he was once 
more committed to the Marshalsea, where 
he remained a prisoner for nearly 10 years, 
until his death, in 15G9. He was buried 
at midnight, to avoid any dismrbance on 
the part of the popukcoi to whom he.was 
extremely obnoxious^ B. was weD versed 
in the canon law, and was an able diplo- 



matist He cannot, says a C^tftofie "Arrf. 
ter, be defended from the chaige of ex- 
treme rigor and cniehy ; yet he deserres 
credit for his furmness of principle, for his 
courage when in disgrace, and fbr the 
calmness and reiUgnation with wUch be 
supported a long imprisonment. 

boiTNET, in fortificatibn; an devadon 
of the parapet in the salient angles of a 
freld retrenchment, or of a fomfiiSiliMi, 
designed' to prevent the enfilading of the 
front of the work, at the end of which it 
is situated. The bonnet accomptiBbes, 
however, only part of this object, and is 
subject, at least in field retrenchments^ to 
the disadvantage, that the men destined 
for its defence are too much exposed to 
be taken in flank by the fire of die ene- 
nnr, on account of the necessary elevation 
of^the banquette (q. v.)-7a fault which 
cannot occur in the woiibs of a fortress 
which afe well laid out 

BoNivET, Charles, a nataral philosopher 
and metaphysician, bom at Geneva, in 
1720, exchanged thestudy of the laws for 
that of natural histoiy. Ifis essay On 
Aphides, in which he> proved that they 
propagated without coition, procured him» 
m his 20th year, the place of a corre- 
sponding member of the academy of 
sciences at Paris. Soon afterwards, he 
partodc in the discoveries of Trembley re- 
specting the polypus, and made interesting^ 
observations on the respiration of cater- 
pillars and butterflies, and on the structure 
of the tape-worm*. An active correspond- 
ence wiui many learned men in his own 
country and abroad, and too continued* 

C9verance in labor, brought on an in- 
mation in his eyes, which prevented 
him from writing for more than two years. 
His active spirit employed this interval in 
meditating on the souree of our ideas, oa 
the nature of the soul, and on other myste- 
ries of metaphysics. From 1752 till J768y 
he was a member of the great council of 
his native city. He afterwards retired to 
his country-seat (Genthod), on the banks 
of the lake of Geneva, where he led a 
retired life, devoting his thne to the inves- 
tigation of nature, to the conversation of 
learned men, and to an extensive corre- 
spondence, till his death, in 1793. B. was 
a close and exact observer. He carried 
religious contemplations into the study of 
nature. In his views of the human soul^ 
many traces of materialism are to be 
found; fi)r instance, the derivation of all 
ideas from the movements of the nervous 
fibres. Of his worths on natural history 
and metaphysics, there are two coilec- 
tidns; one in 9 vols., 4to., the other in 18 



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BONNET— BONNYCASTLE. 



187 



rob^dro^lNeiilbliatel, 1779. The mom 
cclobrated ore, IVaiU d^lMutolegie ; Re^ 
fktrcku HOT VUtagt det FeuiUUs doM U$ 
PUmUs; GontidSraHons sur Us- Corps or* 
gtuUsis; Canten^plaiiwn de la J^aturt ; JS9* 
#0% 4Knai^tAifae sur U» FaadUs de VAm; 
PaOngMne PhUosophdque^ and Essai de 

Bohitey; advocate, and 6(i<immer(pro9i- 
dent) of tbe adToeatea in Paris. During 
the reyolution, he was zealoua in defend- 
ing many unfertunate penons who were 
dcagsed before the royolutionaiy tribunal. 
He dispkijed his briUiant eloquence in 
the denoce of ffenecal Moreau. In later 
times, he has been blamed for hatinj^ 
yielded too much to the yindictive splnt 
of the French state attorneys : since 1815, 
particularly, he has been considered too 
compliant towards the proeureur^iniral 
BellarL We have reason to suppose that 
much of the reproach which nas been 
cast upon him is unfounded, as he is 
known to have exposed his life and lib- 
erty, in former times, te save the accused. 
B. belongs to the extiieme right side in 
the chamber of deputies, and has thus 
lost his popularity. 

BoNREVAL, Claude Alexander, count 
of^ or AcHKET^ Pacha, bom 1672, at 
Coussac, in Limousin, of an illustrious 
French family, entered, in his 16th year, 
the body-guard of the king, but showed 
an extravagant propensity for pleasure. 
In war, he was an aUe and successfiil 
partisan, beloved by those under his com- 
niand. He enjoyed the esteem of the 
roaishal of Luxembourg. In the war of 
the Spanish succession, he obtained a 
regiment, with which hemarched to Italy, 
and distinguished himself by bis valor as 
well as bv his excesse& On his return, 
he was obliged to fly, in consequence of 
some violent expressions asainst tbe min- 
ister and madflune de Maintenon. He 
was, in 1706, appointed major-general Ir^ 
prince Eugene, and fought against his 
native country. At the peace of Rastadt, 
in 1714, hy the interference of prince 
Eugene, the process against him for high 
treason was withdrawn, and he was al- 
lowed to return' to his estates. In 1716, 
he was heutenant field-marshal of tbe 
Austrian infimtiy, and distinffuished him- 
self by his valor against the Turks at 
Peterwardein. (1716). In 1718, B. was 
made a member of the imperial council 
cf war, but his licentiousDess and indis- 
cretion induced prince Eugene to get- rid 
of him, by appointing him, in 1723, mas- 
ter-genenu cMr the oraHance in the Neth- 
erhmdB. To revenge hunself on Eugene, 



he sent cemi^unti to VieniMi against the 
governor, the manjuis of Prie ; but the 
latter, who, on his side, had not been in- 
active, received an order to airest B., and 
to imprison him in the citadel of Ant- 
werp. B., being aflerwaids ordered to 
appear at Vienna, and give an exphmati<ni 
of his conduct, spent a month at the 
Hague before he • cho^e to comply with 
thesummOnsL He was therefore confined 
in the castle of SpieBterg, near BrAnn, 
and condemned to deatfal by the unperial 
council of war; but the sentence was 
chan^d, by the emperor, into one year's 
impnsonment and exile. B. now went 
to Constantinople, where the fome of his 
deeds, and his humanity towards the 
Turkish prisoners of war, procured him a 
kind reception. He consented to change 
his religion, received instruction in Mo- 
hammedanism fi!Dm the mufti, submitted 
to circumcision, and received the name 
Achxnd PackOf wkh a large salary. He 
was made a pacha of three toils* com- 
manded a large army, defeated the Aus- 
trians on the Danube, and quelled an 
insurrection m Arabia Petnea. His ex- 
ertions^ as commander of the bombardiers, 
to improve. the Turkish artillery, were 
opposed by the jealousy of powerfid pa- 
chas, the irresolutton of Mohammed V, 
and the dislike of die Turkish troops to 
all European institutions. He enjoyed, 
however, the pleasures of his situadon. 
He died in 1747. Ifis Mimoires were 
published by Desheriners (Paris, 1806, 
2 vols.) In the second volume of the 
Memoirs of Casanova are to be found 
some notices of B. 

Bo5NTCASTLE, Johu, profosBor of math- 
ematics at the royal imlitaiy academy at 
Woolwich, was bom in Buckingham- 
shire. Though his education was not 
neglected, yet he was chiefly indebted to 
his own . exertions for the various and 
extensive knowledge which he acquired. 
While young, he became private tutor to 
the two sons of the ean of Pomfiet 
After two years, he quitted that situation 
on being appointed one of tbe mathe- 
matical masters at Woolwich. Here, for 
more than 40 yeais^ he devoted his time 
to the duties of his profession, tod to the 
composition of elementary mathematical 
works. His first production was the 
Scholar's Quide ta Arithmetic, which has 
passed through mainr editions. His 
guides to algebra and mensuration are 
usefiil school-books. He likewise wrote 
a Treatise upon Astronomy, 8vo. ; the 
Elements of Geometry, 8vo. ; a Treatise 
on Plane and Spherical Tr^ionometty, 



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BONNYCASTLE— BONZES. 



8ro. ; a Treatise on Algebra, 2 rote. 8yo.i; 
and various articles in the early pArt of 
the last edition of doctor Rees's Cyclopae- 
dia. He died at Woolwich, May 15, 1821^ 
BorrPLAND, Aim^, educated at the 
medical school and the botanical garden 
in Paris, accompanied Alexander Von 
Humboldt to America in 1799, and dis- 
covered above 6000 new species of plants. 
After his return, he was made, in 1804, ea* 
perintendent of the garden at Bt&lmaison, 
which he- has described (Paris, 1813 — 
1817, 11 numbers, folio, with popper- 
platesV. He was also co-edito^ of the 
Travels and Voyages in the Equinoctial 
Regions of the New Continent, from 
1799 to 1804, by Alex. Humboldt and A. 
Boni>land ; published in French in Paris, 
and in German, by Cotta, in Tubingen 
(1818). In 1818, he w«nt, as professor of 
natural histcny, to Buenos Ayres. There, 
Oct. 1, 18S20, he undertook a journey 
along the Parana, to explore the interior 
of Paraguay. At Santa Ana, however, 
on the eastern bank of the Parana, where 
he had laid out plantations of tea, and 
had founded a colony of Indians, he was 
surprised, on the territory of Buenos 
Ayres, hy 800 soldiers of doctor Francia, 
dictator of Paraguay, who destroyed his 
plantations, and carried him off prisoner, 
together with moiBt of the Indiai^s. Fmh- 
cia sent him, as physician, to the garrison 
of a fort, and employed him in laying out 
a commercial road. B. lived till within a 
few years in Saiita Maria. There is no 
other reason for his captivity, than his suc- 
cess in planting the Paraguay tea. Alek. 
Humboldt wrote to doctor Francia to 
persuade him to liberate his fiiend, and 
ne was supported in his request by the 
English nunister Canning, and the British 
consul in Buenos Ayres, Mr. Parish, but 
without success. A late French mission 
to South America has in view his libera- 
tion. From the manuscripts of B.,Kunth 
arranged the large work, Mva Genera et 
&9ecies Plantammf which B. and Alex. 
Humboldt had collected and described 
on their travels in the tropical countries 
ofthenewworid. (Paris, 1815— <182S, 7 
vols., foL, with copperplates, in 35 num- 
bers, 1240 francs.) 

BoNSTETTEZt, Charles von ; bom at 
Berne, 1745, of ah ancient and noble 
&mily, in the canton of Zfirich. His 
&rher, Charl^ .Emanuel, was treasurer 
of Berne. He was educated, till his 19th 
year, at Yverdun, then in Geneva, where 
he improved himself in the society of 
Bonnet, Stanhope, Voltaire, Saussure and 
other learned men. He studied at Ley- 



den, afterwards wiUi Gray at Cambridge, 
then at Paris, and travelled in Italy. In 
1775, he became a member of the supreme 
council at Berne, and, in 1787, landvoigt 
in Nyon. Here Matthisson, Sails and 
Frederica Brun lived vnth hiqi ; here 
John MMer vnnote on the history of his 
native countij. By his endeavors to im- 

Erove education, and other usefhl eiSbrts, 
e promoted the welfiure of his native 
country. During the revolutionary times, 
he lived vrith his friend Fi-ederica Brun, 
in Copenhagen. On his return, in 1802, 
he chose Geneva fer his residence. The 
results of a journey to Italy, in which he 
had made interestinff investigations on 
the depopulation or the campagna at 
l^ome by the maP arioj appeared under 
the title Vcwi^t sur la Sehie-ihA dernier 
Lwre de T JSii^uJe, nthi de quelques Obger^ 
vgtiofu sur k Latkm Modeme (Geneva, 
1813). In 1807, appeared his Beckerckes 
sur la JSTahtre et Us uAs de VImaginfiHon, 
2 vols. He afterwards- published Pensies 
Diverses sur dioprs Obiets du Bien PvbUe 
(Geneva, 1815) ; jStocfet ou Beckerckes sur 
Us FacuUis de SerUir d de Penser (1821, 
2 vols.) ; and U Homme du Midi et du J^ord 
(Geneva, 1824), These works indicate a 
philosophical spirit of observation. 

BoRZAirioA, Giuseppe ; royal sculptor 
at Turin. By a persevering application 
of 40 years, he raised the art of carving in 
wood and ivonr to a high degree of per* 
fection, and founded ah estabhshment, 
from which numerous works of art have 
been produced, that are much sought for 
in all Italy, and valued by connoisseurs. 
He died Dec. 18, 1820. 

BoifZES ; the name given by Europe- 
ans to the priests of the religion of Fo, in 
Eastern Asia, particularly in China, Bir- 
noah, Tonquin, Cochin-Cbina and Japan. 
As these priests live together in monas- 
teries, uijunarried, they have much resem- 
blapce to the monks of the Christian 
church: the system of their hierarchy 
and of tlieir worship also agrees, in many 
respects, with that of the Catholics. They 
do penance, and pray for the sins of tlie 
laity, who secure them from want by en- 
dov^ents and alms. The female bonzes 
may be compared to the Chri^ia)! nuns ; 
as the rellffion of Fo suffers no priest- 
esses, but admits the. social union or pious 
virgins and widows, under monastic vows, 
for the perfoimancp of religious exer- 
cises. The bonzes lure commonly ac- 
quamted oulv \rith the external forms of 
worship and the idols, vrithout under- 
standing* the meaning of their religious 
symbol^ They endeavor to keep up the 



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BONZES— BOOK-TRADH 



189 



by Tviiich they at« suppoit* 



BooK-zjBEFizre is a merc»ntile tenn, 
used to denote the method- of keeping 
commercial accounts, of all kinds, in such 
a manner, that a man may thereby know, 
at any time, the true state of, hijj^aira, 
with clearness and expedition. Book? 
keeping rests, like commerce in ffeneial, 
on the notions of debtor and cramtor, or 
on the notions of that which we possess 
or are to receire, and that which we are 
to pay, and is divided into ^ngie^ and 
douhU or Italian book-ko^ing. In the 
first, the postis of debtor and creditor are 
separated from each other, and entered 
in such a wa^^ that each one appears 
singly ; while, in the latter, ciieditor and 
debtor are in contmual mutual connex- 
ion, to which end all the posts are entered 
doubly, once on the debtor and onc^ on 
the creditor side, by which every eiror 
or mistake is prevented. This mode of 
double book-keeping sprung up in Italy, 
in the 15th century ; jet it had been fnac- 
tised already in ^oin in the 14th pentuiy, 
according, to a legal ordinaDce. The 
prindple of this ^stem is, that all money 
and articles received beeomo'djebtors to 
him torn whom they axe received, a^d, 
on the other hand, all .those who receive 
money or goods from us become debtors 
to cash or to the goods. The bo<>ks 
which the merchant wants'are principally 
a. tDosU-ho^kf in which all iiis dealings 
are recorded without pqrticular order ; a 
jwamalj in which the contents of the 
waste-book are separated eveiy month, 
and entered on the debtor and creditor 
ddes; and a J^gfer, in which the posts 
entered in the jounial are placed under 
particular Qc^^unts, and from which, every 
year, the balance is drawn. 

Book-Tbad^ Booksells^s. Before 
the invention of typography, those who 
copied books earned cin .the trade in 
them. In Greece, in Aleanmdrfa, and in 
Rome, there were booksellers who kept 
a number of transc^ber^ In the middle 
a^^es, there were bookseUers, called sta» 
fionartt, at the vmiversities of Bologna and 
Paris, who loaned single manuscripts at 
high prices. In Paris, ftfter 1342, no one 
could deal in books without the pentiis* 
sion of the university, who had piuticular 
officers to examine tftie manuscripts aiid 
fix the price. After the inv^tion of 
printing, the printers were also the. book- 
sellers. Faustus, the finft bookseller, car- 
ried his printed Bibles for sale to France. 
Those who had formerly been employed 
in copying now acted as agents <^ the 



printers, and earned the printed copies 
mto.the monasteries for sale. Towards 
the end of the 15th century, there were 
such book traders in Ulm, Nordlingen and 
Augsburi^. The first bookseller who pur- 
chf»ed manuscrints fiom the authors, and 
had them printed W others^ without pos- 
sessiug a press of his own, was John 
Otto, in Nuremburg (1516). In Leipsic, 
there were, for the first time, in 1545, two 
bookseUers of this kind — Steiger and Bos- 
kop£ The books were carried to Frank- 
fort on the Maine to the fiur. The book- 
fiiir at Leipsic did not become important 
until a later period: ia 1667, it was at- 
tended by 19 foreign' booksellerB. The 
Leipsic catalogue oi books appeared as 
earfy as 160a The booksellers of the 
present day may be divided into printers 
who sell their own publications (thev 
have- become rarei booksellers who seU 
the books which have been printed at 
their e;cpense by odiers, and those who 
keep for sale the publications of others. 
The last have, usually, at the same timeu 
publicationB of their own, which they sell 
or. exchange with othen. This trade is 
promoted, in Germaliy, diiefly by the 
book-fiiirs at Leipsic, of which the Easter 
foir is frequented by all the bookaellen 
of Germany, and by those of some of 
the neighboring coimtriea, as of France, 
Switzerland, Denmark, Livonia, m order 
to. settle their mutual accounts, and to 
form new connexions. The German 
publisher sends his publications to the 
keeper of assortments, h condUumy that is, 
on commission for a certain time, after 
which the latter pays for what have been 
sold, and can return what have not been 
sold.'. This< is npt so favorable, for the 
publisher as the. custom in the French 
book-trade, where the peeper of assort- 
ments takes the quantity he. wants at a 
fixed rate. In the German book-trade, it 
is the practice for almost every house, 
either in the country or abroad, which 
publishes or- sells German books, to have 
Its i^nt at Leipsiic, who receives and 
distributes its puDiicatioD& A^ in Riga, 
who publishes a bodk calculated for the 
German trade, has his axent, B., in Leip- 
siCf to whom he sends, nee of expense, a 
number of copies of his publication, that 
he may distribute the new work to all the 
booksellers with whom he is connected, 
fmm Vienna to Hamburg, and from 
Strasburg to K^ugsberg, each of whom 
has his agent in Leipsic. Instructions are ' 
i^bso given asto.the number of cc^es to 
be sent to each. B. defivers those copies 
In Leipsic to the agents^ who send them 



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190 



BOOK-TRADE— CATALOGUES OF BOOKa 



every week, or more or leas 
by the post, or by caniers, at the expense 
of the receiver. C, in Strasbuig, who 
finds that he has not .received copies 
enough, writes for an additional number 
of copies to his agent, D^ in Leipeic. D. 
gives this order to B., who deUvets the. 
number wanted to D., to be transmitted 
to C. This arrangemeDt i£| advantageous 
to the German fa^ok-tnde as well aa to 
Leipsic The dealer receives eveiy thing 
free to Leipsic, and, as a great number of 
packets, with books from all parts of Ger- 
many, arrive there fiir htm every week, 
he can have them papked together and 
sent at once. Tlie freight is thus much 
less than if the packets were sent to him 
separtitelv from the different places, and 
the whole busineas is simplified. The 
bookseller^ are also enabled to agree with 
greater ease on a certain discount per 
cent In other European countries, for 
instance, m England and France, no such 
connexion of the booksellers has yet been 
formed. Paris is the central place of the 
French book-trade. Li Great Britain, 
Edinburgh rivals London.* In the Neth- 
erlands, the most important repositories 
of books are at Amsterdam, Utrecht, Ley- 
den an4 Haeriem. Ill Brussels and Uege, 
many Fronoh works are reprinted. In Ger- 
many, several houses rarely unite, for the 
pubhcation of great woika, as is done in 
France and Ensland. In ISQS, the book- 
sellers of the U. States estaUished a- fair 
at New York, and rules for its regulation. 
In Spain and Portugal, the price of eveiy 
book is regulated by the government. 

Books, Cataixiouxs of. Catalogues of 
books are interesting if the libraries they 
describe contain a great number of works 
(BiilioOuca Thottima^ Copenhagen, 1789 
—95, 7 piuts, in 12 vols. ; BiblioSteca Fir- 
mianoj Milan, 1783, 6 vols. ; Catalogue du 
Due de la VaUi^e!, Paris, 1783-^, 9 
vols.), or are distinguished by well-select- 
ed, by rare and cosUv worlis (Cat. BiU. 
Harkianfej by Michael Maittaire, London, 
1743 — 45, 5 vols.), or by scarce books 
merely (Catalogue of Sam. Encel, Bern, 
1743. and Dan. Salthen, Konigsberg, 
1751), by old editions (J. F. Dibdin. 
Biblwth. Speneerianoj London, 1814, 4 
vols. ; Ferd. Fossil, Cat, Codd, Sec. 15 /m* 
prtssor, Bibl. MagliabecckUmit, Florence, 
1798, 3 vols. folO, by beautiful copies, 
particularly on parchment (Cat. de la 
BikL de McCarthy, Paris, 1815, 3 vela), 
or by being very rich in some pardcular 
department. For natural history, the most 
important catalogiies are those of. sir Jos. 
Banks (London, 1796, 5 vols.), and of 



Colves (Au|;Bburg, 178d, 3 vols.); for 
Hungarian history, that of count Szecheny 
(Soprotm^ 1799 et seq.) } for classical lit- 
erature, those of count Rewiczl^(Berlhr, 
1794), and of Askew (London, 1775), with 
some othera; for French literature, the 
second part of the catalogue of Valh^re ; 
for Italian literature, the catalogues of 
Capponi (Rome, 1747, 4 vols.), rloncel 
(Pans, 1774, 2 vote.), and Gingnen^ (Paris, 
1817) ; for the German language, that 
of AdeluDg (Dresden, 1807). Catalogueer 
acquire their true value and utility by 
jumcious arrangement and accuracy of 
detail. For this purpose, besides perfect 
exactness in the material statements 
which must prevail throughout, and es- 
pecially with regard to uncommon workt^ 
a notice of the printer, number of paj^es^ 
signatures, catchwords, &c, and, m en- 
gravings, an account of the number and 
quality t>f the impressions, and the artist's 
name^ are necessary. Above aU, a clear 
arrangement of the books is requisite, that 
they inay be easily consulted. In this 
department, the French took the lead. 
GeJiiriel Naud<6 opened the way by the 
CatatagUB BHiktMOB Cordetiana (Paris^ 
1643, 4 vols.): he was followed by Ish- 
mael Bullialdus and Jos. Quesnel, m the 
Cat. Bib. Thuante IPans, 1^9^ Ga- 
briel Martin, a bookseller at, Paris^ cGs- 
tinffuished himself in the 18th century, by 
a mrliher attention to the method of ar- 
ranffement, «nd, at the same time, by, 
bibhograpfaical accuracy, (Catalogues of 
Bulteau, 1711, du Fay, 1735, Brochard, 
1729, count Hoym, 1738). On the foun- 
dation laid by Martin, Debore built, m the 
catalogue of'^Gaignat, 1769; and, in the 
preparation of the first part of Valli^^ 
catalogue, as weO as in the arrangement 
of the second part, the bookseller Nyon 
followed him with success. About this 
time, Jac. Morelli, in Venice,, published a 
catalogue of the excellent lilnary of Maf- 
feo PmeUl (Venice, 1787, 6 vols.), distin- 
gui^ed by similar merits. All these cat- 
aloffues, however, were prepared only to 
ftcOitate the sale of the books enumerated, 
and itfpired to nothing higher. The ear- 
lier catalonies of the B^leian (Oicford, 
1738, 2. vols, fol.) and Parisian libraries 

il739, ^ vols. foL) are very defective, 
^ohn' Michael Francke, in his cataloffue of 
the library of Bunau (Leipsic, 1750, 7 vols. 
4to.), and Audif&edi, in the alphabetical 
catalogue of the Ubrary of CasaiUiti (Rome, 
1761, 4 vols, fol.), have distinguished 
themselves as scientific bibliotheicarians. 
Both works, though incomplete, are ex- 
cellent models. Catakgui BiWoUi, w9c«< 



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CATALOGUES OF BOOKS-CENSORSHIP OF BOOKS. 



191 



demia Thensiane^ by Joseph de Sertori 
(Vienna, 1801, 13 vols. 4to.), is full of er- 
rois and defects, and is by no means to 
be compared to the former of , the abore- 
mentioned woiics. There are, lastly ,.crit- 
ical catalogues (eoL raiwmUs) wbicb 
contain more minute information and 
opinions, descriptions of imconmion and 
remarkable books, and sometimes ac- 
counts of their jirices. Beades the few 
generally interesting wotks of this nature 
by John Fabricius ( Wolfenb^ 1717, 6 vols. 
4koA Jac Fred. Reimmann (fiUldesb., 
1731, 2 vols.), GotUeb StoUe ( Jen% 1733, 
18 votB. 4to.), and others, the catalogues 
of CreTenna (Amsterdam, 1778, 6 vol& 
4to.), Senia Santander (Brussels, 1809, 5 



index was issued. Woiks of an estriv 
lished character, which could not well be 
protubited,'^it was deteimined to enwr- 
gate. The duke of Ahra caused such an 
hidex expurgaUniui to be prepared in the 
Netherlands ; another was drawn up at 
-Rome, in 1607, which, however, with the 
exception of some fiagments, has re- 
mained secret This-censorship was soon 
afterwards adopted by the secular author- 
ity, and, in. some reelects, extended still 
fiirther. In Germany, the politico-theo- 
logical controvereieB gave the first occa- 
sion for the introduction- of this institution, 
as they were carried on with the greatest 
violence on both sides. The dcicree of 
the Gennan diet) in 1534, prohiMted 



vols.^ and lord Spencer (see above), and them. By the diet of 1530, a more severe 



i)eni8*8 Memorabi lia of the libraiy of Ga- 
xelli ( Viemus 1780, 4to.) are verv valuable. 
Books, CxirsoasRip or. Unless we 
consider the burning of condemned books 
under the Roman emperors as a cehsor- 
fibip, the establishmept of this institution 
tnust be attributed to the- popes ; but it 
cannot be denied, that it would have 



Bupertntijendence of the press was. estab^ 
lisned ; and this viras confirmed by later 
laws of the empire, in 1541, 1548, 1567, 
and 1577, &c It' was also provided, at 
the peace of We8n)faalia, 1648 {OstuMbr. 
JMr., chapter v, § 50), that the states 
should not suffer attacks on refigious par* 
ties : From thAt time, the emperors have 



sprung up in a thousand other idaces, promised, in their elective capitulations^ 

even n it had not existed in their ctomin- to watch strictiy over the fiilfilment of 

ions. Soon after the inviention of print- thip article. In the capitulations of the 

inf , the popes perceived the influence emperor Leopold II, 1790, and of the 

which thifr art exerted over the diffusion emperor Ftancis II» it was fiirther added 

of knowledge. It was, besides, doubly (art vi, §8), ^'that no woik should be 

dangerous at a time when the autiiorityM printed, which could not be reconciled 

the church liad been _ assailed, and wis with the synibolical books of both Cath 



shaking under the load of Hs ^uses!. 
They endeavored, therefore, to prohibit 
first the readinff, and secondly the print- 
ing, of certain litenU^ works* They en- 
forced the ancient decrees of the church 
against the reading of heretical books, 
and introduced aH eoclestastical superin- 
tendency of the press iq 1479 and 1496, 
which was more completely established 



olics and Protestants, and with good mor- 
als, or which might produce the ruin of 
the existing constitution, or the distuifo- 
ance of public peace, it was, however, 
not difficult, in mpst Protestant countries!, 
for indiridual authors or literaiy journals 
to obtain an exemjf tion firom the censor- 
ship; and many m^tutions, academies, 
umvernties, &C., were privileged in this 



by a bull of Leo X, in 1515. In thi8> the way, as for as conjcemed theur rejpilar 
n„_L j: — 1^.^: ««..:-^^ .^ professors. The govemments sometunes 



bishops and inauisitois were require^ to 
«zamuie all works before they wera print- 
ed, and thus to prevent the publication of 
heretical opinions. They went stiU fur- 
ther: as this papal decree could not be 
carried into execution in all countries, on 
account of the reformation, they prepared 
an index of booktf^ which nobody was al- 
lowed to read under penalTjr of the cen- 
aure of tito church. This index was 
conmienced by the council of Trent, in 
the fourth session <^' which (1546), the 
decree of the censordiip was renewed ; 
but It was not executeo, and was finally 
left to tiie pones (35tii sessioaof 1563),!^ 
whom several such bidici$ lAbrorvrnpro- 
hSntonm have been published. Even in 
xecent timea, in 1756»mieh an augmented 



protected their subjects with mat ener- 

Sr; as, fi>r instance, that of Hanover, in 
e case of- Putter and Schloezer. In 
France, the censorship belonged to the 
department of the chancellor, and was 
administered by royal censors. It was 
first abolished in England. It was 
foimerly exercised by the virell-known 
star-chamber, and, after the atx^tion of 
this court, in 1641, by the parhament. In 
166% it was reffulated by a^ particular 
statute, but only for a certajn number of 
years. This statute was renewed in 1679, 
and again, in 169S, ft)r two yean more. 
In 1QS% the right of the crown to render 
the printing of writings, journals, &c. de- 
pendent on its peimiflsion, that i% the 



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CENSORSHIP OF BOOKS. 



oeoBonhip) ceased entirely* In.HoUand, 
and eren in the Auatrian-Netheriandts^ a 
great liberQr, if not an eotire freedom of 
tiie press, prevailed. AU that was not 
permitted to be printed in France ap- 
peared in the Netheriands or ia Switzer- 
land, at Lauaaone and Geneva, to the 
ffreat adyama«e of the Dutch and Swiaa 
Boo^-trade. In Sweden, hy an edict: of 
1766, and accordingly under the aristo^ 
cratical constitution, me abolition of the 
censorship was ordered; yet Gustavua 
in, personally a friend to the liberty of 
the press, waa obliged to retain the cen- 
soraiup, and even to execute it with se- 
verity, during the aristocratical machina- 
tious which disturbed his reign, and which 
were but imperfectly counteracted in the 
revolution of l^X Oustavua IV issiiied 
an edict soon after he ascended the 
throne, by which the censorship was re- 
tained only 'm matters of religion, and 
was administered by the con8i8tQrie& 
This, however, was not pertnanent: at 
first, penalties were enacted^ and, in 1802^ 
the censorship was. entirely reestablished, 
committed to the chancellor of the court, 
and executed with severity. Frencb and 
German books were prohibited. King 
Charles XIII, immediately, after his as- 
cension to the throne, abpuahed it entirely 
by a provisional order of ApriJL 1)2, ISoSy 
which was confirmed, as an article of the 
constitution (§ 86), Jiine 6, 1809. In Den- 
mark, by a Toyal rescript of Sept 14, 
1770 (under the minister Struensee), the 
censorship waa wholly abolished ; neither 
has Jt been restored, though the laws by 
which the liberty of the press has been 
regulated have been changing, and have 
sometime^ been venF oppressive. In 
France, the censorship, like so many 
other institutions, was annihilated by the 
revolution. All the constitutions, from 
1791 tolhe CharU GmstUuiumeUe of 1814, 
declare the liberty of the press one of the 
fundamental laws. Durinv the repubUc, 
there was no censMship, but tiiCsrevolu- 
tionary tribunals took its place. Napo-. 
leon restored it^ in another form, by the 
decree of Feb. 5, 1810 (Diredian de Vhnr 
primeriel Since the restoration, it has 
also uBoergone various changes. Books, 
of more than 90 sheets have always re- 
mained free, but the censorship has been 
exercised over panophlets and journals at 
difierent periods ; for the last time, Aug. 
15, 1824, just before the death of Louis 
XVIII ^ it was, however, abolished a^n 
by the present king. Sept 99 of the same 
year. For the eatabhahment of new po- 
litical journals^ the permiaaion of the gov- 



emmant must be obtained, and bond^ 
must be ^ven by the editors. What 
changes will yet be made in France rer 
mains to be seen. The introduction of 
the cenaorship is demanded by one side, 
even in respect to books ah^ady pub- 
lished. In tne kingdom of the NeUier* 
lands, the censonhip is abolished by a 
fundamental statute of Aug. 24, 1815, art. 
226. Even in the kingdom of Poknd, 
this was fonnerly the case (constitution 
of Nov. 27, 1815, art 16], but it has-been 
restored by a decree of June 16, 1819. 
In die' German states, the liberty of the 
preas was much restrained till 1806, the 
state-attorn^ having till then had control 
over it After 1814, several states abol- 
ished the censorship--Naa9au (decree of 
May 4, 1814), Weimar (in the constitu- 
tion, May 5, 1816), Wfirtemberg (decree 
of Jan. 30, 1817), Bavaria (May 26, 1818^ 
grand-duchy of Hesse (constitution of 
Dec. 17, 1820, $35), though widi very 
different provisions as to the responfflbili-r 
ty of authors, printers and booksellers. 
(See Press, Linos of Hit.) In accordance 
with the infamous' decrees of Carisbadt 
1819, add the resolutions of the German 
diet of Sept 20, 1819, the censorship in 
all the States of the German confederation 
has become one of the conditions of 
union, but only with regard to books of 
less than 20 sheets, and journals. Tliese 
measures were, at first, adopted only for 
five yeafB, but are, at present, continued 
iodennitely. In Russia and Austria, there 
is naturally a despotic censorship. In the 
U. States, a censorship has never existed 
Besides the different deforces isi severity 
with which the censorship is exercised in 
different countries, it may be divided into 
different kinds, according to the field 
wliich it embraces. 1. A general censor- 
ship of the book-trade' and of the press, 
under which even foreign books cannot 
be sold vrithout the consent of the cen- 
sors, exists ii^ Russia, Austria, Spain, &g. 
(Austria has, in the censorship of foreign 
lx>oks, four fbnnuks : a. a£mitHiyry en- 
tirely fi^e ; B. transtat^ free, but without 
pubfic advertiseroents for sale ; c. trga 
schedoanj to be sokl only to public ofi^cers 
and literary men, oki the delivei^ of a 
receipt ; n. damnaivr, entirely foibidden.) 
2. A general censorship^ of the press, ex^ 
tending only to books printed in the 
country, exists in Prussia (edict of Sept 
19, 1788 ; order of the cabmet of Dec. 28, 
1824), where, however, a case once took 
place, in which the publications ef a for-